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What Does An A1c Of 12 Mean

What Is The A1c Test?

What Is The A1c Test?

The A1C (“A-one-C”) is a blood test that checks your average blood sugar over the past 3 months. This average is different from your day to day blood sugar. There are 3 reasons to check your A1C: · To diagnose prediabetes · To diagnose diabetes · To see how well you are controlling your blood sugar Sugar absorbed from your food goes into the bloodstream. The sugar sticks to the hemoglobin protein in red blood cells, forming hemoglobin A1C. The A1C stays in the blood for the life of the red blood cell, which is 90 to 120 days. This means that the amount of A1C in your blood reflects how high your blood sugar has been over the past 3 months. Another name for this test is hemoglobin A1C test. It is different from a regular blood sugar or blood glucose test. WHY IS THIS TEST DONE? A1C is an excellent way to check how well you are controlling your blood sugar over a 3-month period. A1C tests are important because: · They can check the accuracy of the blood sugar results you get at home. · They help predict your risk of diabetic complications. The higher the A1C percentage, the greater your risk of serious problems from diabetes, like eye, kidney, blood vessel, or nerve damage. If your A1C is high, your diabetes plan will need to be changed. HOW DO I PREPARE FOR THIS TEST? You don’t need to do anything to prepare for this test. One of the advantages of this test is that you do not have to fast before you take it. HOW IS THE TEST DONE? A small amount of blood is taken from a vein in your arm with a needle. The blood is collected in tubes and sent to a lab. Having this test will take just a few minutes of your time. At some pharmacies you may be able to buy a device that allows you to test A1C at home. You may find that the results of the home test are not the same a Continue reading >>

How A1c Affects Life Insurance

How A1c Affects Life Insurance

When you’re shopping for life insurance coverage, the insurance company is going to look at dozens of different factors to determine how much they are going to charge you for coverage. One of the biggest factors is your overall health. If you have any pre-existing conditions, like diabetes, then you could encounter several problems when you’re trying to get affordable life insurance. Diabetes is a rapidly growing health issue in the United States. According to the American Diabetes Association, nearly 26 million children and adults have diabetes and 79 million Americans have pre-diabetes. This disease is characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin or not being able to use insulin effectively. The result of having diabetes is high blood sugars, which has to be actively monitored and controlled by anyone who is a diabetic. Diabetes does affect term life insurance rates, but how much it affects your premiums depends on your level of blood sugar control. Your A1C is probably the biggest factor in the life insurance premium of a diabetic – more than whether you are type 1 diabetic or type 2, whether you use oral medication or if you are insulin-dependent, or whether you were diagnosed with diabetes as a child or at age 50. Life insurance is one of the most important investments that you’ll ever make for your loved ones. If something were to happen to you, your family could be left with a mountain of debt, which is going to make the whole situation a thousand times worse. We know that shopping for life insurance is never a fun experience, but we are here to help make it as quick and simple as possible for you. This agent is going to explore how your A1C levels will impact your life insurance rates, and we will also look at several ways that you can save Continue reading >>

Your Average Blood Sugar: Why It Really Matters

Your Average Blood Sugar: Why It Really Matters

If there was a blood test that could give you valuable information about a major, yet reversible risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and age related dementia, would you want to take it? What if that same blood test could also give you information about your risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, vision loss, cancer and how fast you can expect your body to age? What if the test was really cheap? Now, what if you knew that what you were going to have to do to reverse your risk of all these conditions was going to be personally challenging, maybe even really hard, would you still want to take the test? Something to think about, isn’t it? The test I’m talking about does exist. It’s a simple little test that’s run all the time. It’s full implications are rarely considered, however. The test It’s called “hemoglobin A1c” and is sometimes referred to simply as the “A1c” test. In essence, it measures the amount of sugar that has become stuck to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells (hemoglobin is the component in blood that carries oxygen). Because red blood cells live for about 3 to 4 months, the test is usually used to estimate an “average blood sugar” for the previous 3 months. The more sugar floating around in your blood on a daily basis, the higher you A1c value will be. In conventional medicine the test is used to diagnose and monitor treatment goals for diabetics. The implications of a person’s A1c value run much deeper, however. Sugar within the body doesn’t just stick to hemoglobin. It sticks to many tissues that are made of proteins and fats (this accounts for most tissues in your body by the way) and can bind directly to DNA. The compounds formed by this process are called advanced glycation end products or “AGEs” for Continue reading >>

