diabetestalk.net

What Breaks Down Carbohydrates Into Glucose?

Carbohydrates And Diabetes

Carbohydrates And Diabetes

en espaolLos carbohidratos y la diabetes Keeping your blood sugar levels on track means watching what you eat, plus taking medicines like insulin if you need to. Your doctor may also have mentioned that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates and how do they affect your blood sugar? The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other things the body needs, and one of these is carbohydrates . The two main forms of carbohydrates are: sugars such as fructose, glucose, and lactose starches, which are found in foods such as starchy vegetables (like potatoes or corn), grains, rice, breads, and cereals The body breaks down or converts most carbohydrates into the sugar glucose . Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream, and with the help of a hormone called insulin it travels into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. People with diabetes have problems with insulin that can cause blood sugar levels to rise. For people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses the ability to make insulin. For people with type 2 diabetes, the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made. Because the body turns carbohydrates into glucose, eating carbohydrates makes blood sugar levels rise. But that doesn't mean you should avoid carbohydrates if you have diabetes. Carbohydrates are a healthy and important part of a nutritious diet. Some carbohydrates have more health benefits than others, though. For example, whole-grain foods and fruits are healthier choices than candy and soda because they provide fiber, vitamins, and other nutrients. Fiber is important because it helps you feel full and keeps your digestive system working properly. In fact, eating lots of fiber can even help to slow the body's ab Continue reading >>

Bbc - Ks3 Bitesize Science - Diet, Drugs And Health : Revision, Page 5

Bbc - Ks3 Bitesize Science - Diet, Drugs And Health : Revision, Page 5

Our teeth break food down into small pieces when we chew. This is only a start to the process of digestion, as chewed pieces of food are still too large to be absorbed by the body. Food has to be broken down chemically into really small particles before it can be absorbed. Enzymes are needed so that this break-down happens quickly enough to be useful. Take care - enzymes are not living things. They are just special proteins that can break large molecules into small molecules. Different types of enzymes can break down different nutrients: carbohydrase or amylase enzymes break down starch into sugar protease enzymes break down proteins into amino acids lipase enzymes break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Carbohydrates are digested in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. Carbohydrase enzymes break down starch into sugars. The saliva in your mouth contains amylase, which is another starch digesting enzyme. If you chew a piece of bread for long enough, the starch it contains is digested to sugar, and it begins to taste sweet. Proteins are digested in the stomach and small intestine. Protease enzymes break down proteins into amino acids. Digestion of proteins in the stomach is helped by stomach acid, which is strong hydrochloric acid. This also kills harmful micro-organisms that may be in the food. Lipase enzymes break down fat into fatty acids and glycerol. Digestion of fat in the small intestine is helped by bile, made in the liver. Bile breaks the fat into small droplets that are easier for the lipase enzymes to work on. Minerals, vitamins and water are already small enough to be absorbed by the body without being broken down, so they are not digested. Digestive enzymes cannot break down fibre, which is why it cannot be absorbed by the body. Continue reading >>

Structural Biochemistry/carbohydrates/breaking Down Of Carbohydrates

Structural Biochemistry/carbohydrates/breaking Down Of Carbohydrates

Structural Biochemistry/Carbohydrates/Breaking Down of Carbohydrates From Wikibooks, open books for an open world All cells require energy for continual survival and operation. This energy comes from energy-containing compounds such as sugars, starch or lipids. The breakdown and interconversion of these energy-containing compounds in living organisms is a biochemical process coined Carbohydrate metabolism. Carbohydrate metabolism is carried out by aerobic respiration where glucose and oxygen are metabolized releasing water and carbon dioxide. In cellular respiration metabolic reactions in order to convert the energy stored in the carbohydrate into ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is created and is often referred to as "the molecular unit of currency" for intracellular energy transfer. ATP stores the now broken down energy and transports it to different areas of the cell when needed. Carbohydrates are stored as polysaccharides consisting of longer polymers of glucose(monosaccharides) by glycosidic bonds. When energy is needed or to be stored, these polysaccharides are cleaved into their smaller monosaccharides units in preparation for catabolism. Carbohydrate catabolism is this breakdown of larger carbohydrates into smaller pieces in order to retrieve the energy within the bonds. There are also other types of Carbohydrate metabolism such as glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, glycogenesis and more. [1] [2] For the human body, glucose is used as the main source of energy. The breaking down of the glucose carbohydrates takes place during metabolism, thus releasing energy to the body. The chemical formula for the breakdown of glucose is the following: Plants utilize many of the same metabolic reactions to metabolize Carbohydrates. Invalid tag; refs with no name must Continue reading >>

