Medical Conditions Search or browse for information on Medical Conditions (Low Blood Sugar, Low Blood Glucose) In this condition factsheet: The Facts Hypoglycemia occurs when the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too low. Normally, your body keeps your blood glucose within a concentration range of 4.0 mmol/L to 8.0 mmol/L (about 70 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL). In order to do this, the body has mechanisms that involve the hormone insulin, which is made by the pancreas, as well as several other hormones. When blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas responds by releasing insulin to encourage the movement of glucose from the bloodstream to the cells. Insulin lowers the amount of glucose in your blood by signalling the cells in the body to use the glucose as fuel. Your body uses glucose as its main fuel. The brain requires a constant supply of blood glucose and will signal the adrenal glands to release two hormones called adrenaline and cortisol whenever blood glucose levels are low. The adrenaline and cortisol then signal the liver to convert the carbohydrates it stores (from the foods we eat) into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. The pancreas is also involved in raising blood glucose levels if they fall too low. When blood sugar is low, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon, which increases blood sugar by signalling the liver to convert stored carbohydrates into glucose and to create new glucose molecules from other substances (such as amino acids) in the liver. If these mechanisms don't work properly, the blood glucose remains too low and the brain won't be able to function normally. Causes Hypoglycemia can be caused by medications. Medication-related hypoglycemia occurs most commonly in people who have diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes (a type of diabete Continue reading >>
Balancing Blood Glucose (sugar)
Checking blood glucose levels is the best way to tell how well your child is balancing her insulin, food, and exercise. To make sure your child’s blood glucose level is not too high or too low, your diabetes team will help find a blood glucose target range. For example, a target range for a toddler might be 6 to 12 mmol/L. If your child’s blood glucose level is 8 mmol/L, it is considered normal because it falls inside the range. If it falls above12 mmol/L or below 6 mmol/L, you may need to adjust your child’s insulin or food intake. Setting the blood glucose target range (type 1) The blood sugar targets change as your child grows and develops. Target ranges are set by your child’s ability and your own ability to understand diabetes, interpret signs and feelings of low blood sugar levels, and act on them. They are worked out with the diabetes team. Everyone on the team should have the same goals. Blood glucose target ranges (type 1 diabetes) Age Characteristic / ability Acceptable target range (before meals) Infants, toddlers, and preschoolers cannot sense or tell you the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar reaction eating is not predictable 6 to 12 mmol/L (110 to 220 mg/dL) School-age children and some young adolescents eating is more predictable (meal plan) can sense and tell you symptoms of low blood sugar reaction somewhat lacking in judgment depends on others to adjust treatment and plan ahead 4 to 10 mmol/L (70 to 180 mg/dL) Most adolescents and young adults able to follow a meal plan and eat predictably can recognize and treat low blood sugar reactions understands the concept of balance able to plan ahead 4 to 8 mmol/L (70 to 145 mg/dL) For those on insulin pumps, the range may be: before meals: 4 to 7 mmol/L (70 to 125 mg/dL) after meals: below 6 to 9 m Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Guidelines
Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. The numbers below are as shown on a typical home glucometer while hometesting blood glucose, not necessarily the more accurate numbers a vet would see (though many vets use meters similar to those used in hometesting). For general guidelines only, the levels to watch are approximately: mmol/L mg/dL(US) <2.2 <40 Readings below this level are usually considered hypoglycemic when giving insulin, even if you see no symptoms of it. Treat immediately 2.7-7.5 50-130 Non-diabetic range (usually unsafe to aim for when on insulin, unless your control is very good). These numbers, when not giving insulin, are very good news. 3.2-4.4 57-79 This is an average non-diabetic cat's level, but leaves little margin of safety for a diabetic on insulin. Don't aim for this range, but don't panic if you see it, either. If the number is not falling, it's healthy. 