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. The test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months (120 days). However, since RBCs do not all undergo lysis at the same time, HbA1C is taken as a limited measure of 3 months. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[1] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction to separate, probably considered to be pure Hemoglobin A, was designated HbA0, the following fractions were designated HbA1a, HbA1b, and HbA1c, respective of their order of elution. There have subsequently been many more sub fractions as separation techniques have improved.[2] Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous three months before the measurement as this is the lifespan of red blood cells. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. A trial on a group of patients with Type 1 diabetes found that monitoring by caregivers of HbA1c led to changes in diabetes treatment and improvement of metabolic control compared to monitoring only of blood or urine glu Continue reading >>

Hba1c Explained

Hba1c Explained

What is HbA1c? Glucose in the blood sticks to haemoglobin in red blood cells, making glycosolated haemoglobin, called haemoglobin A1c or HbA1c. Red blood cells live for about 8 - 12 weeks before being replaced so the HbA1c test tells you how well controlled your blood glucose has been over the previous 2-3 months. The more glucose in your blood, the more HbA1c will be present, so the level reported will be higher. What does it tell us? The better your blood glucose control the less chance there is of you developing diabetes complications such as eye, kidney or nerve damage, heart disease or stroke. The HbA1c test tells you whether you are on target to keep your risk of complications as low as possible. Why measure Hba1C? Because blood glucose levels vary throughout the day and from day to day, HbA1c is usually measured every 3-6 months. The results show if your blood glucose control has altered in response to changes in your diet, physical activity or medication. HbA1C results and target For most HbA1C results used to be given just as a percentage. For most people with diabetes the HbA1C target is around 7%. However, you should have agreed your own individual target with your health care team, as sometimes a different target might be more appropriate. For example, if you have had a lot of problems with low blood glucose levels (hypos), a higher target might be appropriate. What has changed? Laboratories in the UK have changed the way in which HbA1C is reported. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) has put forward a new reference measurement method after discussion with diabetes groups worldwide. This will make comparing HbA1c results from different laboratories and from research trials throughout the world much easier. What are the IFCC HbA1c result Continue reading >>

A1c Test

A1c Test

Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Evaluating the long-term control of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients Diagnosing diabetes Identifying patients at increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States. Long-term treatment of the disease emphasizes control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, long-term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease can be minimized if blood glucose levels are effectively controlled. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a result of the nonenzymatic attachment of a hexose molecule to the N-terminal amino acid of the hemoglobin molecule. The attachment of the hexose molecule occurs continually over the entire life span of the erythrocyte and is dependent on blood glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. Therefore, the HbA1c level reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period (approximately 8-12 weeks, depending on the individual) and provides a much better indication of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose determinations. Diabetic patients with very high blood concentrations of glucose have from 2 to 3 times more HbA1c than normal individuals. Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following: -Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL -Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL -Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be Continue reading >>

Determinants Of Hemoglobin A1c Level In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes After In-hospital Diabetes Education: A Study Based On Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Determinants Of Hemoglobin A1c Level In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes After In-hospital Diabetes Education: A Study Based On Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Abstract We investigated the relationship between blood glucose profile at hospital discharge, evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level at 12 weeks after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes who received inpatient diabetes education. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study. The participants were 54 patients with type 2 diabetes who did not change their medication after discharge. The mean blood glucose (MBG), standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean postprandial glucose excursion, maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, percentage of time with blood glucose at ≥180 mg/dL (time at ≥180), percentage of time with blood glucose at ≥140 mg/dL, and percentage of time with blood glucose at <70 mg/dL were measured at admission and discharge using CGM. The primary end-point was the relationship between CGM parameters and HbA1c level at 12 weeks after discharge. The HbA1c level at 12 weeks after discharge correlated with MBG level (r = 0.30, P = 0.029). Multivariate analysis showed that MBG level and disease duration were predictors of 12-week HbA1c level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out considering goal achievement as a HbA1c level <7.0% 12 weeks after discharge. Disease duration and time at ≥180 were associated with goal achievement. The present results suggested that blood glucose profile at discharge using CGM seems useful to predict HbA1c level after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes who received inpatient diabetes education. Early treatment to improve MBG level, as well as postprandial hyperglycemia, is important to achieve strict glycemic control. Introduction Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as an index of chronic hyperglycemia in the diagnosis and treatme Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Hba1c