Digestion, Absorption And Transport Of Carbohydrates

Digestion, Absorption And Transport Of Carbohydrates

Sign up to our newsletter Receive the latest newsletter with research on sugar. Plus insights from scientific experts. Carbohydrates are broken down to provide glucose for energy Digestion predominantly occurs via enzymes lining the wall of the small intestine Once absorbed, galactose and fructose are metabolised further by the liver to produce glucose and minimal amounts of other metabolites ___________________ The metabolism of carbohydrates is the process of getting the carbohydrates in the foods we eat into the right format to provide fuel to our body's cells. This process involves digestion, absorption and transportation. Most commonly, carbohydrate metabolism results in the production of glucose molecules which are the most efficient source of energy (ATP) for our muscles and our brains. Energy or fuel from our food is used for cell growth, repair and normal cell functioning. Digestion Carbohydrates are most commonly consumed as polysaccharides (e.g. starch, fibre or cellulose) or disaccharides (e.g. lactose, sucrose, galactose) and therefore need to be broken down into their simpler monosaccharide forms which the body can utilise. The digestion process of polysaccharides such as starch will begin in the mouth where it is hydrolysed by salivary amylase. The amount of starch hydrolysed in this environment is often quite small as most food does not stay in the mouth long. Once the food bolus reaches the stomach the salivary enzymes are denatured. As a result, digestion predominantly occurs in the small intestine with pancreatic amylase hydrolysing the starch to dextrin and maltose. Enzymes classed as glucosidases on the brush border of the small intestine break down the dextrin and maltase, lactase and sucrase convert the other disaccharides into their two monosacch Continue reading >>

What Types Of Carbohydrates Turn To Sugar?

What Types Of Carbohydrates Turn To Sugar?

The three types of carbohydrates are sugar, starch and fiber. During the digestive process, both sugars and starches are turned into the sugars that the body uses for energy. People lack the enzymes needed to digest fiber, so it passes through the digestive tract without turning into to sugar. Some foods contain simple sugars, which don't need to be further broken down during digestion. The three main simple sugars are glucose, fructose and galactose. Glucose is found in honey and fruit, fructose is found in fruits, vegetables and honey and galactose is found in plants. Glucose and galactose are easily absorbed, but some people have difficulties absorbing fructose if it isn't accompanied by glucose or galactose. Compound Sugars Compound sugars include sucrose, a combination of fructose and glucose; lactose, a combination of galactose and glucose; and maltose, which is a combination of two glucose molecules. Sucrose is found in sugar and maple syrup, lactose is found in milk and maltose is found in malt, fruits and grains. During digestion, the enzymes break the bonds between the sugar molecules to turn compound sugars into simple sugars. Starches Plants form starches, which are also called complex carbohydrates, by stringing together sugars. When you eat starchy foods, the starches are broken down into sugars, including glucose, maltotriose and maltose, by an enzyme called amylase found in your saliva and small intestine. These compound sugars are further broken down into simple sugars by other enzymes, including maltase, lactase, sucrase and isomaltase. Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Digestion The glycemic index measures how much a particular carbohydrate-containing food increases blood-glucose levels or how quickly carbohydrates are turned into sugar. Foods with a low Continue reading >>

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats The human body is remarkably adept at making do with whatever type of food is available. Our ability to survive on a variety of diets has been a vital adaptation for a species that evolved under conditions where food sources were scarce and unpredictable. Imagine if you had to depend on successfully hunting a woolly mammoth or stumbling upon a berry bush for sustenance! Today, calories are mostly cheap and plentifulperhaps too much so. Understanding what the basic macronutrients have to offer can help us make better choices when it comes to our own diets. From the moment a bite of food enters the mouth, each morsel of nutrition within starts to be broken down for use by the body. So begins the process of metabolism, the series of chemical reactions that transform food into components that can be used for the body's basic processes. Proteins, carbohydrates , and fats move along intersecting sets of metabolic pathways that are unique to each major nutrient. Fundamentallyif all three nutrients are abundant in the dietcarbohydrates and fats will be used primarily for energy while proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones, muscle, and other essential biological equipment. Proteins in food are broken down into pieces (called amino acids) that are then used to build new proteins with specific functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, facilitating communication between different cells, or transporting biological molecules from here to there. When there is a shortage of fats or carbohydrates, proteins can also yield energy. Fats typically provide more than half of the body's energy needs. Fat from food is broken down into fatty acids, which can travel in the blood and be captured by hungry cells. Fatty aci Continue reading >>