5 90 A commonly cited minimum safe value for the lowest target blood sugar of the day when insulin-controlled. 7.8 140 According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), threshold above which organ and pancreatic dysfunction may begin in hospitalized humans and the maximum target for post-meal blood glucose in humans. 5.5-10 100-180 Commonly used target range for diabetics, for as much of the time as possible. <10-15 <180-270 "Renal threshold" (varies between individuals, see below), when excess glucose from the kidneys spills into the urine and roughly when the pet begins to show diabetic symptoms. See Hyperglycemia for long-term effects of high blood glucose. 14 250 Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in dogs, who are more sensitive to high blood sugar. Dogs can go blind at this level. Cats Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Level
The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted. The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times. The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen; in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle. In humans, glucose is the primary source of energy, and is critical for normal function, in a number of tissues, particularly the human brain which consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals. Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream. Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar le Continue reading >>
Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean
Source: Web exclusive: June 2011 When you have diabetes, perhaps the most important thing you need to know is the level of your blood glucose, also known as your blood sugar. Since many factors can raise or lower your blood glucose, you may have to check it several times a day. But once you obtain a blood glucose reading, what exactly does it mean? Crunch those numbers When you test a drop of your blood with a glucose meter, the big number that pops onto the screen refers to the number of millimoles (mmol) of glucose per litre (L) of your blood. A millimole (mmol) is one-thousandth of a mole, which is a standard unit for measuring the mass of molecules. And if that’s not already confusing enough, the United States uses a completely different system than Canadians for measuring blood glucose. South of the border, blood glucose is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL). This can sometimes be rather bewildering, especially if you’re brand new to diabetes and researching your disease on the Internet. “I tell people to go to a Canadian site first,” says Tabitha Palmer, a certified diabetes educator at the Centre for Clinical Research in Halifax. Know your targets So what numbers should you be looking for? Your target reading before meals should be between 4 and 7. Your blood sugar normally spikes two hours after a meal, so between 5 and 10 is a good range after you eat. Besides food, other factors that can cause your blood sugar to go up or down include exercise, illness, medications and stress. Your blood glucose readings are hands-down the best way to monitor whether or not your diabetes is generally well managed. "They really help the physicians and educators if we’re trying to look at whether you need to have your medication, insulin or mealtime adjusted, Continue reading >>
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Eating Strategies To Prevent And Control Diabetes
Mireille Moreau RD, MSc Human Nutrition [email protected] DIABETES MELLITUS A disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate or ineffective insulin Type 1 Type 2 Prediabetes 5 -10% of cases 90-95% of cases ~5.4 million ppl Autoimmune disorder - little to no insulin secretion Lose sensitivity to insulin Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose toleranceÂ FPG â‰¥ 7.0mmol/L 2HPG â‰¥ 11.1mmol/L FPG â‰¥ 7.0mmol/L 2HPG â‰¥ 11.1mmol/L FPG â‰¥ 6.1-6.9mmol/L 2HPG 7.8-11mmol/L Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. 2013. Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD Public Health Agency of Canada. Diabetes in Canada: Facts and figures from a public health perspective. Ottawa, 2011. Age-standardized prevalence and number of cases of diagnosed diabetes among individuals aged â‰¥ 1 year, 1998/99 to 2008/09 in Canada Risk factors Age â‰¥ 40 years Having a close relative who has type 2 diabetes; Member of a high-risk population (Aboriginal, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian or African descent); History of prediabetes/ gestational diabetes; Heart disease; High blood pressure; High cholesterol or other fats in blood; Being overweight Thomas Ransom, Ronald Goldenberg, Amanda Mikalachki, Ally RH Prebtani Zubin Punthakoo. Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines. Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes. COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES Thomas Ransom, Ronald Goldenberg, Amanda Mikalachki, Ally RH Prebtani Zubin Punthakoo. Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines. Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes. DIABETES: A SILENT DISEASE Signs and symptoms can include Unusu Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Levels, Range Check & Conversion
Convert blood sugar/glucose levels from mg/dL (US standard) to mmol/L (Canada and UK standard) and vice versa using our blood sugar converter. mg/dL gives the concentration by the ratio of weight to volume, in this case milligrams per decilitre. mmol/L gives the molarity, which is the number of molecules of a substance within a specified volume, in this case within 1 litre. mg/dL is the unit predominantly used in the USA and continental Europe, whereas Canada and the UK use mmol/L to measure blood glucose levels. What’s the difference between mg/dL and mmol/L? Both sets of units are used to measure blood sugar levels and both give a measurement of the concentration of glucose in the blood, albeit in slightly different ways. mg/dL: Unit for measuring concentration of glucose in the blood in the USA – milligrams per decilitre.: Milligrams per 100 millilitres Blood glucose typically varies from 70 mmol/dl to 130 mmol/dl for people without diabetes, according to the ADA mmol/L: Millimoles per litre is the international standard unit for measuring the concentration of glucose in the blood – also known as millimolar (mM). Blood sugar (also called blood glucose) needs to be tightly controlled in the human body to minimise the risk of complications developing. Understanding blood sugar levels Blood sugar (also called blood glucose) needs to be tightly controlled in the human body to minimise the risk of complications developing. If your blood sugar levels remain higher than the target levels for long periods of time, you will be at greater risk of developing long term complications such as heart, kidney, nerve and retinal diseases. If you are on insulin, sulfonylureas or prandial glucose regulators, it’s important that blood glucose levels do not go too low (going hypo) Continue reading >>
What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?
The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>
* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?
Normal blood sugars after a high carbohydrate breakfast eaten at 7:30 AM. The blue line is the average for the group. The brown lines show the range within which most readings fell (2 standard deviations). Bottom lines show Insulin and C-peptide levels at the same time. Click HERE if you don't see the graph. Graph is a screen shot from Dr. Christiansen's presentation cited below. The term "blood sugar" refers to the concentration of glucose, a simple, sugar, that is found in a set volume of blood. In the U.S. it is measured in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dl. In most of the rest of the world it is measured in millimoles per liter, abbreviated as mmol/L. The concentration of glucose in our blood changes continually throughout the day. It can even vary significantly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can rise dramatically. When you exercise it will often drop. The blood sugar measures that doctors are most interested in is the A1c, discussed below. When you are given a routine blood test doctors usually order a fasting glucose test. The most informative blood sugar reading is the post-meal blood sugar measured one and two hours after eating. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement as it is time consuming and hence expensive. Rarely doctors will order a Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, which tests your response to a huge dose of pure glucose, which hits your blood stream within minutes and produces results quite different from the blood sugars you will experience after each meal. Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Fasting blood sugar is usually measured first thing in the morning before you have eaten any food. A truly normal fasting blood sugar (which is also the blood sugar a norm Continue reading >>
What Are Glucose Levels?
