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What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level In Canada

Your Guide To Diabetes

Your Guide To Diabetes

Table of Contents To promote and protect the health of Canadians through leadership, partnership, innovation and action in public health. —Public Health Agency of Canada Your Guide to Diabetes Diabetes affects roughly two and a half million Canadians. Left untreated, diabetes can lead to many serious complications, including: heart disease, kidney disease, vision loss, and lower limb amputation. The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) estimates that 5 million Canadians over the age of 20 are currently pre-diabetic. An additional 1 million new cases of pre-diabetes are expected by 2016. Pre-diabetes is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and if left untreated more than half of the people with pre-diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within 8 to 10 years. Although diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, there are steps that can be taken to prevent or control the disease and lower the risk of complications. This guide is intended to help you understand diabetes, how certain types can be prevented or managed, and how to live with the condition. Did You Know? You may be pre-diabetic and not know it. Pre-diabetes occurs when blood sugar levels are high, but not high enough to diagnose diabetes. Talk to your health care provider to learn more. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that results from the body's inability to sufficiently produce and/or properly use insulin, a hormone that regulates the way glucose (sugar) is stored and used in the body. The body needs insulin to use sugar as an energy source. There are several forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. What is pre-diabetes? Pre-diabetes occurs when blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than normal, but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Glucos Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Tweet Understanding blood glucose level ranges can be a key part of diabetes self-management. This page states 'normal' blood sugar ranges and blood sugar ranges for adults and children with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and blood sugar ranges to determine people with diabetes. If a person with diabetes has a meter, test strips and is testing, it's important to know what the blood glucose level means. Recommended blood glucose levels have a degree of interpretation for every individual and you should discuss this with your healthcare team. In addition, women may be set target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The following ranges are guidelines provided by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) but each individual’s target range should be agreed by their doctor or diabetic consultant. Recommended target blood glucose level ranges The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes. In addition, the International Diabetes Federation's target ranges for people without diabetes is stated. [19] [89] [90] The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for. NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges Target Levels by Type Upon waking Before meals (pre prandial) At least 90 minutes after meals (post prandial) Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy ind Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Source: Web exclusive: June 2011 When you have diabetes, perhaps the most important thing you need to know is the level of your blood glucose, also known as your blood sugar. Since many factors can raise or lower your blood glucose, you may have to check it several times a day. But once you obtain a blood glucose reading, what exactly does it mean? Crunch those numbers When you test a drop of your blood with a glucose meter, the big number that pops onto the screen refers to the number of millimoles (mmol) of glucose per litre (L) of your blood. A millimole (mmol) is one-thousandth of a mole, which is a standard unit for measuring the mass of molecules. And if that’s not already confusing enough, the United States uses a completely different system than Canadians for measuring blood glucose. South of the border, blood glucose is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL). This can sometimes be rather bewildering, especially if you’re brand new to diabetes and researching your disease on the Internet. “I tell people to go to a Canadian site first,” says Tabitha Palmer, a certified diabetes educator at the Centre for Clinical Research in Halifax. Know your targets So what numbers should you be looking for? Your target reading before meals should be between 4 and 7. Your blood sugar normally spikes two hours after a meal, so between 5 and 10 is a good range after you eat. Besides food, other factors that can cause your blood sugar to go up or down include exercise, illness, medications and stress. Your blood glucose readings are hands-down the best way to monitor whether or not your diabetes is generally well managed. "They really help the physicians and educators if we’re trying to look at whether you need to have your medication, insulin or mealtime adjusted, Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

Understanding Blood Glucose (blood Sugar)

Understanding Blood Glucose (blood Sugar)