Bbc Bitesize - Ks3 Biology - Digestive System - Revision 2

Bbc Bitesize - Ks3 Biology - Digestive System - Revision 2

The digestive system is the organ system that breaks food down into small molecules that are absorbed into the bloodstream. Digestion is helped by enzymes, which are biological catalysts. Our teeth break food down into small pieces when we chew. This is only a start to the process of digestion, as chewed pieces of food are still too large to be absorbed by the body. Food has to be broken down chemically into really small particles before it can be absorbed. Enzymes are the biological catalysts needed to make this happen quickly enough to be useful. Enzymes are not living things. They are just special proteins that can break large molecules into small molecules. Different types of enzymes can break down different nutrients: enzymes break down lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol Carbohydrates are digested in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. Carbohydrase enzymes break down starch into sugars. The saliva in your mouth contains amylase, which is another starch digesting enzyme. If you chew a piece of bread for long enough, the starch it contains is digested to sugar, and it begins to taste sweet. Proteins are digested in the stomach and small intestine. Protease enzymes break down proteins into amino acids. Digestion of proteins in the stomach is helped by stomach acid, which is strong hydrochloric acid. This also kills harmful microorganisms Lipase enzymes break down fat into fatty acids and glycerol. Digestion of fat in the small intestine is helped by bile, made in the liver. Bile breaks the fat into small droplets that are easier for the lipase enzymes to work on. Bile is not an enzyme. Lipids are digested to fatty acids and glycerol Minerals, vitamins and water are already small enough to be absorbed by the body without being broken down, so the Continue reading >>

Breaking Down Carbohydrate - Carbohydrate Basics | Howstuffworks

Breaking Down Carbohydrate - Carbohydrate Basics | Howstuffworks

Carbohydrates are made up of a combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The word carbohydrate is formed from those words: carbo meaning carbon and hydrate meaning water, which is made of hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates all have these three basic component parts. It's how they are put together that makes each one unique. Carbohydrates are categorized as either simple or complex. The simple carbohydrates are made of a single unit of various arrangements of the three elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen). Each unit has the same number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; the different arrangements of them account for their distinct properties, such as sweetness and solubility. Complex carbohydrates are made of different arrangements of these single units that are linked together in various patterns that can be from two to tens of thousands of units long. The more units linked, the more complex the carbohydrate. Simple carbohydrates are sugars; complex carbohydrates are starches, fiber, glycogen, and dextrin. The nutrition facts label can help you get a handle onhow much and what type of nutrients you're eating. When searching forcarbohydrate info, do you know what to look for? Here's a primer: Total Carbohydrate:The amount is expressed in grams. The total consists of allcarbohydrate, including the fiber and sugar listed below it. There isno distinction between simple or complex. Dietary Fiber:The amount is expressed in grams. Fiber is a complex carbohydrate. Ithas almost no calories and isn't digested by the body. Occasionallyyou'll see soluble and insoluble fiber amounts listed as well. Sugars: The amount is expressed in grams. The total consists of sugars naturally present in the food, such as the lactose in milk and fructose in fruits, as wellas sugar that's bee Continue reading >>

How Food Works

How Food Works

You have probably heard of "carbohydrates" and "complex carbohydrates." Carbohydrates provide your body with its basic fuel. Your body thinks about carbohydrates like a car engine thinks about gasoline. The simplest carbohydrate is glucose. Glucose, also called "blood sugar" and "dextrose," flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in your body. Your cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy to drive the cell. Specifically, a set of chemical reactions on glucose creates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and a phosphate bond in ATP powers most of the machinery in any human cell. If you drink a solution of water and glucose, the glucose passes directly from your digestive system into the bloodstream. The word "carbohydrate" comes from the fact that glucose is made up of carbon and water. The chemical formula for glucose is: You can see that glucose is made of six carbon atoms (carbo...) and the elements of six water molecules (...hydrate). Glucose is a simple sugar, meaning that to our tongues it tastes sweet. There are other simple sugars that you have probably heard of. Fructose is the main sugar in fruits. Fructose has the same chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O6), but the atoms are arranged slightly differently. The liver converts fructose to glucose. Sucrose, also known as "white sugar" or "table sugar," is made of one glucose and one fructose molecule bonded together. Lactose (the sugar found in milk) is made of one glucose and one galactose molecule bonded together. Galactose, like fructose, has the same chemical components as glucose but the atoms are arranged differently. The liver also converts galactose to glucose. Maltose, the sugar found in malt, is made from two glucose atoms bonded together. Glucose, fructose and galactose are monosa Continue reading >>