Glucose is the form of sugar found in our blood. Glucose is also the main source of fuel for your body. When sugar enters your bloodstream, a hormone called insulin produced by the pancreas carries the sugar from your blood into your cells, where the sugar (glucose) is used for energy. What do you glucose levels tell you about your health? Uncontrolled or high blood sugar levels can lead to health complications such as type 2 diabetes, blindness, heart diseases, and kidney disease. Glucose testing is done with a simple blood test. Glucose levels are measured in millimoles per litre (mmol/L). Glucose Levels 2.6 – 6.3 mmol/L Excellent 8.2 – 10.0 mmol/L Good 11.9 – 21.1 mmol/L Poor How to Improve Your Blood Glucose Levels Do not allow yourself to become overweight. Start with knowing your BMI and abdominal circumference. Find out what your body weight should be and work on meeting that goal. A healthy diet and exercise can assist you in getting your target weight. Reduce your intake of foods that are high in sugar. Pop and energy drinks are nasty contributors to your sugar intake. If you have the will power, cut them out of your diet completely. Any reduction to you sugar intake will dramatically enhance your levels of blood sugar. Consume foods that improve sugar levels in your blood rather than aggravate it. Don’t forget your complex carbohydrates. When you eat the same amount of complex carbohydrates for all your snacks and meals, your blood sugar levels will improve and eventually become steady as you meet your weight goals. Complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains, brown rice, oatmeal, and cereal, leave your appetite feeling more satisfied than simple carbs would because they take longer to break down. Opt for high fiber foods such as kidney beans, lentils, Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus In Cats
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results from functional or absolute insulin deficiency. Insulin is the chief regulator of the path that dietary sugar takes, but also affects fat and protein metabolism, and malfunction of this metabolism has an impact on all body systems. In humans, we speak of Type I, or insulin dependent diabetes, which is often a juvenile onset condition, and requires insulin administration for effective treatment. Type II is often seen in middle aged, inactive patients and this type often is treated without insulin administration. In cats, these types also exist, but making a distinction between these two types is not as easy to do, at least initially. Newer information confirms that this way of looking at cats is not really accurate. Cats are insulin responsive diabetics. There is no single cause of this condition, but some diseases (Cushing's disease for example), pancreatic inflammation, and certain drugs (steroids) are known to be associated with development of diabetes. Obese body condition is a risk factor in adult cats, and immune-mediated disorders can trigger destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In cats, amyloid deposits are frequently seen on tissue samples. These deposits interfere with pancreas function and lead to progression from type II to type I diabetes as more cells die off. SIGNS In diabetics, tissues cannot uptake and utilize all of the important food components (sugar, fat, protein) and this effectively puts the body into starvation mode. In the very early stages, reduced activity and reduced appetite and grooming may be the first signs. Severe diabetes results in weight loss, increased thirst and urination, nerve problems (cats often walk down on their hock joints of the back legs - plantigra Continue reading >>
Screening Guidelines For Newborns At Risk For Low Blood Glucose
The Canadian Paediatric Society gives permission to print single copies of this document from our website. For permission to reprint or reproduce multiple copies, please see our copyright policy. Despite decades of scientific observation, investigation and discussion, there is limited evidence-based consensus regarding the screening and management of infants at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia. A number of questions remain unresolved: How is neonatal hypoglycemia defined? Who is at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia? When should at-risk infants be screened? How should screening for neonatal hypoglycemia be performed? What levels of blood glucose require intervention? What interventions should be offered when neonatal hypoglycemia is suspected? How frequently should asymptomatic, at-risk infants be screened? How should caregivers be educated or counselled regarding screening for neonatal hypoglycemia? Given the paucity of evidence, the purpose of the present statement is to provide a consensus guideline that has practical applications for Canadian newborns and their caregivers. An algorithm has also been developed to give direction in managing infants at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia, see Figure 1. It should be noted that this guidelines is a pragmatic approach, one that will require refinement as futher scientific data become available. Search strategy A MEDLINE search was performed for studies up to March 2004 using the key words “Hypoglycemia”, “Blood Glucose” and “All Infant: birth-23 months”, limited to “Human”, “English” and “French”, and including all trials, reviews, clinical practice guidelines, follow-up studies and meta-analyses. The Cochrane Database was searched for reviews and articles relating to glucose and infant feeding. It is notewor Continue reading >>
Two Hour Blood Glucose Levels In At-risk Babies: An Audit Of Canadian Guidelines
