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What Does A Glucose And Glucose Make?

Sources Of Glucose

Sources Of Glucose

Our bodies convert food into energy. Although we get energy and calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, our main source of energy is from carbohydrate. Our bodies convert carbohydrate into glucose, a type of sugar. See Illustration: How Food Affects Blood Sugar Many foods contain a combination of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The amount of each in the food we eat affects how quickly our bodies change that food into glucose. This is how different foods affect how our blood sugar levels: Carbohydrate: Includes bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, sugar, yogurt, and milk. Our bodies change 100 percent of the carbohydrate we eat into glucose. This affects our blood sugar levels quickly, within an hour or two after eating Protein: Includes fish, meat, cheese, and peanut butter. Although our bodies change some of the protein we eat into glucose, most of this glucose is stored in our liver and not released into our bloodstream. Eating protein usually has very little impact on blood sugar. Fat: Includes butter, salad dressing, avocado, olive oil. We turn less than 10 percent of the fat we eat into glucose. The glucose from fat is absorbed slowly and it won't cause an immediate rise in blood sugar. Even though we don't get much glucose from fat, a meal that's high in fat can affect how fast our bodies digest carbohydrate. Because fat slows down the digestion of carbohydrate, it also slows down the rise in blood sugar levels. This sometimes can cause a high blood sugar level several hours after eating. For some people, this delayed reaction can be quite a surprise. For example, after eating a meal high in fat, a person might have a blood sugar reading that's close to normal before going to bed. But the next morning, he or she might have a fasting blood sugar t Continue reading >>

How Does Glucose Provide Energy?

How Does Glucose Provide Energy?

Your body needs glucose to obtain the energy to function. Glucose is obtained by the body through eating carbohydrates. In each gram of carbohydrates you consume there are four calories worth of energy. Once ingested into the body, special enzymes in the digestive system break down the carbohydrates you have eaten into simple sugars called glucose. This breaking down process allows the body to access the calories of energy contained in the carbohydrate. After eating a meal, the body goes to work to break down the carbohydrates to produce glucose. This glucose is released into the bloodstream, raising your blood sugar levels. For the cells to access the glucose in the bloodstream, your pancreas must produce a hormone called insulin. As your blood glucose levels start to rise, the pancreas is triggered to release insulin into the bloodstream. Without insulin the cells will be unable to absorb the glucose needed to obtain energy. Problems with insulin either occur because there is not enough insulin being produced by the body, or the cells have become resistant to insulin. These problems are symptoms of a disease called diabetes. If not enough insulin is being produced, this can result in a dramatically low blood glucose level, which leaves the cells unable to produce enough energy to survive. If the cells become resistant to insulin, this can result in too much glucose circulating in the bloodstream, which can cause serious damage to the blood vessels of the body. Each cell in your body has special equipment on them called insulin receptors. When these receptors come into contact with insulin, they are able to bind to it. This binding acts as a key to unlocking the cell's ability to draw glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cell itself. This is done through the glu Continue reading >>

Why Are Fasting Blood Glucose Numbers High?

Why Are Fasting Blood Glucose Numbers High?

Stumped by high fasting blood glucose results? Join the club. "It just doesn't compute. When I snack before bed, my fastings are lower than when I limit my night nibbles," says Pete Hyatt, 59, PWD type 2. "It's logical for people to point the finger for high fasting blood sugar numbers at what they eat between dinner and bed, but surprisingly food isn't the lead villain," says Robert Chilton, M.D., a cardiologist and professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The true culprit is compromised hormonal control of blood glucose levels. The Essential Hormones During the years (up to a decade) that type 2 diabetes develops, the hormonal control of blood glucose breaks down. Four hormones are involved in glucose control: Insulin, made in the beta cells of the pancreas, helps the body use glucose from food by enabling glucose to move into the body's cells for energy. People with type 2 diabetes have slowly dwindling insulin reserves. Amylin, secreted from the beta cells, slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream after eating by slowing stomach-emptying and increasing the feeling of fullness. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are amylin-deficient. Incretins, a group of hormones secreted from the intestines that includes glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), enhance the body's release of insulin after eating. This in turn slows stomach-emptying, promotes fullness, delays the release of glucose into the bloodstream, and prevents the pancreas from releasing glucagon, putting less glucose into the blood. Glucagon, made in the alpha cells of the pancreas, breaks down glucose stored in the liver and muscles and releases it to provide energy when glucose from food isn't available. {C} How the Essential Hormones Work in the Body When d Continue reading >>

Does High Blood Sugar Make You Sleepy?

Does High Blood Sugar Make You Sleepy?

