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What Hormone Reduces Blood Sugar Levels?

Suppress Blood Sugar Without Drugs

Suppress Blood Sugar Without Drugs

The research is conclusive—the longer you wait to tame age-related blood sugar increases, the greater your odds of succumbing to diabetes and its associated increased risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, cancer, and blindness.1-3 For the majority of aging individuals,urgent action is needed.1,2 The public has not yet recognized the magnitude of damage inflicted after consumption of what most consider only a moderate amount of starch or sugar. A widely publicized study showed that drinking just one 12-ounce sugar-sweetened soda daily resulted in an 18-22% increased risk of type II diabetes.4 While health-conscious people may avoid sodas, there are so many glucose-spiking foods in our diets that virtually none of us are immune. Hard science reveals that fasting blood sugar above 85 mg/dL is associated with increased risks of death and disease. Unfortunately, most adult glucose levels are well above this range.1,2,5 Aging humans should take assertive steps before eating carbohydrates to impede the absorption of glucose into their bloodstream. Just as important, however, is the need to suppress excess production of glucose in our liver and to improve uptake of blood glucose into our muscle cells as opposed to it being stored as fat. The breaking news for those who want to avoid drugs is the discovery of three plant-derived nutrients that target underlying reasons why 80% of American adults today have higher than optimal glucose levels.6 The July 3, 2013 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) examined the impact of fructose on human health.7 High-fructose corn syrup represents over 40% of caloric sweeteners added to foods and beverages. It’s often the sole caloric sweetener in soft drinks in the United States.8 The digestion and metaboli Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Regulation

Blood Glucose Regulation

Glucose is needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood. How glucose is regulated Glucose level Effect on pancreas Effect on liver Effect on glucose level too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up Use the animation to make sure you understand how this works. You have an old or no version of flash - you need to upgrade to view this funky content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Glucagon – Higher tier The pancreas releases another hormone, glucagon, when the blood sugar levels fall. This causes the cells in the liver to turn glycogen back into glucose which can then be released into the blood. The blood sugar levels will then rise. Now try a Test Bite- Higher tier. Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. It can be treated by injecting insulin. The extra insulin allows the glucose to be taken up by the liver and other tissues, so cells get the glucose they need and blood-sugar levels stay normal. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin. It can be controlled by: monitoring the diet injecting insulin People with type 1 diabetes have to monitor their blood sugar levels throughout the day as the level of physical activity and diet affect the amount of insulin required. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is caused by a person becoming resistant to insulin. It can be controlled by diet and exercise. There is a link between rising levels of obesity (chronic overweight) and i Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hyperglycemia in Dogs A dog with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood is said to have hyperglycemia. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a key role in maintaining normal sugar levels. Low levels or absolute deficiency of insulin results in abnormally high blood sugar levels. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female dogs; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older dogs are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, and it is more common in female dogs than in males. Any breed can be affected, but some smaller breeds appear to be more disposed, including beagles, cairn terriers, dachshunds, miniature poodles and schnauzers. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your dog may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-healing wounds;infection is increased as the excess sugar feeds fungal and bacterial invaders Tissue damage (due to oxidizing [burning] effect of the excess sugar in the tissue) Causes Other than high stress situations, harmful drug interactions (such as with he Continue reading >>

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem. In this Article Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose...it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during Continue reading >>

Nutrition Brief: Insulin And Blood Sugar Regulation

Nutrition Brief: Insulin And Blood Sugar Regulation

© 2017 CrossFit, Inc. CrossFit, Forging Elite Fitness, 3...2...1...Go!, Fittest on Earth and Sport of Fitness are trademarks of CrossFit, Inc. in the U.S. and/or other countries. All Rights Reserved Continue reading >>

Homeostasis Of Glucose Levels: Hormonal Control And Diabetes

Homeostasis Of Glucose Levels: Hormonal Control And Diabetes

Homeostasis According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are almost 26 million people in the United States alone that have diabetes, which is 8.3% of the total U.S. population. With so many Americans suffering from diabetes, how do we treat all of them? Do all of these people now need insulin shots, or are there other ways to treat, or prevent, diabetes? In order to answer these questions, we must first understand the fundamentals of blood glucose regulation. As you may remember, homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment within an organism, and maintaining a stable internal environment in a human means having to carefully regulate many parameters, including glucose levels in the blood. There are two major ways that signals are sent throughout the body. The first is through nerves of the nervous system. Signals are sent as nerve impulses that travel through nerve cells, called neurons. These impulses are sent to other neurons, or specific target cells at a specific location of the body that the neuron extends to. Most of the signals that the human body uses to regulate body temperature are sent through the nervous system. The second way that signals can be sent throughout the body is through the circulatory system. These signals are transmitted by specific molecules called hormones, which are signaling molecules that travel through the circulatory system. In this lesson, we'll take a look at how the human body maintains blood glucose levels through the use of hormone signaling. Homeostasis of Blood Glucose Levels Glucose is the main source of fuel for the cells in our bodies, but it's too big to simply diffuse into the cells by itself. Instead, it needs to be transported into the cells. Insulin is a hormone produced by the panc Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Regulation Of Glucose Homeostasis