Print Blood sugar—knowing what affects it, and what to do when it’s too low or too high—is at the heart of diabetes management. What is blood glucose? Glucose is an essential source of energy for the body. Our bodies make it, but mostly it comes from the food we eat (for more information, see Food and type 1 diabetes). Glucose is important because: It can be quickly turned into energy. The brain and nerves need a constant supply. Your blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood at a given point in time. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas that keeps blood glucose levels in a healthy range. Insulin allows the glucose from food to enter the body’s cells, where it can be used for energy. When someone has type 1 diabetes, their pancreas does not produce insulin. Without insulin, blood sugar will eventually rise to dangerously high levels. So people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin several times a day, either by injection or through an insulin pump. The amount of insulin a person needs depends on how much food they eat, their activity levels, their age and size, and other factors. Insulin doses may vary from day to day. For more detail, see Insulin: What school staff need to know. What is a typical blood sugar level? In Canada, blood sugar levels are measured in mmol/L (millimoles per litre). A person who doesn’t have diabetes usually has a blood sugar level somewhere between 3.5 mmol/L and 7.8 mmol/L, depending on when they last ate. Diabetes is diagnosed when someone’s blood sugar is greater than 11 mmol/L. People with type 1 diabetes have a “target range” for their blood sugar level. The range is determined with their health care team. Typically, a target range will be between: 6 to 10 mmol/L for children Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Testing Offers Little Value To Some Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Study

Blood Glucose Testing Offers Little Value To Some Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Study

When Margaret DeNobrega was first diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, she meticulously monitored her eating habits and blood sugar levels. The 68-year-old would write down what she ate for breakfast, lunch and dinner, pricking her finger to test her glucose levels before and after each meal. "I used to test before my meals, so I would know what my blood sugar was at, and then I would test two hours after," she says. "I did that for quite a while. "I guess maybe I did … obsess a little about it because I didn't want to go on medication." It's a daily ritual for many with Type 2 diabetes, aimed at helping them keep their blood sugar levels in check. But according to a new U.S. study, that common finger-prick test may have little impact on managing the chronic condition. Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest-growing diseases in Canada, with about 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Complications associated with the disease — including kidney disease, heart disease, blindness and stroke — can range from serious to life-threatening, making proper management of blood sugar levels important. Insulin-dependent patients will frequently test their blood sugar before delivering a shot of the hormone. But the majority of Type 2 patients aren't treated with insulin, and can instead regulate their glucose levels through diet, exercise and sometimes medication. Rejecting routine testing In a paper published this week in JAMA Internal Medicine, researchers found that self-monitoring of blood sugar for non-insulin Type 2 patients offers virtually no benefit. "From the study, what we find is that glucose monitoring should not be routine," Dr. Katrina Donahue, one of the study's authors, told CBC News. To conduct the study, the researchers tested 450 adult patients with Type 2 diabete Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What are normal levels of blood sugar, and how can you achieve them? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone without diab Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Guidelines

Blood Sugar Guidelines

Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. The numbers below are as shown on a typical home glucometer while hometesting blood glucose, not necessarily the more accurate numbers a vet would see (though many vets use meters similar to those used in hometesting). For general guidelines only, the levels to watch are approximately: mmol/L mg/dL(US) <2.2 <40 Readings below this level are usually considered hypoglycemic when giving insulin, even if you see no symptoms of it. Treat immediately[1] 2.7-7.5 50-130 Non-diabetic range[2] (usually unsafe to aim for when on insulin, unless your control is very good). These numbers, when not giving insulin, are very good news. 3.2-4.4 57-79 This is an average non-diabetic cat's level[3][4], but leaves little margin of safety for a diabetic on insulin. Don't aim for this range, but don't panic if you see it, either. If the number is not falling, it's healthy. 5 90 A commonly cited minimum safe value for the lowest target blood sugar of the day when insulin-controlled. 7.8 140 According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)[5], threshold above which organ and pancreatic dysfunction may begin in hospitalized humans[6] and the maximum target for post-meal blood glucose in humans.[7] 5.5-10 100-180 Commonly used target range for diabetics, for as much of the time as possible. <10-15 <180-270 "Renal threshold" (varies between individuals, see below), when excess glucose from the kidneys spills into the urine and roughly when the pet begins to show diabetic symptoms. See Hyperglycemia for long-term effects of high blood glucose. 14 250 Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in dogs, who are more sensitive to high blood sugar. Dogs can go blind at this level. Cats Continue reading >>

Managing Blood Glucose Levels How Often Should You Test?

Managing Blood Glucose Levels How Often Should You Test?

