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What Does An A1c Of 12 Mean

A1c Is Changing To Average Mean Blood Glucose

A1c Is Changing To Average Mean Blood Glucose

A1C Translation to Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) Units Will Yield Easier Patient Education. New more accurate formula used to convert A1c to average blood glucose. A mathematical relationship between the average glucose level over the preceding three months and levels of the A1C test, thus yielding translation of the A1C for reporting as estimated average glucose (eAG), was proven in an international study published online in the August issue of Diabetes Care. A1C has been used for more than 25 years as the major measure of glucose control and to establish targets for diabetes therapy. “The findings of this large study have confirmed what smaller studies have shown and will give us confidence that A1C really does represent an average glucose because we now have a reliable formula to convert A1C into average glucose,” said David M. Nathan, MD, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and cochair of the International A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) Study, in a recent interview. “While eAG will not replace A1C, physicians will be able to obtain reports both in A1C units of glycated hemoglobin and eAG units of milligrams per deciliter or millimols per liter, depending on the country, and choose which to use in clinical situations.” The implications of using eAG in mg/dl or mmol/L – the same units that patients use for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at home – were discussed recently by his co-chair, Robert J. Heine, MD, PhD, Professor of Diabetology in the Department of Endocrinology at the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, and Executive Medical Director of the Diabetes and Endocrine Division of Eli Lilly and Company. “It is extremely helpful for health care professionals and patients to be using the same language to discuss glucose Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>

7 Ways To Lower Your A1c Levels

7 Ways To Lower Your A1c Levels

If you have diabetes, you’re probably used to checking your own blood sugar with a glucose meter. These blood sugar measurements are important for controlling levels on a daily basis but are less useful for understanding your long-term blood sugar levels. Your doctor has a way to determine if your blood sugar has been in the recommended range by checking your hemoglobin A1C levels through a blood test. Your A1C shows how well you have been controlling your blood sugar levels over time and can help your health care team determine your average level over the past three months. What does my A1C mean An A1C level below 5.7% is normal whereas an A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 signals prediabetes. For most, the goal is to lower A1C levels. Here’s what the A1C means in reference to average daily blood sugar. 6% A1C = 126 average blood sugar 7% A1C = 154 average blood sugar 8% A1C = 183 average blood sugar 9% A1C = 212 average blood sugar 10% A1C = 240 average blood sugar 11% A1C = 269 average blood sugar 12% A1C = 298 average blood sugar How often should I check my A1C? Your doctor or health care team will determine how often you should get your blood work, and A1C tested. Usually, you will be directed to get your A1C levels checked every three months. However, if your diabetes is well-controlled, your doctor may only require you to get your blood work done every six months. Is there a way to check my A1C besides going to the doctor? Yes. You can now purchase over-the-counter A1C test kids right from your local pharmacy. However, using an at-home testing kit for your A1C is not a substitute for regular blood glucose measurements or regular visits with your healthcare provider. What should my A1C goal be? Your doctor will help you determine what your personal A1C goal should Continue reading >>

Type 2s: Insulin Early Is Easy, Insulin Late Is Not

Type 2s: Insulin Early Is Easy, Insulin Late Is Not

I keep reading postings here and there on the web from people with Type 2 diabetes that say something like, "My A1c was 11.5% even with Metformin, so my doctor told me it was time to go on insulin." It is postings like this that bring home to me why so many Type 2s develop terrible complications, and even more importantly, why even those who are taking insulin often have dangerously high blood sugars. The most conservative of medical groups--the ADA--tells doctors that an A1c over 7% is going to cause serious diabetic complications like blindness and kidney failure. Yet these people's doctors have encouraged them to dick around with oral drugs when their A1cs were 10% or higher! The years they've spent at those dangerously high blood sugar levels waiting for oral drugs to do what all the research evidence shows oral drugs cannot do have wreaked havoc on their organs that may not be completely reversible, no matter what their blood sugars might be in the future. In fact, a recent survey I read somewhere on the web found that most family doctors don't put their patients on even an oral drug until the patient has spent a year with an A1c of 8% or higher. That is a whole, long year where dangerously high blood sugars are producing early retinopathy, advancing neuropathy, and making small changes that lead to kidney failure. Since none of the oral drugs is capable of lowering A1c much more than 1%, this kind of treatment is criminal. A patient whose A1c is 11.5% on metformin probably started out with an A1c of 12% or even higher. If you don't believe me, go read the Prescribing Information for each of the common diabetes drugs. They show exactly what the median change in A1c is that their drugs can achieve, and you'll see it is rarely much more than a 1% drop in A1c. For a p Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Tests

Blood Sugar Tests

A test that measures blood sugar levels. Elevated levels are associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, in which the body cannot properly handle sugar (e.g. obesity). Goal values: Less than 100 mg/dL = normal Between 110–125 mg/dL = impaired fasting glucose (i.e., prediabetes) Greater than 126 mg/dL on two or more samples = diabetes Preparation This test requires a 12-hour fast. You should wait to eat and/or take a hypoglycemic agent (insulin or oral medication) until after test has been drawn, unless told otherwise. Eating and digesting foods called carbohydrates forms glucose (blood sugar). Glucose is needed by your body to provide energy to carry out your normal activities. Insulin is needed by the body to allow glucose to go into the cells and be used as energy. Without insulin, the levels of glucose in the blood will rise. Diabetes is a disease that occurs when either the pancreas (an organ in your body) is not able to produce insulin or the pancreas makes insulin, but it does not work as it should. Fasting blood sugar is a part of diabetic evaluation and management. An FBS greater than 126 mg/dL on more than one occasion usually indicates diabetes. Glycosylated Hemoglobin or Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) Reflects average blood sugar levels over the preceding 90-day period. Elevated levels are associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of a cardiac event. A diabetic person's risk for heart attack is the same as a non-diabetic person, who has experienced one heart attack, having a second heart attack. Aggressive global preventive risk reduction efforts, such as lower LDL targets, diet, exercise and blood pressure control, are recommended. Goal values (per American Diabetes Association guidelines): A range of 5.7-6.4 p Continue reading >>

David’s Guide To Getting Our A1c Under 6.0

David’s Guide To Getting Our A1c Under 6.0

The A1C test is our best scorecard to show how well we are controlling our diabetes. It measures how much glucose has been sticking to our red blood cells for the previous two or three months. Since our bodies replace each red blood cell with a new one every four months, this test tells us the average of how high our glucose levels have been during the life of the cells. The experts recommend that we should get our A1C level tested at least twice a year. People who take insulin need to get it about four times a year. If the test shows that our blood glucose level is high, it means that we have a greater risk of having diabetes problems. Think of the A1C as an early warning system for the insidious complications that we can get down the road when we don’t control our condition. But what do we mean by a “high” A1C level? Here the experts disagree. The American Diabetes Association says that we need to keep our A1C results below 7.0 percent. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists sets the target at 6.5 percent. The International Diabetes Federation, or IDF, also recommends that most people with diabetes keep their levels below 6.5 percent. The more our A1C level is higher than normal, the greater the likelihood that we will suffer from one or more of the complications of diabetes. And here too the experts disagree with how they define “normal.” People who don’t have diabetes have A1C levels below 6.0 percent. That’s the gist of what I wrote here recently in “The Normal A1C Level.” The IDF agrees. But more aggressive endocrinologists say that a truly normal A1C ranges from 4.2 percent to 4.6 percent. That’s what Dr. Richard K. Bernstein wrote in Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution. No matter what our level is, we can be sure that lower is Continue reading >>

What Is The A1c Test?

What Is The A1c Test?

