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What Does Mmol L Stand For In Diabetes?

Hyperglycemia | Diabte Qubec

Hyperglycemia | Diabte Qubec

your blood glucose reading is higher than 14 mmol/L with ketones in your urine: a medium to high level in your blood: a level higher than 1.5 mmol/L if you have type 1 diabetes: your blood glucose level is higher than 20mmol/L with nausea, vomiting and/or abdominal pain if you have type 2 diabetes: your blood glucose level is higher than 25 mmol/L with excessive drowsiness you cannot retain liquids due to vomiting or diarrhea your state of consciousness changes: confusion, agitation, lack of reaction to stimulation, hallucinations or unusual behaviour you exhibit signs of dehydration: dry mouth, sunken eyes, dry skin, etc. your body temperature has stayed above 38.5 C for more than 48 hours. These symptoms could signal ahyperglycemic emergency. Research and text: Diabetes Qubec Team of Health Care Professionals S.A. Imran et al.Diabetes Canada 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada: Targets for Glycemic Control. Can J Diabetes 2018; 42 (Suppl 1): S42-S46. Geoffroy L., and Gonthier, M., (2012) Lhyperglycemia et lacidose diabtique, Le diabte chez lenfant et ladolescent, 2nd edition,. Montral: ditions du CHU Ste-Justine, pp. 355-364. If your blood glucose (sugar) level fasting or before a meal is persistently higher than 12 mmol/L, consult your health care team. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Source: Web exclusive: June 2011 When you have diabetes, perhaps the most important thing you need to know is the level of your blood glucose, also known as your blood sugar. Since many factors can raise or lower your blood glucose, you may have to check it several times a day. But once you obtain a blood glucose reading, what exactly does it mean? Crunch those numbers When you test a drop of your blood with a glucose meter, the big number that pops onto the screen refers to the number of millimoles (mmol) of glucose per litre (L) of your blood. A millimole (mmol) is one-thousandth of a mole, which is a standard unit for measuring the mass of molecules. And if that’s not already confusing enough, the United States uses a completely different system than Canadians for measuring blood glucose. South of the border, blood glucose is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL). This can sometimes be rather bewildering, especially if you’re brand new to diabetes and researching your disease on the Internet. “I tell people to go to a Canadian site first,” says Tabitha Palmer, a certified diabetes educator at the Centre for Clinical Research in Halifax. Know your targets So what numbers should you be looking for? Your target reading before meals should be between 4 and 7. Your blood sugar normally spikes two hours after a meal, so between 5 and 10 is a good range after you eat. Besides food, other factors that can cause your blood sugar to go up or down include exercise, illness, medications and stress. Your blood glucose readings are hands-down the best way to monitor whether or not your diabetes is generally well managed. "They really help the physicians and educators if we’re trying to look at whether you need to have your medication, insulin or mealtime adjusted, Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

What Are Urine Tests for Diabetes? Diabetes is a condition that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. This is due to the body’s inability to make any or enough insulin, use insulin effectively, or both. Insulin is a hormone that helps the cells of your body absorb blood sugar to make energy. Insulin is produced by the pancreas after you eat food. There are two major classifications of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This type is usually diagnosed in childhood and develops quickly. Symptoms include quick weight loss, excessive thirst, excessive urination, and fatigue. Type 1 makes up just 5 percent of diabetes cases in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is when cells aren’t able to use insulin effectively anymore. This is called insulin resistance. If the cells can’t take in and store glucose, the glucose remains in the blood. Eventually the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels within normal ranges, and diabetes develops. This type of diabetes develops gradually and is associated with being overweight and having a sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes causes blood glucose (blood sugar) to rise to abnormally high levels. In type 1 diabetes, the body may also begin to burn fat for energy because the cells aren’t getting the glucose they need. When this happens, the body produces chemicals called ketones. When ketones build up in the blood, they make the blood more acidic. A buildup of ketones can poison the body and result in coma or even death. Urine tests aren’t ever used to diagnose diabetes, but they may be used to monitor a person’s levels of urine ketones and urine glucose and sometimes to make sure their diabetes is being manag Continue reading >>