What Enzymes Are Used To Break Down Carbohydrates

What Enzymes Are Used To Break Down Carbohydrates

What Enzymes Are Used to Break Down Carbohydrates The complex carbohydrates in whole-grain bread are broken down by enzymes during digestion. What Do Carbohydrates Taken in as Food Break Down Into? Carbohydrates, abundantly present in foods such as breads, cereals, fruits and vegetables, are the main source of energy in a diet. During digestion, a series of enzymatic reactions break down the carbohydrates in these foods into simple carbohydrates that are easily absorbed in the small intestine. While complex carbohydrates require enzymes such as salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase and maltose for digestion, simple carbohydrates require little or no enzymatic reaction before absorption. Different forms of carbohydrates are present in foods. Individual units of sugar such as glucose, fructose and galactose are the simplest forms of carbohydrates called monosaccharides, while sucrose, lactose and maltose are disaccharides made up of two monosaccharides linked together. Complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber, which are polysaccharides made up of long chains of glucose units bonded together. Although fiber resists enzyme action and is not broken down during digestion, break down of starch by enzymes starts in the mouth. Chewing breaks food into small molecules that combine with saliva secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth. Along with mucin and buffers, saliva contains the enzyme salivary amylase, which acts on the starch in food and breaks it down to maltose. Salivary amylase continues for the short duration that the carbohydrates are in the mouth, after which the mixture of the partially digested carbohydrates travels down the esophagus into the stomach. Due to the inhibition of salivary amylase activity by the acidic gastric juices, digestion of carbohydrat Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Digestion: Absorption, Enzymes, Process, And More

Carbohydrate Digestion: Absorption, Enzymes, Process, And More

Carbohydrates give the body energy to go about your days mental and physical tasks. Digesting or metabolizing carbohydrates breaks foods down into sugars, which are also called saccharides. These molecules begin digesting in the mouth and continue through the body to be used for anything from normal cell functioning to cell growth and repair. Youve probably heard that some carbohydrates are considered good while others are bad. But really, its not so simple. There are three main types of carbohydrates. Some carbohydrates are naturally occurring. You can find them in whole fruits and vegetables, while others are processed and refined, and either lacking in or stripped of their nutrients. Heres the deal: Both simple and complex carbohydrates break down into glucose (aka blood sugar). A simple carb is one thats comprised of one or two sugar molecules, while a complex carb contains three or more sugar molecules. Fiber, on the other hand, is found in healthy carbs, but isnt digested or broken down. Its been shown to be good for heart health and weight management. Naturally-occurring simple sugars are found in fruit and dairy. There are also processed and refined simple sugars that food companies may add to foods such as sodas, candy, and desserts. Good sources of complex carbohydrates include: Consuming fibrous, complex and simple carbs from naturally-occurring sources like fruit may protect you from disease and may even help you maintain your weight . These carbs include more vitamins and minerals. However, processed and refined carbohydrates are high in calories but relatively void of nutrition. They tend to make people gain weight and may even contribute to the development of obesity-related conditions, like type 2 diabetes and heart disease . Carbohydrates should make u Continue reading >>

What Do Carbohydrates Taken In As Food Break Down Into?

What Do Carbohydrates Taken In As Food Break Down Into?