The A1C ("A-one-C") is a blood test that checks your child’s average blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. This average is different from your child’s day to day blood sugar. Sugar absorbed from food goes into the bloodstream. The sugar sticks to the hemoglobin protein in red blood cells, forming hemoglobin A1C. The A1C stays in the blood for the life of the red blood cell, which is 90 to 120 days. This means that the amount of A1C in your child’s blood reflects how high the blood sugar has been over the past 3 months. Another name for this test is hemoglobin A1C test. It is different from a regular blood sugar or blood glucose test. Why is this test done? There are 3 reasons to check your child’s A1C: To diagnose prediabetes To diagnose diabetes To see how well your child’s blood sugar is being controlled A1C tests are important because: They can check the accuracy of the blood sugar results you get at home. They help predict your child’s risk of diabetic complications. The higher the A1C percentage, the greater the risk of serious problems from diabetes, like eye, kidney, blood vessel, or nerve damage. If your child’s A1C is high, the plan for treating your child’s diabetes will need to be changed. How do I prepare my child for this test? Your child doesn’t need to do anything to prepare for this test. One of the advantages of this test is that your child does not have to fast before taking the test. How is the test done? Having this test will take just a few minutes. A small amount of blood is taken with a prick of the finger or from a vein in your child’s arm. At some pharmacies you may be able to buy a device that allows you to test A1C at home. You may find that the results of the home test are not the same as results of tests done at your h Continue reading >>

Best A1c Chart And All Hgb A1c Levels Charts

Best A1c Chart And All Hgb A1c Levels Charts

A1C chart is a better method to understand the meaning of A1c blood test results. Because most diabetic people have to monitor their blood glucose levels periodically, and to ease their understanding of a1c reading, all in one place, we present ready calculated a1c charts between the palm of your hands, you can read on mobiles or handle a printable chart as much as the size of your hand. Don’t be confused, Hemoglobin A1c test is different from Hemoglobin test that’s is a part of complete blood count test. Contents HGB Levels Chart by Age and Diabetes If we can say that the hemoglobin A1c represents the saturation percentage of red blood cells with sugar particles, therefore the hgb A1c% results must be directly proportional to the diabetes severity. Sorting all hemoglobin (Hgb) A1c levels for each diabetic condition based on DCCT formula (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial). Normal A1c Levels Chart for Non-Diabetes According to American Diabetes Association latest guidelines 2017 and 2018, Hemoglobin A1c levels 3, 4, 5, and up to 5.7 is normal and tell that the person has no DM. “Non-diabetes” means your blood glucose test results are within the expected normal limits for healthy persons. The normal hemoglobin A1c means you’re not diabetic or you are on the goal levels, I mean that: A1c 4.0% and A1c 5.0 means you weren’t diabetic and this value is the normal levels that all healthy persons must have. But A1c 5.7% means you are on the last step before prediabetes stage. Hemoglobin A1C Chart for prediabetes From the ADA latest guidelines, The levels of hemoglobin A1c from 5.8 and less than 6.5 means the person is more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. HGB A1C chart for Diabetes Contains the levels of A1c that considered high for people suffering from Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Hba1c

Understanding Your Hba1c

You’ve heard about a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1C. It’s sometimes shortened to HgbA1c or HbA1c or just A1C. Hopefully, you know what yours is. But do you know what it means and what to do with the information? Hemoglobin is what makes red blood cells red. It consists of several proteins wrapped around an iron-based molecule called heme. Heme attaches to oxygen and carries it to the cells. That’s why iron is important in our diets. We need iron to make heme to carry oxygen, so our cells can breathe. Glucose (sugar) molecules are also floating along in our blood. Glucose attaches itself to all kinds of proteins, including the hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). When glucose levels are high, many more of them will attach. Hemoglobin coated with glucose is called “glycated” or “glycosylated” hemoglobin. Glycation (“sugar-coating”) may not harm an RBC, but it does tell us if the cell has encountered much glucose during its lifetime. The more glucose has been in the blood, the more RBCs will be glycated. This is what an HbA1c test measures. A1C isn’t measuring what your blood glucose level is at the moment. It measures how high glucose has been over the last two months or so. RBCs only live about 100–120 days in the bloodstream. Once they become glycated, they stay glycated for life, so the number of glycated RBCs (HbA1c) gives a good picture of how much glucose has been in the blood recently. The A1C test has several advantages over other tests such as a fasting blood sugar (FBS). You don’t have to fast for an A1C. It can be taken at any time of day. It doesn’t matter what you ate the day before or on the day of the test, because it’s not measuring your current sugar. Normally, between 4.2% and 5.6% of RBCs will be glycated. The America Continue reading >>