Glucose Test

Glucose Test

Testing blood sugar levels A glucose test is a type of blood test used to determine the amount of glucose in the blood. It is mainly used in screening for prediabetes or diabetes.[1] Patients are instructed not to consume anything but water during the fasting period. Caffeine will also distort the results. If the person eats during the period in which he or she is supposed to have been fasting then they may show blood sugar levels that may cause his or her doctor to think the person has or is at increased risk of having diabetes. In people already having diabetes, blood glucose monitoring is used with frequent intervals in the management of the condition.[1] There are several different kinds of glucose tests: Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 8 or 12 or 14 hours after eating Glucose tolerance test:[2] continuous testing Postprandial glucose test (PC): 2 hours after eating Random glucose test Reference ranges[edit] Fasting blood sugar[edit] A range of 4 to 5.5 mmol/l (70 to 99 mg/dl) before a meal is normal. Continual fasting levels of 5.5 to 7 mmol/l (101–125 mg/dl) causes concern of possible prediabetes and may be worth monitoring. 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) and above means a risk of diabetes.[3] After a 12‑hour fast, a range of 3.9 to under 5.5 mmol/l (70.2 to 100 mg/dl) is normal; a level of 5.6 to under 7 mmol/l (100 to 126 mg/dl) is considered a sign of prediabetes.[3] Postprandial glucose[edit] Main article: Postprandial glucose test A level of < 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl) 90 minutes after a meal is normal.[4] See also[edit] Glucose meter Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia [edit] Continue reading >>

Understanding The New Hba1c Units For The Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding The New Hba1c Units For The Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

In the absence of overt symptoms of hyperglycaemia, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on plasma glucose concentrations that are associated with an increased risk of its specific microvascular complications, in particular retinopathy.1,2 The precise criteria have always been determined by consensus among experts and are based principally on several large observational cohort studies. The criteria have been repeatedly modified over time as more high quality data have become available. Most recently many international diabetes societies have adopted the measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a legitimate diagnostic test for the diagnosis of diabetes using a “cut point” for the diagnosis of ≥6.5%.3–5 Recently there has been a change in the reporting units for HbA1c from percent to mmol/mol that has been driven by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) and is linked to the standardisation of routine assays for HbA1c to a new reference method.6 The validity of the process has been accepted by many international diabetes societies (American Diabetes Association, Canadian Diabetes Society, European Association for the Study of Diabetes and International Diabetes Federation) as well as by the New Zealand Society for the Study of Diabetes (NZSSD).7 A NZSSD Working Party, made up of members representing clinicians, academics, laboratory staff, general practitioners and population health experts, has developed and now published a new position statement for the diagnosis of diabetes.7 This article explains the changes in use of HbA1c recommended in that statement and expands on the evidence behind these modifications. New units All methods used to measure HbA1c in New Zealand are now standardised through traceability to the IFCC reference me Continue reading >>

Understanding Blood Glucose (blood Sugar)

Understanding Blood Glucose (blood Sugar)

Print Blood sugar—knowing what affects it, and what to do when it’s too low or too high—is at the heart of diabetes management. What is blood glucose? Glucose is an essential source of energy for the body. Our bodies make it, but mostly it comes from the food we eat (for more information, see Food and type 1 diabetes). Glucose is important because: It can be quickly turned into energy. The brain and nerves need a constant supply. Your blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood at a given point in time. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas that keeps blood glucose levels in a healthy range. Insulin allows the glucose from food to enter the body’s cells, where it can be used for energy. When someone has type 1 diabetes, their pancreas does not produce insulin. Without insulin, blood sugar will eventually rise to dangerously high levels. So people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin several times a day, either by injection or through an insulin pump. The amount of insulin a person needs depends on how much food they eat, their activity levels, their age and size, and other factors. Insulin doses may vary from day to day. For more detail, see Insulin: What school staff need to know. What is a typical blood sugar level? In Canada, blood sugar levels are measured in mmol/L (millimoles per litre). A person who doesn’t have diabetes usually has a blood sugar level somewhere between 3.5 mmol/L and 7.8 mmol/L, depending on when they last ate. Diabetes is diagnosed when someone’s blood sugar is greater than 11 mmol/L. People with type 1 diabetes have a “target range” for their blood sugar level. The range is determined with their health care team. Typically, a target range will be between: 6 to 10 mmol/L for children Continue reading >>

What Does A Glucose Value Of 3.4 Mean?