Pancreatic Regulation Of Glucose Homeostasis

Go to: The pancreas is an exocrine and endocrine organ The pancreas has key roles in the regulation of macronutrient digestion and hence metabolism/energy homeostasis by releasing various digestive enzymes and pancreatic hormones. It is located behind the stomach within the left upper abdominal cavity and is partitioned into head, body and tail. The majority of this secretory organ consists of acinar—or exocrine—cells that secrete the pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes, such as amylase, pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen, into the ducts, that is, the main pancreatic and the accessory pancreatic duct. In contrast, pancreatic hormones are released in an endocrine manner, that is, direct secretion into the blood stream. The endocrine cells are clustered together, thereby forming the so-called islets of Langerhans, which are small, island-like structures within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that account for only 1–2% of the entire organ (Figure 1).1 There are five different cell types releasing various hormones from the endocrine system: glucagon-producing α-cells,2 which represent 15–20% of the total islet cells; amylin-, C-peptide- and insulin-producing β-cells,2 which account for 65–80% of the total cells; pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-producing γ-cells,3 which comprise 3–5% of the total islet cells; somatostatin-producing δ-cells,2 which constitute 3–10% of the total cells; and ghrelin-producing ɛ-cells,4 which comprise <1% of the total islet cells. Each of the hormones has distinct functions. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels, whereas insulin decreases them.5 Somatostatin inhibits both, glucagon and insulin release,6 whereas PP regulates the exocrine and endocrine secretion activity of the pancreas.3, 7 Altogether, these hormones regul Continue reading >>

What Is Glucagon?

What Is Glucagon?

Blood sugar levels are an important part of overall health. When blood sugar levels drop, an individual may feel lethargic. If they drop too low, the individual may become disoriented, dizzy or even pass out. Blood sugar control involves a complex system of hormones, and one of those hormones is glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that works with other hormones and bodily functions to control glucose levels in the blood. It comes from alpha cells found in the pancreas and is closely related to insulin-secreting beta cells, making it a crucial component that keeps the body’s blood glucose levels stable. What does glucagon do? Although secreted by the pancreas, glucagon directly impacts the liver as it works to control blood sugar levels. Specifically, glucagon prevents blood glucose levels from dropping to a dangerous point by stimulating the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose in the liver. This glucose can be released into the bloodstream, a process known as glycogenolysis. Secondly, glucagon stops the liver from consuming some glucose. This helps more glucose to enter the bloodstream, rather than being consumed by the liver, to keep levels stable. Finally, glucagon works in a process known as gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose in the amino acid molecules. In each of these processes, glucagon and insulin work together. Insulin will prevent glucose levels from increasing to a point that is too high, while glucagon prevents it from dropping too low. Glucagon production is stimulated when an individual eats a protein-rich meal, experiences a surge in adrenaline, or has a low blood sugar event. Potential problems with glucagon function Glucagon function is crucial to proper blood glucose levels, so problems with glucagon production will lead to problems Continue reading >>

Morning Highs? How To Lower Morning Blood Sugar

Morning Highs? How To Lower Morning Blood Sugar

As Type 2 Diabetes Develops During the years when type 2 diabetes slowly develops (which may be up to 10 years through developing metabolic syndrome and continuing on to prediabetes), hormonal control of blood glucose breaks down. To understand how your body responds, it's important to understand the essential hormones involved in blood glucose control. Four hormones are involved in blood glucose control: Insulin, made in the beta cells of the pancreas, helps the body use glucose from food by enabling glucose to move into the body's cells for energy. People with type 2 diabetes have slowly dwindling insulin reserves. Amylin, secreted from the beta cells, slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream after eating by slowing stomach-emptying and increasing the feeling of fullness. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are amylin-deficient. Incretins, hormones secreted from the intestines that include glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), enhance the body's release of insulin after eating. This in turn slows stomach-emptying, promotes fullness, delays the release of glucose into the bloodstream, and prevents the pancreas from releasing glucagon, putting less glucose into the blood. Glucagon, made in the alpha cells of the pancreas, breaks down glucose stored in the liver and muscles and releases it to provide energy when glucose from food isn't available Out-of-Control Blood Sugar During Sleep For people in the early years of type 2 diabetes, the hormones that control blood sugar can particularly go awry. Here's what happens during sleep to a person with type 2 diabetes: "Overnight, the liver and muscles get the message from excess glucagon to ramp up the glucose supply because the person is sleeping, not eating," says Marty Irons, R.Ph., CDE. "There is not enough GLP-1, i Continue reading >>

What Organ Regulates The Amount Of Glucose In The Bloodstream?