Surprisingly, one of the symptoms of diabetes or pre-diabetes is excessive sleepiness. But the cause of it is probably different than you’d guess. You’d think that a high blood sugar would create a “sugar rush”, which would give you a boost of energy. Right?… That is true initially – especially if you’re healthy and you don’t have insulin problems. But if you aren’t, then things are different for you. What Causes High Blood Sugar? A high blood sugar emerges when there isn’t enough insulin to manage it, or when the insulin is not effective enough because your body is “insensitive” to insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by your pancreas and it’s needed to transport glucose and sugar from the blood to all the cells in your body. When cells receive the correct amount of sugar, they create energy. Why You Feel Tired When you feel tired, it’s because you either don’t have enough energy (glucose) reaching your cells because your body is no longer secreting the proper amount in insulin … or your body is just “insensitive” to the insulin and just doesn’t recognize or feel it. Does this make sense?… If your pancreas is unable to produce a sufficient amount of insulin, or if you are not reacting properly to insulin, your cells won’t receive the right amount of glucose that they need to produce energy. The result is that you feel tired all the time, you become forgetful, you can’t think clearly and many people become moody. So… no sugar rush, but the exact opposite and many times, a “sugar crash”. What About High Blood Sugar There are even more factors that can make you feel tired when you have high blood sugar from eating the wrong TYPE or AMOUNT of foods. When your blood sugar goes too high, your kidneys are working overtime to Continue reading >>

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Glucose (C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose. Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right"). Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of D-glucose. The other stereoisomer, called L-glucose, is hardly found in nature. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar. The name "dextrose" and the 'D-' prefix come from Latin dexter ("right"), referring to the handedness of the molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, whose five hydroxyl (OH) groups are arranged in a specific way along its six-carbon backbone.[1] In its fleeting open-chain form, the glucose molecule has an open (as opposed to cyclic) and unbranched backbone of six carbon atoms, C-1 through C-6; where C-1 is part of an aldehyde group H(C=O)-, and each of the other five carbons bears one hydroxyl group -OH. The remaining bonds of the backbone carbons are satisfied by hydrogen atoms -H. Therefore glucose is an hexose and an aldose, or an aldohexose. Each of the four carbons C-2 through C-5 is chiral, meaning that its four bonds conne Continue reading >>

What Makes Glucose Levels Rise And Fall?

What Makes Glucose Levels Rise And Fall?

When you have diabetes it is important to understand what might make your blood glucose level rise or fall so that you can take steps to stay on target. ••••• When you eat any type of carbohydrate (starches, fruits, milk, sugars etc.), your body breaks it down into simple sugars. These get absorbed into the blood stream and insulin helps remove them from the blood into the cells to be used for energy. Without diabetes, our body usually makes just the right amount of insulin to match the food eaten, when diabetes is present, tablets or insulin injections are required to help this process. Things that can make your blood glucose rise A meal or snack with a bigger portion of carbohydrates than usual Less activity than usual Side effects of some medications Infection, surgery or other illness Changes in hormone levels, such as during menstrual periods, or adolescence Stress Things that can make your blood glucose fall A meal or snack with a smaller portion of carbohydrates than usual Taking too much insulin or a dose increase of your diabetes tablets Extra physical activity Side effects of some medications Missing a meal or a snack Drinking alcohol Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for the body e.g. glucose and a store of energy, e.g. starch in plants building blocks for polysaccharides (giant carbohydrates), e.g. cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body components of other molecules eg DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins, ATP Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars. They are the building blocks from which all bigger carbohydrates are made. Monosaccharides have the general molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n can be 3, 5 or 6. They can be classified according to the number of carbon atoms in a molecule: n = 3 trioses, e.g. glyceraldehyde n = 5 pentoses, e.g. ribose and deoxyribose ('pent' indicates 5) n = 6 hexoses, e.g. fructose, glucose and galactose ('hex' indicates 6) There is more than one molecule with the molecular formula C5H10O5 and more than one with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers. Glyceraldehyde's molecular formula is C3H6O3. Its structural formula shows it contains an aldehyde group (-CHO) and two hydroxyl groups (-OH). The presence of an aldehyde group means that glyceraldehyde can also be classified as an aldose. It is a reducing sugar and gives a positive test with Benedict's reagent. CH2OHCH(OH)CHO is oxidised by Benedict's reagent to CH2OHCH(OH)COOH; the aldehyde group is oxidised to Continue reading >>

What Do Glucose And Galactose Make?

What Do Glucose And Galactose Make?