What Does A Glucose Value Of 3.4 Mean?

I just saw the following question: If my glucose test is 3.4, what does this mean? I had tested in the past several times and it came back 5.6, 6.6, and 5.4 but never so low as 3.4. I am 59 years and not a diet person. My reply: As you know, your blood glucose (BG) values are in mmol/L (the measurement system used throughout most of the world) rather than the measurement system used in the United States (which are in mg/dl). Don’t ask me why we in the US are so stubborn about units of measurement, but we also use miles instead of kilometers and pounds instead of kilograms. To convert the BG, you can multiply the value in mmol/L by 18 to get the value in mg/dl – or use an online BG converter such as the one at Blood Sugar Converter. I’ll assume that you don’t have already have a diagnosis of diabetes. If you were fasting at the time of the test, a blood glucose value of 3.4 mmol/L (62 mg/dl) is a bit on the low side but probably okay; normal ranges for people who haven’t eaten recently are below 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/L). See How to Tell if You Have Diabetes or Prediabetes for further information about what’s usually considered “normal.” If your physician was looking for the possibility of diabetes (a high sugar problem), then a value of 3.4 is certainly not a problem; on the other hand, if your physician had been looking to see if you have hypoglycemia (low sugar) then this value is suspicious, but not diagnostic. Hypoglycemia frequently has symptoms such as shakiness, hunger, headache, or rapid heart rate. If you had such symptoms when your BG was measured, you might want to adjust your meal plan to decrease the chances of more severe hypos. The usual recommendation to avoid low sugar symptoms would be to eat small frequent high protein meals - discuss whe Continue reading >>

Mmol/l At Time Of Being Diagnosed,

Mmol/l At Time Of Being Diagnosed,

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community This is my 4th day since being diagnosed I am in ketosis and my mmol/l is 8.2. Just wondered what your level was when you first got diagnosed and how long it too you to see any results I got diagnosed last week and told my levels are 24. I'm seeing the diabetic nurse tomorrow. I haven't had any sweets or chocolate since diagnosis, so hoping my levels have gone down as told that 24 is really high. I got diagnosed last week and told my levels are 24. I'm seeing the diabetic nurse tomorrow. I haven't had any sweets or chocolate since diagnosis, so hoping my levels have gone down as told that 24 is really high. I've cut carbs to around 50-70 grams a day. I tested myself this morning and ideas 8.2mmol not sure if this is good or bad for a fasting figure though lol. Good luck for tomorrow I would be really interested how you get on. I've cut carbs to around 50-70 grams a day. I tested myself this morning and ideas 8.2mmol not sure if this is good or bad for a fasting figure though lol. Good luck for tomorrow I would be really interested how you get on. I've never dieted so it's weird for me to be watching what I eat. I've kept a food diary to show the nurse, so hopefully she can let me know where I'm going wrong apart from the obvious sweets and chocolate which I'd normally eat a lot of!! Good evening @grante my friend I was diagnosed in October my Hb1Ac was(114) 12.6 in 6 months it has gone down to (39)5.7,my daily carbs are 80/100 This is my 4th day since being diagnosed I am in ketosis and my mmol/l is 8.2. Just wondered what your level was when you first got diagnosed and how long it too you to see any results I was off the scale, it took over a week to Continue reading >>

Is A Blood Glucose Level Of 7.4mmol/l Diabetes?

Is A Blood Glucose Level Of 7.4mmol/l Diabetes?