What Organ Regulates The Amount Of Glucose In The Bloodstream?

Glucose in the bloodstream provides the primary fuel for all body tissues. Blood glucose levels are highest during the digestive period after a meal. Your blood sugar is lowest when the stomach and intestines are empty. Under normal circumstances, the body tightly controls the amount of insulin in your blood. An organ called the pancreas, which is tucked behind the stomach releases the hormones insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar levels. Blood sugar regulation is crucial because high and low blood glucose can cause health problems. The pancreas is an elongated organ wide on one end and slender on the other end and measures about 25 centimeters in length. It has dual functions: it releases digestive enzymes, which plays a role in digestion, and it secretes hormones. Prevents High Blood Glucose Insulin plays an integral role in preventing high blood sugar. After you eat a meal and your blood-glucose rises, your pancreas senses your blood-sugar level. When the glucose in your bloodstream becomes high, the pancreas releases insulin into your bloodstream. A small clump of pancreatic cells called the ''islets of Langerhans,'' manufacture insulin. Once the insulin is in your bloodstream, it allows your cells to absorb and use glucose as a fuel source. Mediates Low Blood Sugar When you consume more carbohydrate than your body needs at the time, your body stores the extra glucose as glycogen in the liver. The pancreas continuously monitors your blood sugar levels. When glucose is low, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon. The glucagon triggers the liver to break down glycogen and converts it back to glucose. The stored glucose enters the bloodstream and raises blood-glucose levels. This allows the body to keep blood sugar levels stable in between meals. Blood Gluc Continue reading >>

Counterregulatory Hormones

Counterregulatory Hormones

Hormones that work against the action of insulin, raising blood glucose levels in response to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The main counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), cortisol, and growth hormone. People who don’t have diabetes have a number of defense mechanisms against hypoglycemia. First, the pancreas decreases its insulin output, allowing blood glucose to rise. Second, the alpha cells of the pancreas secrete the counterregulatory hormone glucagon, which signals the liver to release more glucose. Third, the adrenal glands secrete epinephrine, which signals the liver and kidneys to produce more glucose; in addition, epinephrine keeps certain body tissues, such as muscle, from using as much glucose from the bloodstream, and it acts to reduce insulin secretion. Epinephrine is the same “fight or flight” hormone that revs the body up in response to danger, and it produces the symptoms that normally herald an episode of hypoglycemia, such as hunger, sweating, trembling, “butterflies,” and heart palpitations. In some cases, especially when glucagon and epinephrine fail to adequately raise blood glucose levels, the body releases cortisol and growth hormone, which can also increase blood glucose levels. After years of having Type 1 diabetes, many individuals lose most of these defenses against hypoglycemia. To begin with, they are not able to benefit from reduced secretion of insulin by the pancreas; the reason why people with Type 1 diabetes must use injected or infused insulin is that the pancreas no longer makes insulin at all. Also, for reasons unknown, people with Type 1 diabetes usually lose their ability to secrete glucagon. In addition, after recurring episodes of even mild hypoglycemia, the epinephrine respon Continue reading >>

Controlling Blood Sugar Levels

Controlling Blood Sugar Levels

Glucose is a sugar needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, controls blood sugar levels in the body. It travels from the pancreas to the liver in the bloodstream. As with other responses controlled by hormones, the response is slower but longer lasting than if it had been controlled by the nervous system. Blood sugar levels- Higher tier What happens when glucose levels in the blood become too high or too low glucose level effect on pancreas effect on liver effect on glucose level too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up Use the animation to make sure you understand how this works. You have an old or no version of flash - you need to upgrade to view this funky content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1, which usually develops during childhood Type 2, which usually develops in later life. The table summarises some differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Some differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Who it mainly affects Children and teenagers. Adults under the age of 40. Adults, normally over the age of 40 (there is a greater risk in those who have poor diets and/or are overweight). How it works The pancreas stops making enough insulin. The body no longer responds to its insulin. How it is controlled Injections of insulin for life and an appropriate diet. Exercise and appropriate diet. When treating Type 1 diabetes, the dosage of in Continue reading >>