Understanding Markers Of Blood Sugar Control | Empoweryourhealth.org

Understanding Markers Of Blood Sugar Control | Empoweryourhealth.org

IS THIS FOR YOU? You’re doing everything right. You’ve decided to finally take control and to pay more attention to your diabetes. You’re checking your blood sugar often at home and at different times of the day. You’re paying close attention to your food choices and being careful on portion sizes. In fact, you’ve been doing so well you can’t wait to see your doctor to prove that your efforts have paid off! Your glucose levels are way down but, when you do see your doctor, you’re surprised (and a little shocked) to discover that your average control is not as good as you thought it was. Your doctor checked your hemoglobin A1c and is concerned that your average blood sugar may be running too high (or too low). How can that be? Your blood sugars at home have been on target for the last several months. You and your doctor confirm your glucose meter is working properly. What can be a possible explanation for this? It’s time to learn about some markers of blood sugar control! HEMOGLOBIN A1C When sugar (glucose) is higher than it should be in blood, it attaches to proteins in the body. This is used as a marker or indicator of blood sugar control. HERES' HOW IT WORKS : Many different types of cells are found in blood, among them are the red blood cells. They are named “red” blood cells because they contain a protein named hemoglobin [HEE-mo-glo-bin], which gives them the color red. Hemoglobin is the protein responsible for getting oxygen to the body’s tissues. Because glucose/sugar can easily enter the red blood cells, when blood sugar levels increase, sugar molecules enter the red blood cells and attach to hemoglobin. The higher your blood sugar, the more sugar will enter the red blood cells and will attach to the hemoglobin. Glucose attaches to hemoglob Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin Levels: Chart And Information On Body Iron Level

Hemoglobin Levels: Chart And Information On Body Iron Level

A - A + Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) - Defined as the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Iron - An essential element for blood production. About 70 percent of the body's iron is found in the red blood cells of blood called hemoglobin and in muscle cells called myoglobin. Anemia - A term that means less than normal levels of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. The term is derived from the Greek term anaimia, meaning lack of blood. Symptoms of anemia often include: Fainting Pale skin Weakness Chest pain Palpitations Shortness of breath Hemoglobin Level Chart: Normal Hemoglobin Count Ranges Widely Accepted by Physicians Children Birth: 13.5 to 24.0 g/dl (mean 16.5 g/dl) <1 mth: 10.0 to 20.0 g/dl (mean 13.9 g/dl) 1-2 mths: 10.0 to 18.0 g/dl (mean 11.2 g/dl) 2-6 mths: 9.5 to 14.0 g/dl (mean 12.6 g/dl) 0.5 to 2 yrs: 10.5 to 13.5 g/dl (mean 12.0 g/dl) 2 to 6 yrs: 11.5 to 13.5 g/dl (mean 12.5 g/dl) 6-12 yrs: 11.5 to 15.5 g/dl (mean 13.5) Females Age 12-18 yrs: 12.0 to 16.0 g/dl (mean 14.0 g/dl) Age >18 rs: 12.1 to 15.1 g/dl (mean 14.0 g/dl) Males 12-18 yrs: 13.0 to 16.0 g/dl (mean 14.5 g/dl) >18 yrs: 13.6 to 17.7 g/dl (mean 15.5 g/dl) Low Hemoglobin Count: A slightly low hemoglobin count isn't always a sign of illness, it may be normal for some people. Women who are pregnant commonly have low hemoglobin counts. A low hemoglobin level count is generally defined as less than 13.5 grams of hemoglobin per deciliter (135 grams per liter) of blood for men and less than 12 grams per deciliter (120 grams per liter) for women. In children, the definition varies with age and sex. Diseases and conditions that cause your body to produce fewer red blood cells include: C Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Cont.----a1c Showed 112--average For 3 Months