I have recently had a fasting blood glucose test, which had a result of 7.4mmol/l. I was told by my GP that a level of 7.8 or more was cause for concern. However, I have read it should be 7.0mmol/l. I am confused and wondered whether you could throw any light on this? You are more clued up than your GP because you are absolutely right that a fasting blood glucose level of over 7.0mmol/l is diagnostic of diabetes. Having said this, you are only marginally in the diabetic range and your disorder should be eminently controllable. It would be a great idea to contact Diabetes UK who offer support and information for everyone with diabetes – whether they are only mildly diabetic or dependent on insulin Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes). The essential thing in diabetes is to understand the condition and to manage it as best as possible yourself. This means adjusting your diet and lifestyle, cutting down on sugary foods in your diet and taking plenty of regular exercise. It is quite possible that doing these two things alone will get your fasting blood glucose back into the normal range. However it will need to be regularly reviewed. If over the course of time the blood glucose level increases, you may need tablets to reduce your blood sugar – although the need for insulin is unlikely. Ideally your GP should have you on his register of diabetes patients and you should either be reviewed on a regular basis by him or her, or you should be referred to the hospital diabetologist for at least annual supervision. Yours sincerely The NetDoctor Medical Team Last updated 03.04.2011 Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Blood Glucose Results

Understanding Your Blood Glucose Results

Understanding your blood glucose level is a beneficial part of diabetes self-management and can help you and your healthcare team to decide which treatment is best for you. This can help towards reducing your risk of diabetes complications. There are 2 main ways your glucose level can be measured: The HbA1c blood test measures the amount of glucose that has stuck to a part of the red blood cells and is being carried around the body. This test is usually done on a sample of blood taken from a vein in your arm and the result shows your overall control of glucose levels over the last 2-3 months. You will have this test at least once per year. HbA1c targets are a guide and for most adults with diabetes the expected HbA1c target is 48 - 58mmol/mol. This is the target your health team will strive for since evidence shows that this success can reduce the risk of developing complications from diabetes. However, your target should be set after you have discussed this with your doctor or nurse to see what is right for you. If you have a glucose meter and test strips you will be able to self-test your glucose level. The result will be your current glucose level. If you are self-testing it is important you know what your target blood glucose levels are and what your glucose results mean. Your diabetes doctor or nurse will discuss your glucose levels with you and you can agree on your goals. There are many different opinions about the ideal range for glucose levels due to the fact that each person with diabetes is an individual with different needs and responses to therapy. This is why it is important to consider your needs before setting glucose targets and goals. The target blood glucose ranges below are indicated as a guide for adults with diabetes. Less than 8mmol/l, two hours Continue reading >>

Safety And Efficacy Of Blood Glucose Management Practices At A Diabetes Camp.

Safety And Efficacy Of Blood Glucose Management Practices At A Diabetes Camp.

1. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006 Oct;42(10):643-8. Safety and efficacy of blood glucose management practices at a diabetes camp. (1)Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. [email protected] AIM: Camps are an important part of diabetic management in children yet data onthe safety and efficacy of camps are limited. We assessed the safety and efficacyof blood glucose management guidelines at summer camps for diabetic children.METHODS: Consistent management guidelines were implemented during 10 consecutive diabetes camps held in the same facility between 1998 and 2002. Using the entire sample of campers aged 9-13 years, we analysed insulin dosage alterations, thefrequency of hypoglycaemia (<4 mmol/L), hyperglycaemia (>15 mmol/L) and ketosisand evaluated our overnight management guidelines. The effects of sex, year, age,insulin regimen and duration of diagnosis on hypoglycaemia frequency weredetermined.RESULTS: Mean insulin doses decreased 19.2% (95% confidence interval 16.9-21.6%) by the last day of camp (day 6) relative to the day prior to camp. Mean bloodglucose levels were 11.4 mmol/L before breakfast and the main evening meal, 11.3 mmol/L before bed, 10.8 mmol/L at midnight and 9.4 mmol/L at 3 am. Of the 10 839 readings analysed, 984 (9.1%) were below 4 mmol/L (0.5 per camper/day) with noclinical grade 3 (seizure or coma) hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia frequency wasindependent of sex, year, age, insulin regimen and duration of diagnosis (all P >0.05). There were 2570 (23.7%) readings above 15 mmol/L (1.4 per camper/day) but only 42 (0.4%) were associated with significant ketosis.CONCLUSION: Children at diabetes camps experience considerable blood glucosevariability; however, the careful application of monitoring and managementguidelines can Continue reading >>

