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What Can Cause High Blood Sugar Other Than Diabetes?

Diabetes In Children: Preventing High Blood Sugar

Diabetes In Children: Preventing High Blood Sugar

Introduction High blood sugar, also called hyperglycemia, occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood rises above normal. For a person who has diabetes, high blood sugar may be caused by missed oral diabetes medicine or insulin injection, eating too much, skipping physical activity, or illness or stress. The rapid growth during the teen years can also make it harder to keep your child's blood sugar levels within a target range. Unlike low blood sugar, high blood sugar usually develops slowly over a period of hours or days. But it can also develop quickly (in just a few hours) if you eat a large meal or miss an insulin dose. Blood sugar levels just above the target range may make a person feel tired and thirsty. If your child's blood sugar level stays higher than normal, his or her body will adjust to that level. Over time, high blood sugar damages the eyes, heart, kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves. If your child's blood sugar continues to rise, his or her kidneys will increase the amount of urine produced and your child can become dehydrated. If your child becomes severely dehydrated, he or she can go into a coma and possibly die. Unless you or your child fails to notice the symptoms, you usually have time to treat high blood sugar so that it doesn't become an emergency situation. Three steps can help you prevent high blood sugar problems: Test your child's blood sugar often, especially during illnesses or when he or she is not following a normal routine. A child may not have symptoms of high blood sugar, which are fatigue and increased thirst and urination. Notify the doctor if your child has frequent high blood sugar levels or the blood sugar level is consistently staying above the target range. The medicine or insulin dosage may need to be adjusted or changed Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) Whenever the glucose (sugar) level in one's blood rises high temporarily, this condition is known as hyperglycemia. The opposite condition, low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia. Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create glucose in the liver and muscles. The blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all the cells in the body. To carry glucose into the cells as an energy supply, cells need help from insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, based upon the blood sugar level. Insulin helps move glucose from digested food into cells. Sometimes, the body stops making insulin (as in type 1 diabetes), or the insulin does not work properly (as in type 2 diabetes). In diabetic patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the blood and creating high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels can be measured in seconds by using a blood glucose meter, also known as a glucometer. A tiny drop of blood from the finger or forearm is placed on a test strip and inserted into the glucometer. The blood sugar (or glucose) level is displayed digitally within seconds. Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and night in people with diabetes. Ideally, blood glucose levels range from 90 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and below 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Adolescents and adults with diabetes strive to keep their blood sugar levels within a controlled range, usually 80-150 mg/dL before meals. Doctors and diabetes health educators guide each patient to determine their optimal range of blood glucose control. When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours, dehydration and more serious complicat Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications

Diabetes Complications

High blood sugar (glucose) that circulates in the bloodstream instead of being absorbed into cells damages nerves and blood vessels throughout the body and, ultimately, the major organs such as the kidneys and heart. It has been said that there isn’t a system in the body that isn’t affected by diabetes. The good news is that diabetes can be managed and the risk of developing complications significantly reduced. A nationwide study conducted from 1983-1993 called the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial showed that when blood sugar levels are checked consistently throughout the day – and kept close to normal – complications of the disease can be reduced by as much as 70 percent. This method is also referred to as "tight control" of blood sugar and has become standard of care in diabetes management. Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Damage) Approximately 60-70 percent of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nerve damage. Often the first symptoms of diabetes are tingling, numbness or pain in some part of the body, which is an indication that nerves have been damaged. Neuropathy from diabetes can affect many different parts of the body, including the lower limbs (legs, feet), the bladder and the gastrointestinal tract. Several theories exist as to why diabetes has such a devastating effect on the nervous system. One theory holds that excess sugar in the bloodstream reacts negatively with an enzyme in the cells surrounding the nerves and damages them. Another theory suggests that decreased blood flow to nerves, from damaged blood vessels caused by diabetes, results in neuropathy. In general, there are three types of neuropathy: sensory, autonomic and motor. Sensory neuropathy is the most common, affecting how we perceive temperature, texture and pain. Autono Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar & Other Hormones