Blood Sugar Cont.----a1c Showed 112--average For 3 Months

That was not just one reading at a certain timeof the day. This is why I am concerned. I do lots of water aerobics and I thought I was eating the right foods. The nurse said even if I eat the right foods, if I eat too much that is not healthy. Darn! So...could someone who knows more than me explain how quantity effects the blood sugar? I don't know what the A1C number was. I did not know enough to ask the doctor. Maybe the 112 was the basting blood sugar in the morning when they did the test. I found this about a man who had 112 blood sugar. He says he does lots of exercise, is 25 lbs. overweight, and eats very healthy. The quote is the answer to him. "Your A1c is excellent, just fasting glucose is a bit high slightly based on WHO standard (up to 110 mg/dl), but quite a bit by ADA standard (up to 100 mg/dl). So you are in a good shape. To take care of your slightly increased glucose, just keep up doing the exercises. If it persists, perhaps you can do a clinical test to determine which organ goes wrong handling glucose, is it the liver producing too much glucose (liver insulin resistance) or the muscle taking up glucose too slowly (muscle insulin resistance)? Or is insulin low? Then your doctor may prescribe the appropriate medications to treat the source problem." I guess I need to ask the doctor these questions, huh? I am now really vurious about the A1C number. They actually did not tell me that. Thanks, chris Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

Why The A1c Test Is Important

Why The A1c Test Is Important

The A1c is a blood test, done in a lab, that shows what your average blood sugar has been for the past 3 months. Other names for this test are glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c. How the A1c Test Works The glucose that the body doesn't store or use for energy stays in the blood and attaches to red blood cells, which live in the bloodstream for about 4 months. The lab test measures the amount of glucose attached to the red blood cells. The amount is the A1c and is shown as a percentage. Your A1c number can give you and your health care team a good idea of how well you've controlled your blood sugar over the previous 2 to 3 months. When you get your A1c result from a Kaiser Permanente lab, you'll also see another number called the estimated Average Glucose, or eAG. Understanding the eAG Your estimated Average Glucose (eAG) number is calculated from the result of your A1c test. Like the A1c, the eAG shows what your average blood sugars have been over the previous 2 to 3 months. Instead of a percentage, the eAG is in the same units (mg/dl) as your blood glucose meter. The chart shows the relationship between the A1c percentage and the eAG. If A1c % is: Your eAG is: 6 126 6.5 140 7 154 7.5 169 8 183 8.5 197 9 212 9.5 226 10 240 10.5 255 11 269 11.5 283 12 298 What the Numbers Mean The A1c and eAG reflect your average blood sugar over a period of time. These numbers help you and your doctor see how well your treatment plan is working. The higher your A1c and eAG numbers are, the higher your chances for having long-term health problems caused by consistently high blood sugar levels. These problems include heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, vision problems, and numbness in your legs or feet. The lower your A1c and eAG numbers, the lower you Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) refers to a minor population of HbA that has been modified by attachment of glucose to the N-terminal amino acid of the beta globin chain. Since erythrocytes are freely permeable to glucose, the attachment occurs continually over the entire lifespan of the erythrocyte and is dependent on glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. HbA1c is a weighted average of blood glucose levels during the preceding 120 days, which is the average life span of red blood cells. A large change in mean blood glucose can increase HbA1c levels within 1-2 weeks. Sudden changes in HbA1c may occur because recent changes in blood glucose levels contribute relatively more to the final HbA1c levels than earlier events. For instance, mean blood glucose levels in the 30 days immediately preceding blood sampling contribute 50% to the HbA1c level, whereas glucose levels in the preceding 90-120 day period contribute only 10%. Thus, it does not take 120 days to detect a clinically meaningful change in HbA1c following a significant change in mean plasma glucose level. Hemoglobin A1c Methods Methods for analysis of HbA1c can essentially be divided into 2 categories depending on whether they measure HbA1c based upon charge or structure. The most common charge-based method utilizes cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this method, different hemoglobin molecules (eg, HbA, HbA2, HbF) are eluted from the column at different times following exposure to buffers of increasing ionic strength, depending on their charge. HbA1c is less positively charged than HbA and does not bind as tightly to the negatively charged resin. Therefore, it elutes more rapidly than HbA. The quantity of each Hb fraction in the eluate is quantit Continue reading >>

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