Guide To Hba1c

Guide To Hba1c

Tweet HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. This guide explains what HbA1c is, how it differs from blood glucose levels and how it's used for diagnosing diabetes. What is HbA1c? The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c. HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin (A1c), which identifies average plasma glucose concentration. How does HBA1c return an accurate average measurement of average blood glucose? When the body processes sugar, glucose in the bloodstream naturally attaches to haemoglobin. The amount of glucose that combines with this protein is directly proportional to the total amount of sugar that is in your system at that time. Because red blood cells in the human body survive for 8-12 weeks before renewal, measuring glycated haemoglobin (or HbA1c) can be used to reflect average blood glucose levels over that duration, providing a useful longer-term gauge of blood glucose control. If your blood sugar levels have been high in recent weeks, your HbA1c will also be greater. HbA1c targets The HbA1c target for people with diabetes to aim for is: 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) Note that this is a general target and people with diabetes should be given an individual target to aim towards by their health team. An individual HbA1c should take into account Continue reading >>

Testing

Testing

There are a range of tests which will need to be done to monitor your health and your diabetes. Some of these, such as your blood glucose levels, you will be able to do yourself. Others will be done by healthcare professionals. Self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes management. As part of the day-to-day routine it can help with necessary lifestyle and treatment choices as well as help to monitor for symptoms of hypo- or hyperglycaemia. Monitoring can also help you and your healthcare team to alter treatment which in turn can help prevent any long-term complications from developing. Some people with diabetes (but not all) will test their blood glucose levels at home. Home blood glucose testing gives an accurate picture of your blood glucose level at the time of the test. It involves pricking the side of your finger (as opposed to the pad) with a finger-pricking device and putting a drop of blood on a testing strip. Some people can't see the point of testing as they think they know by the way they feel, but the way you feel is not always a good or accurate guide to what is happening. Blood glucose targets It is important that the blood glucose levels being aimed for are as near normal as possible (that is in the range of those of a person who does not have diabetes). These are: 3.5–5.5mmol/l* before meals less than 8mmol/l, two hours after meals. There are many different opinions about the ideal range to aim for. As this is so individual to each person, the target levels must be agreed between the person and their diabetes team. The target blood glucose ranges below are indicated as a guide. Children with Type 1 diabetes (NICE 2015) on waking and before meals: 4–7mmol/l after meals: 5–9mmol/l.after meals: 5–9mmol/l. Adults with Type Continue reading >>

My Diabetes My Way

My Diabetes My Way

Blood glucose control is very important for people with diabetes. Checking your blood glucose regularly (using fingerprick testing) shows you how lifestyle changes affect blood glucose levels and helps you maintain control of your diabetes. People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of conditions such as heart, kidney and eye diseases, nerve damage, stroke and poor circulation. Normal blood glucose ranges for people without diabetes are: 3.5 - 5.5mmol/l before meals and less than 8mmol/l, two hours after meals; the closer the blood glucose is to normal, the better. Self-monitoring (through home fingerprick testing) is most appropriate for: type 2 diabetes patients who use insulin regimes and adjust their dose as a result of blood glucose testing pregnant patients whether they have type 1, type 2 or gestational diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes, especially those who are diet-controlled, on metformin or a glitazone do not need to perform home blood glucose monitoring. There is no risk of hypoglycaemia, and glycaemic control is better and adequately monitored by regular HbA1c testing. For patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking a sulphonylurea, a prandial glucose regulator, an incretin mimetic or a gliptin, regular testing is not necessary in normal circumstances. On an individual patient basis testing may be appropriate e.g. as an educational tool, recurrent illness, to ensure safe driving. Where hypoglycaemia is a common occurrence blood glucose should be monitored. Contact your diabetes care team for advice on home blood glucose meters Blood Glucose is checked using finger prick testing. Blood glucose targets are individual to each person, and the target levels must be agreed between the person and their diabetes team. The target b Continue reading >>

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