In December 2004, the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) published guidelines (1) for the screening of newborns who were considered to be ‘at risk’ for neonatal hypoglycemia. The thresholds for hypoglycemia were drawn from three sources – so-called ‘normal’ values derived from appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) term babies, neurophysiological evidence from assumed hypoglycemic babies and follow-up data from preterm infants with transient hypoglycemia. The resulting guidelines were pragmatic, based on evidence that was limited in both level and quality, and recommended further study. With this caveat, the guidelines recommended that AGA newborns did not need routine screening of blood glucose (BG) levels. They also recommended that infants considered to be ‘at risk’ should be screened at 2 h of age and every 3 h to 6 h thereafter until the risk was minimized (a grade C recommendation, based on level 2 to 4 evidence of limited quality). Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs), preterm infants (younger than 37 weeks’ gestational age), and those who were small for gestational age (SGA – weighing less than the 10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA – weighing more than the 90th percentile) were considered to be at risk. The CPS algorithm organized interventions using the 2 h BG level and two initial intervention thresholds (1.8 mmol/L and 2.6 mmol/L). At-risk newborns with a BG level lower than 1.8 mmol/L would receive intravenous glucose therapy, whereas those between 1.8 mmol/L and 2.5 mmol/L (inclusive) would receive supplemental feeding and augmented surveillance. The CPS acknowledged that studies of healthy AGA term babies without risk factors showed that BG levels of 1.8 mmol/L to 2.5 mmol/L lay within the normal range at this age, reflecti Continue reading >>
A Practical Guide To A Healthy Body For People Living With Hiv
Normally, when we eat, our body converts food into glucose (sugar) and that glucose is then carried to cells throughout the body, providing our muscles, tissues and brain with the energy they need. If a person has too much blood glucose or blood sugar (a condition called hyperglycemia), it can eventually cause serious health problems. This is why it is so important to do as much as possible to avoid developing a blood sugar problem in the first place or, if you already have one, to take steps to manage it. Fortunately, diabetes can be controlled through eating well, exercise and medicine. Insulin is a hormone that your body needs to maintain the right level of glucose in your blood. When you don’t have enough insulin, or your body cannot use insulin properly, the amount of glucose in the blood becomes too high. This is called insulin resistance. When insulin resistance first develops, your body tries to compensate by producing more and more insulin. But eventually, these efforts are unsuccessful and sugar levels build up in the blood instead of being used by your cells for energy. This ongoing high blood sugar is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. When a person has diabetes and their cells don’t get enough glucose, the cells cannot function properly. High blood glucose levels can also result in damage to the blood vessels in different parts of the body. Over time, this can lead to serious, and some potentially deadly, health problems—such as cardiovascular problems, kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage and digestive issues. These problems need advanced medical care. There are three types of diabetes: Gestational diabetes – diabetes that can develop during pregnancy. Type 1 diabetes – an autoimmune disease that typically develops during childhood. It occurs wh Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Basics
What should your blood sugar levels be? Once diagnosed with diabetes, your health care team will review your "target" blood sugar levels with you. You will likely be told to start checking your blood sugars at home using a meter. Normal blood sugar levels (i.e., people who have not been diagnosed with diabetes) are usually between 4.0 mmol/L and 8.0 mmol/L. If your blood sugars are at levels recommended by your physician or primary health care provider, then it is said that your blood sugars are "in control." For people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the recommended target blood glucose levels are: 4.0 mmol/L to 7.0 mmol/L when measuring blood glucose fasting or before eating 5.0 mmol/L to 10.0 mmol/L when measuring blood glucose 2 hours after eating (your physician or primary health care provider may recommend a range of 5.0 mmol/L to 8.0 mmol/L if you are not at your A1C target - see below) These are general recommendations - your health care provider may suggest different targets for you. In addition, pregnant women, the elderly, and children 12 years old and younger may have different targets. What is urine testing? Before the advent of home blood glucose monitors, the only way to monitor or check for high sugar levels was by urine testing. When blood sugar levels get high enough, the kidneys excrete the excess glucose into the urine. This is important, because if your blood sugar levels are high enough that the sugar "spills" into the urine, they are very high. While urine testing is no longer used to monitor blood sugar levels, it is still used to measure ketone levels (high levels are a sign of poor diabetes control) and albumin levels (a protein that, if found to be at high levels in the urine, could be a sign of kidney damage). What is an A1c test? The Continue reading >>