Blood Sugar & Other Hormones

Other hormones also affect blood sugar. Glucagon, amylin, GIP, GLP-1, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone also affect blood sugar levels. Glucagon: Made by islet cells (alpha cells) in the pancreas, controls the production of glucose and another fuel, ketones, in the liver. Glucagon is released overnight and between meals and is important in maintaining the body’s sugar and fuel balance. It signals the liver to break down its starch or glycogen stores and helps to form new glucose units and ketone units from other substances. It also promotes the breakdown of fat in fat cells. In contrast, after a meal, when sugar from the ingested food rushes into your bloodstream, your liver doesn’t need to make sugar. The consequence? Glucagon levels fall. Unfortunately, in individuals with diabetes, the opposite occurs. While eating, their glucagon levels rise, which causes blood sugar levels to rise after the meal. WITH DIABETES, GLUCAGON LEVELS ARE TOO HIGH AT MEALTIMES GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and amylin: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and amylin are other hormones that also regulate mealtime insulin. GLP-1 and GIP are incretin hormones. When released from your gut, they signal the beta cells to increase their insulin secretion and, at the same time, decrease the alpha cells’ release of glucagon. GLP-1 also slows down the rate at which food empties from your stomach, and it acts on the brain to make you feel full and satisfied. People with type 1 diabetes have absent or malfunctioning beta cells so the hormones insulin and amylin are missing and the hormone GLP1 cannot work properly. This may explain, in part, why individuals with diabetes do not suppress gl Continue reading >>

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

What is high blood glucose? People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl. Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be — identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals. If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for you long-term — increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control, and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Increased thirst Increased urination Dry mouth or skin Tiredness or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you do for high blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of 8 glasses each day. If yo Continue reading >>

Why Are Fasting Blood Glucose Numbers High?

Why Are Fasting Blood Glucose Numbers High?

Stumped by high fasting blood glucose results? Join the club. "It just doesn't compute. When I snack before bed, my fastings are lower than when I limit my night nibbles," says Pete Hyatt, 59, PWD type 2. "It's logical for people to point the finger for high fasting blood sugar numbers at what they eat between dinner and bed, but surprisingly food isn't the lead villain," says Robert Chilton, M.D., a cardiologist and professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The true culprit is compromised hormonal control of blood glucose levels. The Essential Hormones During the years (up to a decade) that type 2 diabetes develops, the hormonal control of blood glucose breaks down. Four hormones are involved in glucose control: Insulin, made in the beta cells of the pancreas, helps the body use glucose from food by enabling glucose to move into the body's cells for energy. People with type 2 diabetes have slowly dwindling insulin reserves. Amylin, secreted from the beta cells, slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream after eating by slowing stomach-emptying and increasing the feeling of fullness. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are amylin-deficient. Incretins, a group of hormones secreted from the intestines that includes glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), enhance the body's release of insulin after eating. This in turn slows stomach-emptying, promotes fullness, delays the release of glucose into the bloodstream, and prevents the pancreas from releasing glucagon, putting less glucose into the blood. Glucagon, made in the alpha cells of the pancreas, breaks down glucose stored in the liver and muscles and releases it to provide energy when glucose from food isn't available. {C} How the Essential Hormones Work in the Body When d Continue reading >>

Study: High Blood Sugar, But Not Necessarily Diabetes, Raises Dementia Risk

Study: High Blood Sugar, But Not Necessarily Diabetes, Raises Dementia Risk

Diabetes has been linked to diabetes before, but a new study suggests people with high blood sugar who don't even have the disease still seem to face an added risk for Alzheimer's Researchers say the new study's findings suggests a novel way to try to prevent Alzheimer's disease is by keeping blood sugar, or glucose, at a healthy level. Alzheimer's is by far the most common form of dementia. An estimated In the 5.2 million people have Alzheimer's or some other form of dementia in the U.S., and that number is expected to climb to 13.8 million by 2050, according to the Alzheimer's Association. The new study tracked blood sugar over time in people with and without diabetes to see how it affects their risk for the mind-destroying neurological disease. The results challenge current thinking by showing that it's not just the high glucose levels of diabetes that are a concern, said the study's leader, Dr. Paul Crane of the University of Washington in Seattle. "The most interesting finding was that every incrementally higher glucose level was associated with a higher risk of dementia in people who did not have diabetes," Crane said in a statement. "It's a nice, clean pattern" - risk rises as blood sugar does, added Dallas Anderson, a scientist at the National Institute on Aging, the federal agency that paid for the study. "This is part of a larger picture" and adds evidence that exercising and controlling blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol are a viable way to delay or prevent dementia, he said. Because so many attempts to develop effective drugs have failed, "It looks like, at the moment, sort of our best bet," Anderson said. "We have to do something. If we just do nothing and wait around till there's some kind of cocktail of pills, we could be waiting a long time." Pe Continue reading >>

What Can Cause High Blood Sugar Other Than Diabetes?

What Can Cause High Blood Sugar Other Than Diabetes?

