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What Are The Two Types Of Diabetes, And How Do They Differ In Cause And Treatment?

Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities The importance of strict glycemic control to limit the risk of diabetic vascular complications is indisputable, but many barriers obstruct its attainment. Hypoglycemia is recognized to be a major limitation in achieving good control in type 1 diabetes (1) but has been considered to be a minor problem of the treatment modalities used for type 2 diabetes (2). This may be a misperception based on inadequate information. The burden of covert hypoglycemia associated with oral antidiabetic agents may be underestimated, and with the increasing use of insulin to treat type 2 diabetes, the actual prevalence of hypoglycemia is likely to escalate. The frequency and pathophysiology of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes and the relationship to different therapies was reviewed by conducting a literature search using the bibliographic database PubMed to identify publications in English from 1984 until 2005 related to hypoglycemia associated with treatment of type 2 diabetes, and the bibliographies of relevant articles were scrutinized for additional citations. Search terms included “type 2 diabetes,” “NIDDM,” “non-insulin-dependent diabetes,” “hypoglycemia,” and “hypoglycaemia.” PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HYPOGLYCEMIA Normal physiological responses to hypoglycemia The human brain primarily uses glucose as its source of energy. Under normal conditions, the brain is unable to synthesize or store glucose and is exquisitely vulnerable to glucose deprivation. To protect the integrity of the brain, several physiological mechanisms have evolved to respond to and limit the effects of hypoglycemia (3–6). In humans, the initial response to a decline in blood glucose is suppression of endogenous insulin secretio Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Main Document Diabetes is referred to by the medical world as, 'Diabetes Mellitus,' and is a set of diseases where the person's body is unable to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. The particular form of sugar that the person with diabetes is unable to regulate is called, 'glucose,' and is used in the body to give the person energy in order to do things in daily life such as walking, running, riding a bike, exercising, or other tasks. From food that people eat, the liver produces glucose and puts it into their blood. In persons without diabetes, glucose levels are regulated by a number of hormones including one known as, 'Insulin.' An organ called the, 'Pancreas,' produces insulin, and also secretes additional enzymes which aid in the digestion of food. Insulin helps the movement of glucose through a person's blood into different cells, including muscle, fat, and liver cells so it can be used to fuel activity. Several forms of diabetes involve the inability to both produce or use insulin properly. Persons with diabetes are unable to move glucose from their blood into their cells. The result is that the glucos Continue reading >>

The Differences & Similarities Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

The Differences & Similarities Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

“Oh, you have diabetes? That’s where you can’t eat sugar and have to poke yourself with needles and stuff because you ate too much candy as a kid…right?” *sigh* Wrong. Most people have no clue what diabetes is let alone that there is more than one type of diabetes. Type 1, type 2, LADA, MODY, and gestational are just some classification examples of diabetes. All have a range of differences and similarities but the two most common forms are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As type 1 and type 2 diabetics [should] know, there are a few major differences between the two conditions which, all too often, get confused and misconstrued by the public. Yet, there are also a few similarities that get overlooked even among people in the diabetic community. Take a look at these two major forms of diabetes and make sure you can not only distinguish the differences but also share the similarities. Similarities Symptoms The symptoms for both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are identical in most ways. Both conditions involve three distinct symptoms prior to diagnosis: Polyuria – excessive urination often due to high blood sugar Polydipsia – excessive thirst Polyphagia – excessive hunger In type 2 diabetes, symptoms tend to be more gradual than type 1 but they both still share these symptoms along with the other usual byproducts of diabetes like high and low blood sugar, increased agitation, shaky/sweaty blood sugar reactions, as well as the more severe hypoglycemic events that can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Complications People often ask “so, do you have the bad kind of diabetes” and it kind of makes my ears bleed. There is no “good kind” of diabetes and anyone who thinks there is either doesn’t understand diabetes or is living in a warped world of “th Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