Glucose + Galactose -----> Lactose + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 ------> C12H22O11 + H2O Glucose and galactose are monosacharrides. They both have the chemical formula C6H12O6. However, their structure differs, making them isomers. When the two monosacharrides are joined via a glycosidic bond, a water molecule will be a product along with the lactose disacharride. Lactose: Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance

Glucose Intolerance

Tweet Glucose intolerance is term for metabolic conditions which result in high blood glucose levels. Pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are all conditions which fall under the term glucose intolerant. Glucose intolerance is defined by the World Health Organisation as: A blood sugar level of 6.0 mmol/l or above whilst fasting A blood glucose level of over 7.8 mmol/l 2 hours after consuming 75g of glucose The figures above are based on the assumption that people are not taking blood glucose lowering medication. The symptoms of glucose intolerance may not be so easy to spot. The symptoms may include: Feeling thirsty Being tired or lethargic Needing to urinate more than usual Itchiness around the genitals People with impaired glucose tolerance are more likely to notice symptoms after meals. Whereas people with impaired fasting glucose will notice the symptoms through other parts of the day including during the night. Glucose intolerance will often be diagnosed by a fasting plasma glucose test or by a glucose tolerance test. A plasma glucose test is when a blood sample is taken, usually from your arm, and the blood glucose levels measured. A glucose tolerance test involves taking a set amount of glucose orally, usually 75g of glucose, and then taking your blood glucose levels over regular periods of time over the next few hours. Glucose intolerance can be treated through diet and lifestyle changes or with assistance from anti-diabetic medication, such as tablets and/or insulin. Your doctor will measure your long term blood glucose control via an HbA1c test. Your doctor may also prescribe you with blood glucose testing supplies to allow you to make diet choices and to indentify and prevent high or low blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

Why Do Blood Glucose Levels Sometimes Go Up After Physical Activity?

Why Do Blood Glucose Levels Sometimes Go Up After Physical Activity?

When you exercise your muscles need more glucose to supply energy. In response, your liver increases the amount of glucose it releases into your bloodstream. Remember, however, that the glucose needs insulin in order to be used by your muscles. So if you do not have enough insulin available, your blood glucose levels can actually increase right after exercise. Basically, stimulated by the demand from your exercising muscles, your body is pouring glucose into your bloodstream. If you do not have enough insulin available to "unlock the door" to your muscles, the glucose cannot get into your muscles to provide needed energy. The end result is that glucose backs-up in your bloodstream, causing higher blood glucose readings. Here are some tips to safely exercise: Consult your doctor before starting an exercise program. If you are over the age of 35 you may need a stress test. Pick an exercise that you enjoy. Check your blood sugar before and after exercise. Do not exercise if your blood sugar is over 250 mg/dl and you have ketones. If your blood sugar is over 250 but no ketones are present, follow these guidelines: Type 1: If blood sugars are 300 or more, test within 5-10 minutes of begining exercise. If your blood sugar is dropping, you may continue. If it is not dropping, stop exercising. Type 2: Do Not exercise if blood sugars are 400 or more Plan exercise to prevent low blood sugar reactions. Exercise 1 to 1 ½ hours after eating. Always carry a carbohydrate snack (juice, glucose tablets, etc.) with you. Drink plenty of fluids. Wear shoes and equipment that fit well. Find more information about physical activity and diabetes in Staying Healthy with Diabetes – Physical Activity & Fitness available from the Joslin Online Store. Continue reading >>