Diabetes is a collection of diseases and conditions, and it is defined by symptoms rather than by causes[1] : If you have diabetes, no matter what type, it means you have too much glucose in your blood, although the causes may differ. So, by definition, if you have high blood sugar for extended periods, you have diabetes. That includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young[2] (MODY), diabetes caused by pancreatitis[3] , and so on. However, that’s probably not the answer you’re looking for, so let me address two different ways of thinking about this: What can cause temporary spikes in blood sugar that don’t count as diabetes because they are not long-term? Many things can cause temporary spikes in blood sugar even for healthy people, including eating foods high in carbohydrates, illness, and stress. It is common during surgery, for example, for healthy patients to develop high blood sugar as their bodies respond to the stress on the body[4] . Different people are better or worse at maintaining normal blood sugar levels in the face of challenges like these because of their genetic makeup or other complicating conditions they have. One great example of this is Dr. Michael Snyder, who observed that he was particularly prone to high blood sugar during viral infections (illness), which led to his discovery that he had several genetic mutations that made him very susceptible to type 2 diabetes[5] . What can cause high blood sugar other than type 1 or type 2 diabetes? There are many things that can lead to high blood sugar other than the two most common forms of diabetes. A non-exhaustive list: Gestational diabetes (diabetes developed during pregnancy) MODY Cystic fibrosis leading to pancreatic damage Untreated hemochromatosis Hormonal dis Continue reading >>

Top Causes Of Unexplained Hyperglycemia

Top Causes Of Unexplained Hyperglycemia

As you know, many of my postings are based on clinical experience (as well as from my spies on this site). This past week a mother of one of my patients asked if I could blog about unexplained hyperglycemia. We are not talking about forays into fast food restaurants with “neon” signs (as one expert diabetes educator used to quip) but rather despite perfect carbohydrate counting, proven insulin/carbohydrate ratios and insulin sensitivity factors, blood sugars still spike without obvious explanation. One must always keep in mind when trying to analyze the reasons for highs (and lows), that at best, we are trying to approximate the magical workings of the pancreas (particularly the beta cells). Understanding pancreatic infrastructure in relation to the interaction of the beta cells and alpha cells, as well as other types of cells, also may be a piece of the puzzle related to glycemic control. Any attempt to mimic pancreatic function is still evolving in sophistication, at best. What would be the most common causes of “unexplained” hyperglycemia? I would divide these causes into four major categories: 1. Food related (explainable…but less obvious at the surface) 2. Mechanical difficulties 3. Physiological Counter-regulatory hormone response. 4. No idea 1. Food related: Hyperglycemia may occur at a different time that one might expect due to the company of other nutrients associated with carbohydrates. Examples include hyperglycemia that occurs hours after the pasta/pizza/high fat/protein concentrated meal. These meals do not have to consist of fast food with hidden carbohydrates. Hyperglycemia occurs due to the slower absorption of carbs secondary to the presence of fat and protein. Strategies are available to counteract this process including employment of the ex Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar: Causes, Warning Signs And Treatment

High Blood Sugar: Causes, Warning Signs And Treatment

High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, occurs when the body has too much food or glucose, or too little insulin. Potential reasons a person with type 1 diabetes (T1D) might have high blood sugar include: Not enough insulin taken Eating more than usual Eating earlier than usual Eating food with higher glucose content without injecting extra insulin Injecting insulin at a site on the body where the absorption rate is slower Missing or skipping an insulin dose A clog in insulin pump tubing Less exercise than normal Emotional or physical stress Illness or injury Other hormones Medications (such as steroids) Pain Hyperglycemia Symptoms Thirst (dehydration) Frequent urination, including potential waking up in the middle of the night to urinate; and unusually wet diapers in an infant or toddler. Blurry vision Stomach pain Increased hunger Nausea Drowsiness, lethargy, exhaustion Confusion Sweating Fruity, sweet or wine-like odor on breath Vomiting Inability to concentrate Weight loss (a longer-term symptom) that eventually leads to coma Treatments The following recommendations are general treatments for high blood sugar. Specific actions, such as giving additional insulin, should be determined by the adult with T1D, physician or parents (for a child). If blood test results are slightly above normal: Continue regular activity Drink water or sugar-free drinks Monitor blood-sugar levels by checking regularly Chart blood-glucose test results Consider injecting additional insulin as instructed by physician or parent If blood test results are moderately high: Don’t engage in strenuous exercise Drink water or sugar-free drinks Inject additional insulin if instructed by physician or parents Monitor blood-sugar levels by checking regularly Chart blood-glucose test results Try to discover Continue reading >>

Can Infection Raise Blood Sugar Levels In Nondiabetics?

Can Infection Raise Blood Sugar Levels In Nondiabetics?