Diabetes Types

Diabetes Types

There are three main types of diabetes: Diabetes type 1 Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin replacement for survival. The disease can occur at any age, although it mostly occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes referred to as 'juvenile onset diabetes' or 'insulin dependent diabetes'. Personal story: diabetes mellitus type 1 Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be both emotionally and practically challenging. Listening to others who have experienced similar situations is often re-assuring and can be helpful for you, your loved ones or when preparing questions for your doctor or a specialist. Watch this video about a patient's experience after being diagnosed with diabetes type 1. Play Video Play Mute Current Time 0:00 / Duration Time 0:00 Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Stream TypeLIVE Remaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate 1 Chapters Chapters descriptions off, selected Descriptions subtitles off, selected Subtitles captions settings, opens captions settings dialog captions off, selected Captions Audio Track Fullscreen This is a modal window. Caption Settings Dialog Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaque Font Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400% Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadow Font FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifC Continue reading >>

3 Types Of Diabetes

3 Types Of Diabetes

More than 10 percent of U.S. women over the age of 20 have diabetes, and many of these cases are undiagnosed, according to the American Diabetes Association. Having diabetes not only affects the way you live your day-to-day life but can increase your risks for a number of other health conditions, especially if it goes untreated. There are three main types of diabetes—type 1, type 2 and gestational—and each can affect your body in different ways and may require different treatments. Here's some basic information about each one. Type 1 Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes and previously known as juvenile diabetes, is a condition in which the pancreas doesn't produce enough—or any—insulin. Insulin is a hormone that your body needs to let sugar (glucose) into your cells to produce energy. Type 1 diabetes usually develops during childhood or adolescence, but it can occur in adults. If you notice that you feel very thirsty, urinate frequently, feel extremely hungry, are losing weight, feel fatigued or experience blurred vision, talk to your health care provider. These can all be symptoms of diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need insulin therapy. Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In this type, your body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use it properly. Initially, your pancreas may make extra insulin, but over time it can't make enough to keep up. Without insulin to bring glucose to your cells for energy, too much glucose can build up in the blood, which can starve your cells of energy and result in a number of problems over time. Symptoms are similar to type 1 diabetes, though sometimes milder. Weight loss is not a symptom of type 2, but tingling or numbness in the hands or feet may be. If you have t Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes – where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body's cells don't react to insulin Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes. Pre-diabetes Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. When to see a doctor Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include: urinating more frequently than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk cuts or wounds that heal slowly blurred vision Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general. Causes of diabetes The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it's broken down to produce ene Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

What are the differences between the causes of type 1 and type 2? The underlying causes of type 1 and type 2 are different. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is believed to be due to an autoimmune process, in which the body's immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues (islet cells in the pancreas). In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas that are responsible for insulin production are attacked by the misdirected immune system. This tendency for the immune system to destroy the beta cells of the pancreas is likely to be, at least in part, genetically inherited, although the exact reasons that this process happens are not fully understood. Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins have been suggested as possible reasons why the abnormal antibody responses develop that cause damage to the pancreas cells. The primary problem in type 2 diabetes is the inability of the body's cells to use insulin properly and efficiently, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and diabetes. This problem affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that worsens the process of elevated blood sugars. At the beginning, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can at least partially increase production of insulin enough to overcome the level of resistance. Over time, if production decreases and enough insulin cannot be released, blood sugar levels rise. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin, but the body is not able to use it effectively. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the ce Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin, which acts like a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells for use as energy. If you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isn’t enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream, which over time can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease. There isn’t a cure yet for diabetes, but healthy lifestyle habits, taking medicine as needed, getting diabetes self-management education, and keeping appointments with your health care team can greatly reduce its impact on your life. 30.3 million US adults have diabetes, and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US. Diabetes is the No. 1 cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and adult-onset blindness. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than tripled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese. Types of Diabetes There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant). Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. About 5% of the people who have diabetes have type 1. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. It’s usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