Understanding Your Hba1c

You’ve heard about a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1C. It’s sometimes shortened to HgbA1c or HbA1c or just A1C. Hopefully, you know what yours is. But do you know what it means and what to do with the information? Hemoglobin is what makes red blood cells red. It consists of several proteins wrapped around an iron-based molecule called heme. Heme attaches to oxygen and carries it to the cells. That’s why iron is important in our diets. We need iron to make heme to carry oxygen, so our cells can breathe. Glucose (sugar) molecules are also floating along in our blood. Glucose attaches itself to all kinds of proteins, including the hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). When glucose levels are high, many more of them will attach. Hemoglobin coated with glucose is called “glycated” or “glycosylated” hemoglobin. Glycation (“sugar-coating”) may not harm an RBC, but it does tell us if the cell has encountered much glucose during its lifetime. The more glucose has been in the blood, the more RBCs will be glycated. This is what an HbA1c test measures. A1C isn’t measuring what your blood glucose level is at the moment. It measures how high glucose has been over the last two months or so. RBCs only live about 100–120 days in the bloodstream. Once they become glycated, they stay glycated for life, so the number of glycated RBCs (HbA1c) gives a good picture of how much glucose has been in the blood recently. The A1C test has several advantages over other tests such as a fasting blood sugar (FBS). You don’t have to fast for an A1C. It can be taken at any time of day. It doesn’t matter what you ate the day before or on the day of the test, because it’s not measuring your current sugar. Normally, between 4.2% and 5.6% of RBCs will be glycated. The America Continue reading >>

A1c %

A1c %

The eAG test is your estimated Average Glucose. The estimated Average Glucose, is reported in the same units as you see on a lab report or on your glucose meter at home, for example, 140 or 154 mg/dl. “Both the A1c and the newer eAG can help you find out how your diabetes has been managed each and every day, for the last 2- 3 months.†• Compare your results to your previous tests. • If your A1c or eAG number is higher than recommended, talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about what changes could help you lower your blood glucose levels. • Setting a target with your doctor or diabetes educator and working towards it, will help you to feel better, and reduce your risk of diabetes complications. • Diabetes complications don’t have to happen! To help prevent them you need to keep your average glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Remember to always discuss the results of your tests with your doctor, or diabetes educator. Name: Test Date Goal Results Goal Results % % mgdl mgdl % % mgdl mgdl % % mgdl mgdl % % mgdl mgdl % % mgdl mgdl % % mgdl mgdl % % mgdl mgdl 1 Becton Drive Franklin Lakes, New Jersey 07417 BD and BD Logo are trademarks of Becton, Dickinson and Company. © 2010 BD BD wants you to know about the latest advances in diabetes care. BD is working to improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. For more information call us toll free at: 1.888.BD CARES (232.2737) NOT FOR MEDICAL OR EMERGENCY INFORMATION or visit our web site at: www.bd.com/us/diabetes 10D05912331A1CBRO 151198 BD Getting Started™ A1c/eAG Educational Information from BD Consumer Healthcare What Are Your Numbers, and What Do They Mean? “My Doctor says these tests tell you the average of your blood glucose over the last 2-3 mo Continue reading >>

Hba1c And Estimated Average Glucose (eag)

Hba1c And Estimated Average Glucose (eag)

Why is relating HbA1c to glucose important? We are frequently asked about the relationship between HbA1c and plasma glucose levels. Many patients with diabetes mellitus now perform self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the home setting, and understanding the relationship between HbA1c and glucose can be useful in setting goals for day-to-day testing. HbA1c: A "Weighted" Average Many studies have shown that HbA1c is an index of average glucose (AG) over the preceding weeks-to-months. Erythrocyte (red blood cell) life-span averages about 120 days. The level of HbA1c at any point in time is contributed to by all circulating erythrocytes, from the oldest (120 days old) to the youngest. However, HbA1c is a "weighted" average of blood glucose levels during the preceding 120 days, meaning that glucose levels in the preceding 30 days contribute substantially more to the level of HbA1c than do glucose levels 90-120 days earlier. This explains why the level of HbA1c can increase or decrease relatively quickly with large changes in glucose; it does not take 120 days to detect a clinically meaningful change in HbA1c following a clinically significant change in AG. How does HbA1c relate to average glucose (AG)? In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial or DCCT (New Engl J Med 1993;329:977-986) study of patients with Type 1 diabetes, quarterly HbA1c determinations were the principal measure of glycemic control; study subjects also performed quarterly 24-hour, 7-point capillary-blood glucose profiles. Blood specimens were obtained by subjects in the home setting, pre-meal, 90 minutes post-meal, and at bed-time. In an analysis of the DCCT glucose profile data (Diabetes Care 25:275-278, 2002), mean HbA1c and AG were calculated for each study subject (n= 1439). Results showed Continue reading >>

A1c Calculator*

A1c Calculator*

Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>

Why Do My A1c Results From Different Sources Vary?

Why Do My A1c Results From Different Sources Vary?