This question is frequently asked of diabetes educators by people with diabetes. Unfortunately, there is no one answer that suits everyone’s needs. Those with diabetes test their blood glucose anywhere from many times each day to once a month. A diabetes educator could respond to this question with another question. “How often do you or are you able to test?” On the other hand, if a person with diabetes is directed to test two to four times each day there is little room for discussion even if once a week testing is desired. It is important to work closely with your diabetes educator to decide what testing schedule is best for you. After determining how often you want or are able to test, your diabetes history is examined further. If you have been newly diagnosed with diabetes, the next step is to gather more information concerning your current goals for managing blood sugar levels. If you have had diabetes for several years, think about whether your blood glucose has been, or is, well controlled. It is important to determine how your blood glucose varies throughout the day - when are the highs and when are the lows? What are the effects of meals and exercise on blood glucose levels? If you are taking diabetes medications, what are the effects of the medications? Are the medications effective? Figure out if the current “plan of action” or “treatment plan” is effectively keeping blood glucose levels in the desired target range. (Treatment plans consist of healthy eating, exercise and, likely, medications.)\ Why do we test? We want to find out the following. Is the current treatment plan working? Are the medications effective? How do other medications affect blood glucose levels? How does a typical meal affect blood glucose? How do special meals affect blood Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results from functional or absolute insulin deficiency. Insulin is the chief regulator of the path that dietary sugar takes, but also affects fat and protein metabolism, and malfunction of this metabolism has an impact on all body systems. In humans, we speak of Type I, or insulin dependent diabetes, which is often a juvenile onset condition, and requires insulin administration for effective treatment. Type II is often seen in middle aged, inactive patients and this type often is treated without insulin administration. In cats, these types also exist, but making a distinction between these two types is not as easy to do, at least initially. Newer information confirms that this way of looking at cats is not really accurate. Cats are insulin responsive diabetics. There is no single cause of this condition, but some diseases (Cushing's disease for example), pancreatic inflammation, and certain drugs (steroids) are known to be associated with development of diabetes. Obese body condition is a risk factor in adult cats, and immune-mediated disorders can trigger destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In cats, amyloid deposits are frequently seen on tissue samples. These deposits interfere with pancreas function and lead to progression from type II to type I diabetes as more cells die off. SIGNS In diabetics, tissues cannot uptake and utilize all of the important food components (sugar, fat, protein) and this effectively puts the body into starvation mode. In the very early stages, reduced activity and reduced appetite and grooming may be the first signs. Severe diabetes results in weight loss, increased thirst and urination, nerve problems (cats often walk down on their hock joints of the back legs - plantigra Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

Screening Guidelines For Newborns At Risk For Low Blood Glucose

Screening Guidelines For Newborns At Risk For Low Blood Glucose

The Canadian Paediatric Society gives permission to print single copies of this document from our website. For permission to reprint or reproduce multiple copies, please see our copyright policy. Despite decades of scientific observation, investigation and discussion, there is limited evidence-based consensus regarding the screening and management of infants at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia. A number of questions remain unresolved: How is neonatal hypoglycemia defined? Who is at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia? When should at-risk infants be screened? How should screening for neonatal hypoglycemia be performed? What levels of blood glucose require intervention? What interventions should be offered when neonatal hypoglycemia is suspected? How frequently should asymptomatic, at-risk infants be screened? How should caregivers be educated or counselled regarding screening for neonatal hypoglycemia? Given the paucity of evidence, the purpose of the present statement is to provide a consensus guideline that has practical applications for Canadian newborns and their caregivers. An algorithm has also been developed to give direction in managing infants at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia, see Figure 1. It should be noted that this guidelines is a pragmatic approach, one that will require refinement as futher scientific data become available. Search strategy A MEDLINE search was performed for studies up to March 2004 using the key words “Hypoglycemia”, “Blood Glucose” and “All Infant: birth-23 months”, limited to “Human”, “English” and “French”, and including all trials, reviews, clinical practice guidelines, follow-up studies and meta-analyses. The Cochrane Database was searched for reviews and articles relating to glucose and infant feeding. It is notewor Continue reading >>

Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]

Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]