The Type 1 Versus Type 2 Diabetes War

The Type 1 Versus Type 2 Diabetes War

DiabetesHealth.com recently published “What People with Type 1 Diabetes can Learn from Type 2s.” Clay Wirestone, the author, set off a firestorm of comments, mostly from people with type 1 diabetes. Comments were in the vein of, “How dare you tell me I can learn something from those lazy, fat type 2s!” Here’s a sampling of comments: “I’m type 1, and... it aggravates me when people with type 2... whine. You know why? Because... I’m stuck on insulin for the rest of my life... I don’t want to hear complaining from people who have it easier than me. I have the world’s smallest violin playing for them. :)” “I have been a type 1 for 43 years. I have told my doctor... that I wish type 1 was called diabetes and type 2 was given a totally different name. They are NOT the same disease! Try and explain that to non-diabetics. Listen very carefully. I cannot take a day off. If I eat everything my dietitian suggests, I must still check my blood glucose four to seven times per day and take numerous injections ... How many type 2’s have been unconscious in the middle of the night due to low blood sugar?” “As a long-standing T1 (37 years — I was diagnosed in 1973 at the age of 17 months) AND as a Registered Nurse Certified Diabetes Educator, I am appalled... The author obviously has no idea what T1, or for that matter, T2 patients go through on a daily basis.The media needs to be scolded when they fail to define the differences between T1 & T2.” Shall we say Wirestone opened Pandora’s box. With the recent explosion of media coverage for type 2 diabetes, people with type 1 diabetes feel invisible, overlooked and are often blamed by an unknowing public for causing their own condition—eating ourselves into our disease. This isn’t the case for type 1, Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations: The pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) produces little insulin or no insulin at all. (Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which helps the body use sugar for energy.) -Or- The pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin made does not work as it should. This condition is called insulin resistance. To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy (a process called metabolism). Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose provides the energy your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessels and blood are the highways that transport sugar from where it is either taken in (the stomach) or manufactured (in the liver) to the cells where it is used (muscles) or where it is stored (fat). Sugar cannot go into the cells by itself. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, which serves as the helper, or the "key," that lets sugar into the cells for use as energy. When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells, the blood sugar level is lowered. Without insulin, or the "key," sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This causes sugar to rise. Too much sugar in the blood is called "hyperglycemia" (high blood sugar) or diabetes. What are the types of diabetes? There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2: Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Treatments, And Manifestations In Several Different Ethnicities

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Treatments, And Manifestations In Several Different Ethnicities

Binghamton University Abstract Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease across the world. It manifests itself by unusually large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine and afflicts various populations. There are numerous causes for this disorder, and genetics often plays a role. This paper discusses types of diabetes, their causes, and the treatments. Diet, medical care, and self-management techniques play roles in dealing with diabetes. Introduction Diabetes is a disease caused by flawed carbohydrate metabolism and manifests itself by unusually large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine (Jacobs & Fishberg, 2002, p. 1). There are numerous causes for this disorder, some strengthened by genetic predisposition. This paper will focus on the disorder as it manifests itself in the Jewish, Latino, and African-American populations with regard to diet, access to medical care, and compliance with self-management techniques. Discussion A rapidly growing disease across America and the world is diabetes, lesser known as diabetes mellitus (Marso & Stern, 2004, p. 179). There are 20.8 million children and adults in the United States, or 7 percent of the population, who have diabetes. Diabetes is a syndrome in which the afflicted person has a distorted metabolism. There are three traditional types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is expressed as loss of beta cells that produce insulin, leading to an insulin deficiency. Type 2 is characterized as diabetes due to insulin sensitivity, combined with reduced insulin secretion. Gestational diabetes bears a resemblance to type 2 diabetes in that there is also inadequate insulin responsiveness and secretion. The newest addition to the traditional types is a new variation on type 2 diabetes. It is called M Continue reading >>

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