What Happens To Glucose In The Liver?

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Insulin Levels Signal The Liver Whether More Glucose Is Needed

To understand what happens as your blood sugar deteriorates from normal to pre-diabetes, and finally, to full-fledged diabetes you first need to understand how blood sugar control works in a normal body. The most important factor here is the role played by special cells called beta cells. These tiny cells are scattered through an organ called the pancreas which is located just under your stomach. The job of the beta cell is to produce insulin, store it, and release it into the blood stream at appropriate times. You can learn how blood sugar fluctuates during the day in people with normal blood sugar, those with mildly diabetic blood sugars, and those with full fledged Type 2 Diabetes on this page: Blood Sugar Throughout the Day. Healthy beta-cells are continually making insulin, storing it within the cell in little granules you can see in the illustration above. This insulin is released into the blood stream in two different fashions. Some of it is secreted into the blood continually. This is called basal insulin. The rest is secreted only when blood sugars rise, which happens mostly after you eat foods containing carbohydrates. This kind of insulin is secreted in two separate phas Continue reading >>

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    What happens to glucose in the liver?

    The liver does produce glucose in a way other than breaking down glycogen to glucose. Stored glycogen can barely cover for a day the glucose needs of a person that is fasting or on a strict diet.
    The more important process is gluconeogenesis in which the following molecules are used to produce glucose:
    1. lactate produced during anaerobic respiration in the skeletal muscles
    2.pyruvate after transamination to alanine
    3. all amino acids except (leucine and lysine) which can be converted to Kreb cycle intermediates ending up at the end of the cycle as oxaloacetate which can then be converted to pyruvate.
    4. glycerol (originating from fatty acids) after phosphorylation to glycerol-3-phosphate.
    Gluconeogenesis from these 3 or 4 carbon precursors is in effect a reversal of glycolysis. Only three stages of glycolysis that involve a high energy change and are thus irreversible are bypassed through a different route.
    These steps involve the enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and PEP carboxykinase instead of the corresponding glycolytic Hexokinase/glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase enzymes.
    The liver stores glucose in the form of glycogen. Whenever you go for long periods of time without eating, the liver releases glucose into the blood stream to keep your blood sugar from going too low. If you eat too many carbohydrates, RHOC Recombinant Protein www.cusabio.com/protein-Recombinant_Prot... then the liver will store some and the rest will go to other places in your body, such as body fat. Believe it or not, the glucose can also be excreted into the urine too, so there are plenty of places for the glucose to go: liver, fat cells, muscles for energy, urine, etc...

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    For high blood glucose concentration>The pancreas will detect te high conc of glucose and stimulates the islets of langehan in the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin is brought to the liver by the blood, converting excess glucose into glycogen as storage in the liver and muscle cells. The excess glucose may also be converted to fats as storage.
    For low blood glucose conc> the islet of langerhan will be stimulated to produce glucagon. Glucagon in turn converts the stored glycogen to glucose that is available for use. This homeostatic control ensures that the blood glucose concentration is maintained as significant alterations in the conc may result in detrimental effects.
    High blood glucose conc that takes longer than usual to revert back to normal means the person is diabetic and glucose will be found in urine.
    On the other hand low blood glucose conc due to over secretion of insulin will lead to fainting spells, coma or even death.

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