Love Hormone Treats Diabetes

Love Hormone Treats Diabetes

Is love a diabetes treatment? Studies are finding that oxytocin, the “love hormone” or “bonding hormone,” improves health in diabetes. More love equals lower glucose levels. What do these findings mean for people with diabetes? Oxytocin is one of the oldest hormones in the world. The oxytocin gene first evolved around 500 million years ago. Virtually all vertebrates have it in some form. We can’t live without it, but what does it do? Shortly after its discovery, oxytocin was found to stimulate the release of milk in nursing mothers. If your body gets a surge of oxytocin when you touch or see someone, you will love that person. You will give them things you would normally keep for yourself, like turning your limited supply of food into mother’s milk and feeding it to them. Oxytocin also promotes trust. Without it, there would be no society, because people wouldn’t trust each other enough to cooperate. Oxytocin also calms fears and can reduce anxiety. People feel happier and safer when they have some in their blood. On the physical level, it seems to help wound healing and may reduce symptoms of autism. Oxytocin is a very complicated protein, made up of nine separate amino acids. Its chemical formula is C43H66N12O12S2. That is a big molecule! There’s a picture of it here. (One wonders how such a thing evolved. It’s hard to imagine it could have happened at random.) What about diabetes? Recently, scientists have been looking at oxytocin’s effect on health. They are finding strong connections with diabetes and with weight. A study by Chinese and American scientists found that oxytocin reversed insulin resistance and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Weight loss followed, but by then the mice’s insulin function was already much improved. They al Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Most cells in the human body use the sugar called glucose as their major source of energy. Glucose molecules are broken down within cells in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, energy-rich molecules that power numerous cellular processes. Glucose molecules are delivered to cells by the circulating blood and therefore, to ensure a constant supply of glucose to cells, it is essential that blood glucose levels be maintained at relatively constant levels. Level constancy is accomplished primarily through negative feedback systems, which ensure that blood glucose concentration is maintained within the normal range of 70 to 110 milligrams (0.0024 to 0.0038 ounces) of glucose per deciliter (approximately one-fifth of a pint) of blood. Negative feedback systems are processes that sense changes in the body and activate mechanisms that reverse the changes in order to restore conditions to their normal levels. Negative feedback systems are critically important in homeostasis, the maintenance of relatively constant internal conditions. Disruptions in homeostasis lead to potentially life-threatening situations. The maintenance of relatively constant blood glucose levels is essential for the health of cells and thus the health of the entire body. Major factors that can increase blood glucose levels include glucose absorption by the small intestine (after ingesting a meal) and the production of new glucose molecules by liver cells. Major factors that can decrease blood glucose levels include the transport of glucose into cells (for use as a source of energy or to be stored for future use) and the loss of glucose in urine (an abnormal event that occurs in diabetes mellitus). Insulin and Glucagon In a healthy person, blood glucose levels are restored to normal level Continue reading >>

10 Blood Sugar–lowering Foods

10 Blood Sugar–lowering Foods

Adapted from The Carb Sensitivity Program It is no exaggeration—balancing your blood sugar could be a matter of life or death. Chronic high blood sugar levels are toxic to your body, destroying organs and blood vessels and paving the way to a heart attack, type 2 diabetes, stroke, dialysis, nerve damage, erectile dysfunction, or even blindness. The good news? Out-of-control sugar levels can be reigned in and regulated with the right foods. Here are most potent blood sugar-lowering foods so you know how to lower blood sugar levels naturally. Blood Sugar Benefit: A groundbreaking study published in the Journal of Nutrition in 2010 found a daily dose of the bioactive ingredients from blueberries increases sensitivity to insulin and may reduce the risk of developing diabetes in at-risk individuals. That's important because too many carbs produces too much insulin, which could lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adding blueberries to daily smoothies for six weeks also improves insulin sensitivity, so feel free to eat healthy doses of the superfood fruit, too. Added Perk: Low in naturally occurring sugars, blueberries are also packed with antioxidants that fight damage from free radicals, accelerated aging, and diseases like cancer and Alzheimer's. Blood Sugar Benefit: Don't let the fat content of avocados fool you—they're still good for you! Avocados are full of monounsaturated fat, the kind that helps slow the release of sugars into the bloodstream, prompting less insulin release, and can even help to lower your cholesterol. Added Perk: Avocados contain beta-sitosterol, a compound that could help quell inflammation after an intense workout. Just limit yourself to one-quarter of an avocado at a time to avoid calorie overload. Or, try avocado oil drizzled on a Continue reading >>

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