JUMP TO: Intro | Blood sugar vs blood glucose | Diagnostic levels | Blood sugar goals for people with type 2 diabetes | Visual chart | Commonly asked questions about blood sugar Before Getting Started I was talking to one of my clients recently about the importance of getting blood sugar levels under control. So before sharing the diabetes blood sugar levels chart, I want to OVER EMPHASIZE the importance of you gaining the best control of your blood sugar levels as you possibly can. Just taking medication and doing nothing else is really not enough. You see, I just don’t think many people are fully informed about why it is so crucial to do, because if you already have a diabetes diagnosis then you are already at high risk for heart disease and other vascular problems. Maybe you've been better informed by your doctor but many people I come across haven't. So if that's you, it's important to know that during your pre-diabetic period, there is a lot of damage that is already done to the vascular system. This occurs due to the higher-than-normal blood sugar, that's what causes the damage. So now that you have type 2 diabetes, you want to prevent any of the nasty complications by gaining good control over your levels. Truly, ask anyone having to live with diabetes complications and they’ll tell you it’s the pits! You DO NOT want it to happen to you if you can avoid it. While medications may be needed, just taking medication alone and doing nothing is really not enough! Why is it not enough even if your blood sugars seem reasonably under control? Well, one common research observation in people with diabetes, is there is a slow and declining progression of blood sugar control and symptoms. Meaning, over time your ability to regulate sugars and keep healthy gets harder. I Continue reading >>

Making Sense Of Your Numbers

Making Sense Of Your Numbers

Daily glucose tests, routine A1C lab tests – that’s a lot of numbers to make sense of. Try not to be intimidated. Instead, look at them as your body talking to you. It’s telling you if there are things that throw your blood glucose off, when this is happening, and if you need to do something about it. Knowing what your numbers mean can help you take control of your diabetes and have more days feeling at your best. Know your targets The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) recommends an A1C of less than 7%.1 For blood glucose, the recommended target ranges are 4-7 mmol/L before meals and 5-10 mmol/L two hours after a meal. It’s a good idea to sit down with your healthcare professional and discuss what target ranges are right for you. Things like your age, medications and time of day can impact them. If you start the day with a fasting test A fasting blood glucose test sets a “benchmark” for the day. It tells you how you did through the night, and also reveals how well your liver is working – which is responsible for releasing glucose as you sleep. If you test 2 hours after meals This is an immediate way to know how your meal plan affects your blood glucose levels. The CDA recommends an after-meal target of 5-10 mmol/L.1 Your results will tell you if you need to adjust what you eat or by how much. If your glucose is low, take action right away It’s normal for glucose levels to go up and down over the course of a day. But know when they’re too low. Hypoglycemia happens when your blood glucose (measured with your meter) goes below 4 mmol/L. Click here to learn how to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia and ways to manage it. Track your highs and lows Writing down your results will help you learn how things like meals, activity and medication affect your Continue reading >>

Eating Strategies To Prevent And Control Diabetes

Eating Strategies To Prevent And Control Diabetes

Mireille Moreau RD, MSc Human Nutrition [email protected] DIABETES MELLITUS A disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate or ineffective insulin Type 1 Type 2 Prediabetes 5 -10% of cases 90-95% of cases ~5.4 million ppl Autoimmune disorder - little to no insulin secretion Lose sensitivity to insulin Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance FPG ≥ 7.0mmol/L 2HPG ≥ 11.1mmol/L FPG ≥ 7.0mmol/L 2HPG ≥ 11.1mmol/L FPG ≥ 6.1-6.9mmol/L 2HPG 7.8-11mmol/L Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. 2013. Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD Public Health Agency of Canada. Diabetes in Canada: Facts and figures from a public health perspective. Ottawa, 2011. Age-standardized prevalence and number of cases of diagnosed diabetes among individuals aged ≥ 1 year, 1998/99 to 2008/09 in Canada Risk factors Age ≥ 40 years Having a close relative who has type 2 diabetes; Member of a high-risk population (Aboriginal, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian or African descent); History of prediabetes/ gestational diabetes; Heart disease; High blood pressure; High cholesterol or other fats in blood; Being overweight Thomas Ransom, Ronald Goldenberg, Amanda Mikalachki, Ally RH Prebtani Zubin Punthakoo. Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines. Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes. COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES Thomas Ransom, Ronald Goldenberg, Amanda Mikalachki, Ally RH Prebtani Zubin Punthakoo. Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines. Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes. DIABETES: A SILENT DISEASE Signs and symptoms can include Unusu Continue reading >>

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