Dear Peter: You ask a fascinating question. The amount of sugar or glucose in the blood varies throughout the day. When a person eats a meal with a lot of starches or sugars, the glucose level blood goes up. In a nondiabetic person the glucose level goes down to normal, which is generally 80 to 110 milligrams per deciliter, in less than two hours. People with severe diabetes may require oral drugs or an insulin injection to lower their blood sugar. Hemoglobin is a protein that is found in red blood cells. Its primary purpose is to carry oxygen from the lungs to organs throughout the body. Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow and move to the blood stream where they live for about 120 days. While in the bloodstream, glucose can penetrate the red blood cell wall and bind to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin A1C (also called HgA1C or A1C) is a measure of glycated hemoglobin. This is the percentage of one's hemoglobin that has glucose bound to it. It can be used as a measure of what a persons' blood sugars have been over the previous three months or so. An HgA1C of 6.5 percent is an average blood sugar of 135 mg/dl. Someone with A1C results of 6.8 to 7.4 percent has reasonable control of his or her blood sugar, but I would want most patients to have even better control. A measure of 8 percent or greater really needs to be under better control. We see high HgA1Cs that are accurate measurements, but not reflective of glucose control in people with low red cell turnover from iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. HgA1C values may be elevated or decreased in those with chronic kidney disease. These disorders can generally be diagnosed through some simple, highly available blood tests. There are a few drugs that can change hemoglobin distribution and cause A1C readings that are not Continue reading >>

In Search Of: The Highest Diabetes A1c In History

In Search Of: The Highest Diabetes A1c In History

My most recent A1C was nothing to be proud of, but I consoled myself with the thought that it was hardly the worst in history. That got me wondering: What was the all-time worst A1C? Who holds this dubious record, and how high is it possible to go? I decided to pound the pavement and try to find out. So where to start when looking for a diabetes record? Well, with the Guinness Book of World Records, of course. But oddly, the Guinness people don’t seem to have any listings related to A1Cs. They do, however, report that Michael Patrick Buonocore survived a blood sugar of 2,656 mg/dL upon admittance to the ER in East Stroudsburg, PA, on March 23, 2008. Michael was a T1 kiddo at the time, and that record-high sugar level was part of his diagnosis experience. So does Michael also hold the record for top A1C? No. Because while he’s living (thankfully) proof that stratospheric blood sugar levels are possible, a sky-scraping A1C requires both altitude and time. Remember that A1Cs provide a three-month average of our blood sugars. Individual high BG readings, even crazy-high ones, don’t alter the test as much as you’d think if they last only a short time. Because type 1 in kids Michael's age hit so quickly, I figured his A1C would have been rather middle of the road. It takes a slow burn to make an A1C boil. But just to be sure, I reached out to his parents, who tell me his A1C was 11.9 at diagnosis. Higher than I expected, but not too high given the four-digit BG reading. (If his 2,656 had been his average blood sugar for three months, his A1C would have been roughly 95! Yes, that’s 95.0, not 9.5). The highest A1C turns out to be a tricky piece of data to ferret out. If you try Google, you find a gazillion people talking about their own personal highest A1Cs, and comp Continue reading >>

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Over the last few years doctors are increasingly relying on a test called hemoglobin A1c to screen for insulin resistance and diabetes. It’s more practical (and significantly cheaper) than post-meal glucose testing, and it’s less likely to be skewed by day-to-day changes than fasting blood glucose. While this sounds good in theory, the reality is not so black and white. The main problem is that there is actually a wide variation in how long red blood cells survive in different people. What is hemoglobin A1c? Sugar has a tendency to stick to stuff. Anyone that has cooked with sugar can tell you that. In our bodies, sugar also sticks – especially to proteins. The theory behind the A1c test is that our red blood cells live an average of three months, so if we measure the amount of sugar stuck to these cells (which is what the hemoglobin A1c test does), it will give us an idea of how much sugar has been in the blood over the previous three months. The number reported in the A1c test result (i.e. 5.2) indicates the percentage of hemoglobin that has become glycated (stuck to sugar). Why is hemoglobin A1c unreliable? While this sounds good in theory, the reality is not so black and white. The main problem is that there is actually a wide variation in how long red blood cells survive in different people. This study, for example, shows that red blood cells live longer than average at normal blood sugars. Researchers found that the lifetime of hemoglobin cells of diabetics turned over in as few as 81 days, while they lived as long as 146 days in non-diabetics. This proves that the assumption that everyone’s red blood cells live for three months is false, and that hemoglobin A1c can’t be relied upon as a blood sugar marker. In a person with normal blood sugar, hemoglobin Continue reading >>

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