Chapter 141blood Glucose

Chapter 141blood Glucose

Go to: Definition Glucose is the most important carbohydrate fuel in the body. In the fed state, the majority of circulating glucose comes from the diet; in the fasting state, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis maintain glucose concentrations. Very little glucose is found in the diet as glucose; most is found in more complex carbohydrates that are broken down to monosaccharides though the digestive process. About half of the total carbohydrates in the diet are in the form of polysaccharides and the remainder as simpler sugars. About two-thirds of the sugar in the diet is sucrose, which is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Glucose is classified as a monosaccharide because it cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. It is further classified as a hexose because of its six-carbon skeleton and as an aldose, because of the presence of an aldehyde group on carbon 1. The aldehyde group condenses with a hydroxyl group so that glucose exists as a hemiacetal ring structure. This ring structure explains many of the reactions of glucose. Ordinarily the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a relatively stable concentration from 80 to 120 mg/dl. The strong reducing properties of glucose made it relatively easy to measure and thus the clinical estimation of circulating glucose was one of the earliest tests available to the clinician. The recent introduction of microglucose oxidase technology has now made it possible for the patient to measure his or her own blood glucose concentration and undoubtedly makes the estimation of blood glucose the most widely used test of blood chemistry. An understanding of the methods of blood glucose measurement will help the clinician to interpret values and avoid the pitfalls of inaccurate testing. Go to: Technique The concen Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) Whenever the glucose (sugar) level in one's blood rises high temporarily, this condition is known as hyperglycemia. The opposite condition, low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia. Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create glucose in the liver and muscles. The blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all the cells in the body. To carry glucose into the cells as an energy supply, cells need help from insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, based upon the blood sugar level. Insulin helps move glucose from digested food into cells. Sometimes, the body stops making insulin (as in type 1 diabetes), or the insulin does not work properly (as in type 2 diabetes). In diabetic patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the blood and creating high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels can be measured in seconds by using a blood glucose meter, also known as a glucometer. A tiny drop of blood from the finger or forearm is placed on a test strip and inserted into the glucometer. The blood sugar (or glucose) level is displayed digitally within seconds. Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and night in people with diabetes. Ideally, blood glucose levels range from 90 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and below 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Adolescents and adults with diabetes strive to keep their blood sugar levels within a controlled range, usually 80-150 mg/dL before meals. Doctors and diabetes health educators guide each patient to determine their optimal range of blood glucose control. When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours, dehydration and more serious complicat Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CH2O, and thus were once thought to represent "hydrated carbon". However, the arrangement of atoms in carbohydrates has little to do with water molecules. Starch and cellulose are two common carbohydrates. Both are macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands. Both are polymers (hence "polysaccharides"); that is, each is built from repeating units, monomers, much as a chain is built from its links. The monomers of both starch and cellulose are the same: units of the sugar glucose. Sugars Monosaccharides Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: CHO. Because of their six carbon atoms, each is a hexose. They are: glucose, "blood sugar", the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), and fructose, a sugar found in honey. Although all three share the same molecular formula (C6H12O6), the arrangement of atoms differs in each case. Substances such as these three, which have identical molecular formulas but different structural formulas, are known as structural isomers. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are "single" sugars or monosaccharides. Two monosaccharides can be linked together to form a "double" sugar or disaccharide. Disaccharides Three common disaccharides: sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose Although the process of linking the two monomers is rather complex, the end result in each case is the loss of a hydrogen atom (H) from one of the monosaccharides and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other. The resulting linkage between the sugars is called a glycosidic bond. The molecular formula of each of these disacchar Continue reading >>

> Carbohydrates And Diabetes

> Carbohydrates And Diabetes

Keeping your blood sugar levels on track means watching what you eat, plus taking medicines like insulin if you need to. Your doctor may also have mentioned that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates and how do they affect your blood sugar? The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other things the body needs, and one of these is carbohydrates. The two main forms of carbohydrates are: sugars such as fructose, glucose, and lactose starches, which are found in foods such as starchy vegetables (like potatoes or corn), grains, rice, breads, and cereals The body breaks down or converts most carbohydrates into the sugar glucose. Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream, and with the help of a hormone called insulin it travels into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. People with diabetes have problems with insulin that can cause blood sugar levels to rise. For people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses the ability to make insulin. For people with type 2 diabetes, the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made. Because the body turns carbohydrates into glucose, eating carbohydrates makes blood sugar levels rise. But that doesn't mean you should avoid carbohydrates if you have diabetes. Carbohydrates are a healthy and important part of a nutritious diet. Some carbohydrates have more health benefits than others, though. For example, whole-grain foods and fruits are healthier choices than candy and soda because they provide fiber, vitamins, and other nutrients. Fiber is important because it helps you feel full and keeps your digestive system working properly. In fact, eating lots of fiber can even help to slow the body's absorption of sugar when eaten together with s Continue reading >>

Glucose Screening And Glucose Tolerance Tests

Glucose Screening And Glucose Tolerance Tests

Why do I need a glucose screening test during pregnancy? Most healthcare practitioners routinely recommend a glucose screening test (also called a glucose challenge test or GCT) between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy to check for gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a high blood sugar condition that some women get during pregnancy. Between 2 and 5 percent of expectant mothers develop this condition, making it one of the most common health problems during pregnancy. And because the condition rarely causes any symptoms, testing is the only way to find out whether you have it. Like any screening test, the GCT won't give you a diagnosis. Instead, it's designed to identify as many women as possible who may have a problem and need more testing to find out. So a positive result doesn't mean that you have gestational diabetes. In fact, only about a third of women who test positive on the glucose screen actually have the condition. If you test positive on the screening, you'll need to take the glucose tolerance test (GTT) – a longer, more definitive test that tells you for sure whether you have gestational diabetes. Your practitioner may want you to be screened earlier than 24 weeks if a routine urine test shows a lot of sugar in your urine or if you're considered high risk. If the results are normal, you'll be screened again at 24 to 28 weeks. Of course, if you were diagnosed with diabetes before pregnancy, you won't need to be screened. Instead, you'll continue to work with your practitioner to manage your condition during pregnancy. How is the glucose screening test done? When you arrive for the test, you're given a sugar solution that contains 50 grams of glucose. The stuff tastes like a very sweet soda pop (it comes in cola, orange, or lime flavor), and you have to Continue reading >>

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