Even if you do not have diabetes, you can experience drops and spikes in blood sugar levels for many reasons. If your blood sugar level gets too high or too low, you might develop many symptoms and/or health problems. Stress, poor diet, illness and infections can all cause your blood sugar level to change, and if you notice the warning signs, it is important to talk to your physician about the best treatment approach. Video of the Day After a meal, your body breaks food down into glucose either for immediate use, or else it's stored for later use. The hormone insulin, as well as other chemicals, regulate how much glucose is in your system. If the level of glucose in your bloodstream gets too high, many complications can result. A general goal for everyone is to keep your blood sugar levels no higher than 100 mg/dL, says MedlinePlus. A blood sugar level higher than this can indicate not just diabetes, but also some forms of cancer, Cushing syndrome, an imbalance of various hormones, thyroid disorders or it might be the body's reaction to stress, trauma or an infection. Infections and Blood Glucose Levels When your body is under mental or physical stress, such as when fighting off an infection, hormones such as cortisol are released to help your body cope. The hormones that are released to fight off the infection might have the side effect of raising your blood sugar levels, so your body has the energy it needs to get better. This effect can happen to both diabetics and nondiabetics. If you have an infection and are concerned about your blood sugar levels, it is important to know the warning signs of nondiabetic hyperglycemia, which are the same symptoms that occur in diabetics: hunger, sweating, shakiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, thirst, sleepiness, confusion, diffic Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Tweet Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream. Hyperglycemia should not be confused with hypoglycemia, which is when blood sugar levels go too low. You should aim to avoid spending long periods of time with high blood glucose levels. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, the term for expressing high blood sugar, has been defined by the World Health Organisation as: Blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) when fasting Blood glucose levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) 2 hours after meals Although blood sugar levels exceeding 7 mmol/L for extended periods of time can start to cause damage to internal organs, symptoms may not develop until blood glucose levels exceed 11 mmol/L. What causes hyperglycemia? The underlying cause of hyperglycemia will usually be from loss of insulin producing cells in the pancreas or if the body develops resistance to insulin. More immediate reasons for hyperglycemia include: Missing a dose of diabetic medication, tablets or insulin Eating more carbohydrates than your body and/or medication can manage Being mentally or emotionally stressed (injury, surgery or anxiety) Contracting an infection What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? The main 3 symptoms of high blood sugar levels are increased urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. High blood sugar levels can also contribute to the following symptoms: Regular/above-average urination Weakness or feeling tired Increased thirst Vision blurring Is hyperglycemia serious? Hyperglycemia can be serious if: Blood glucose levels stay high for extended periods of time - this can lead to the development of long term complications Blood glucose levels rise dangerously high - this can lead to short term complications In the shor Continue reading >>

20 Reasons For Blood Sugar Swings

20 Reasons For Blood Sugar Swings

Upswing: Caffeine Your blood sugar can rise after you have coffee -- even black coffee with no calories -- thanks to the caffeine. The same goes for black tea, green tea, and energy drinks. Each person with diabetes reacts to foods and drinks differently, so it's best to keep track of your own responses. Ironically, other compounds in coffee may help prevent type 2 diabetes in healthy people. Many of these will raise your blood sugar levels. Why? They can still have plenty of carbs from starches. Check the total carbohydrates on the Nutrition Facts label before you dig in. You should also pay attention to sugar alcohols such as sorbitol and xylitol. They add sweetness with fewer carbs than sugar (sucrose), but they may still have enough to boost your levels. One study found that people with type 2 diabetes who switched to a vegan (or all vegetable-based) diet had better blood sugar control and needed less insulin. A boost in fiber from whole grains and beans might play a role, by slowing down the digestion of carbs. But scientists need more research to know if going vegan really helps diabetes. Talk to your doctor before you make major diet changes. Blood sugar can dip dangerously low during shut-eye for some people with diabetes, especially if they take insulin. It's best to check your levels at bedtime and when you wake up. A snack before bed may help. For some people, blood sugar can rise in the morning -- even before breakfast -- due to changes in hormones or a drop in insulin. Regular testing is important. One option is a continuous blood glucose monitor, which can alert you to highs and lows. Physical activity is a great health booster for everyone. But people with diabetes should tailor it to what they need. When you work out hard enough to sweat and raise your h Continue reading >>

Can I Have Elevated Blood Sugar Without Having Diabetes?

Can I Have Elevated Blood Sugar Without Having Diabetes?

Yes, a number of things can cause high blood sugar but most of the time it is due to having diabetes. But it can also be due to other causes. These include medications such as beta blockers, epinephrine, thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, niacin, pentamidine, protease inhibitors and some antipsychotics. Illegal drug use of amphetamine can produce high blood sugar. Some of the newer, double action anti-depressants like Zyprexa and Cymbalta can also cause significant high blood sugar. Another cause of high blood sugar is when the body is in a state of physical stress associated with critical illness like a stroke or heart attack. An active blood infection, known as sepsis, is often seen with blood sugar levels that are high. During these times of stress, the body releases its own hormones that can raise blood sugar. The level that the blood sugar reaches can change from person to person and should not be used as a diagnosis of diabetes. Further testing, such checking blood sugar levels after not eating for 8 hours or checking a special test of red blood cells can show if there really is a diagnosis of diabetes. Continue reading >>

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