What Do Carbohydrates Taken in as Food Break Down Into? Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in your system. "How Are Carbohydrates Digested, Absorbed & Eliminated?" Carbohydrates come from nearly all foods in your diet and eventually break down into glucose. You need glucose, the simplest form of carbohydrates, to provide energy to every cell in your body. Because glucose is your body's main energy source, most of your calories need to come from carbohydrates. Animal meat and some types of seafood are the few foods that lack carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are either simple or complex. Simple carbs include fructose, or fruit sugar; lactose, which is milk sugar; and sucrose, more commonly known as refined white sugar. Complex carbohydrates, which are starches in bread and potatoes, are long complex branches that take longer to digest. Your diet should include 45 to 65 percent calories from carbohydrates, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. All carbs offer 4 calories per gram. Following a 2,000-calorie diet means that you need 225 to 325 total grams of carbohydrates each day. Both simple and complex carbohydrates end up as glucose, but digestion of each of these carbs is slightly different. Simple carbohydrates, as their name suggests, break down in one simple step in your gut. When you eat an apple, simple carbohydrate fructose molecules head directly to your small intestine. From there, they quickly convert to glucose and absorb into your bloodstream through intestinal walls. The same process occurs from lactose in milk, or sugar from a candy bar. Complex carbohydrate molecules need more work to convert to glucose. When you chew a piece of toast or spoonful of mashed potatoes, saliva surrounds complex starch molecules and begins breaking them d Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over a number of years, beginning when muscle and other cells stop responding to insulin. This condition, known as insulin resistance, causes blood sugar and insulin levels to stay high long after eating. Over time, the heavy demands made on the insulin-making cells wears them out, and insulin production eventually stops. Glycemic index In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows: Simple carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates have mo Continue reading >>

Glossary - Csid Cares

Glossary - Csid Cares

Active site The molecular location in the small intestine where enzymes and substrates come together. Allele One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. Amylase A digestive enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates such as starch and glycogen into smaller units; there are 2 types of amylase- salivary and pancreatic. Amylose The linear form of starch that consists of - (1,4) linkages of glucose polymers; amylose starches are less rapidly digested than amylopectin starches. Amylose makes up about 20-30% of the structure of starch. Amylopectin The linear form of starch that consists of - (1,4) glucose polymers as well as branched - (1,6) glucose polymers; amylopectin starches are digested more rapidly than amylose starches. Amylopectin makes up about 70-80% of the structure of starch. Anus A muscular valve that controls the opening from the large intestine to facilitate waste elimination (bowel movements). Autosomal recessive The pattern of inheritance of CSID; a mutation in a gene on one of the first 22 non-sex chromosomes that can lead to an autosomal disorder such as CSID. Recessive inheritance means both genes in the pair must be defective to cause disease. Biopsy A tissue sample; in digestive diseases, the biopsy is usually painless and is taken from the inner layers of the esophagus, stomach, small, and/or large intestines during endoscopy and colonoscopy procedures. Bloating A fullness or distention of the abdomen, usually caused by excess gas that accumulates in the small and/or large intestines. CSID can cause bloating; some foods such as beans, peanuts, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and kale may lead to bloating from fermentation due to a high level of a certain carbohydrate in these foods. Continue reading >>

How Are Carbohydrates Broken Down?

How Are Carbohydrates Broken Down?

Carolyn Robbins began writing in 2006. Her work appears on various websites and covers various topics including neuroscience, physiology, nutrition and fitness. Robbins graduated with a bachelor of science degree in biology and theology from Saint Vincent College. Refined carbohydrates cause your blood sugar to spike and crash.Photo Credit: Comstock/Stockbyte/Getty Images A powdered-sugar doughnut and a chewy, whole-grain baguette are both carbohydrates, but they are broken down differently by the body. Carbohydrates fall into three basic categories: sugars, starches and cellulose. Simple sugars, or monosaccharies -- such as might be found in your doughnut -- are digested very quickly. More complex di- and polysaccharides are broken down through a series of enzymatic reactions and take longer to digest. Cellulose, which is tough plant fiber, cannot be broken down at all and passes straight through your digestive tract. The breakdown of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, where your teeth tear, grind and mash food into bits small enough to slide down the esophagus. The mashed food is moistened by juicy saliva, which contains digestive enzymes and other chemicals. An enzyme called amylase is instrumental in the digestion of starch, which is broken down into maltose, dextrins and glucose before it leaves your mouth. Your tongue forces food to the back of your mouth, and as you swallow, the masticated carbohydrates travel through the esophagus to the stomach. The muscular walls churn food together with strong acids that assist in the breakdown of food. The acids are not specific to carbohydrates, so they function in the same way for all macronutrients. Most of the digestive action for carbohydrates happens in the small intestines. Any starches still intact are broken down b Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar