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What Are The Symptoms Of Low Blood Sugar In Pregnancy?

Hypoglycaemia (low Blood Sugar) In Newborns

Hypoglycaemia (low Blood Sugar) In Newborns

What is hypoglycaemia? Hypoglycaemia means low blood sugar. Your baby's sugar levels are regulated by his hormones, the key hormone being insulin. Insulin helps his body to store sugar (blood glucose) and release it when he needs it. When everything is working well, your baby's hormones keep his blood sugar levels balanced. When the balance is out, hypoglycaemia can happen. If your baby's blood sugar is low and it is not treated, it could be harmful to his health. Low blood sugar that isn't picked up can even lead to a baby's brain being damaged. That's why your midwife or doctor will closely monitor your baby to make sure he stays well. Rest assured that if your baby is not premature, and is otherwise healthy, he is unlikely to have low blood sugar. What causes hypoglycaemia in newborns? Your baby's blood sugar levels go down in the first few hours after birth, which is completely normal. Your baby gets his glucose from milk. When your baby has just had a feed, his sugar levels will go up. As the next feed draws closer, his sugar levels will start to dip. Keeping the right level of sugar in the blood is a delicate balancing act. Most healthy babies can cope easily with these normal ups and downs in blood sugar level. If you feed your baby whenever he wants, he will take the milk he needs to ensure his sugar levels remain balanced. However, some babies can be at risk, including babies born to mums who have diabetes. These babies may produce too much insulin when they are born, making them prone to lower blood sugar levels. Babies are also susceptible to hypoglycaemia if they: were born prematurely or very small had breathing difficulties at birth have suffered excessive coldness, or hypothermia have an infection Low blood sugar in newborns can usually be reversed quickl Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Overview Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant women can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you and your baby healthy. In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood sugar. Symptoms For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms. When to see a doctor If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can evaluate your risk of gestational diabetes as part of your overall childbearing wellness plan. Once you're pregnant, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need more-frequent checkups. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health. Your doctor may refer you to additional health professionals who specialize in diabetes, such as an endocrinologist, a registered dietitian or a diabetes educator. They can help you learn to manage your blood sugar level during your pregnancy. To make sure your blood sugar level has returned to normal after your baby is born, your health care team wil Continue reading >>

Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low

Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low

Within certain limits, the lower your blood pressure reading is, the better. There is also no specific number at which day-to-day blood pressure is considered too low, as long as none of the symptoms of trouble are present. Symptoms of low blood pressure Most doctors will only consider chronically low blood pressure as dangerous if it causes noticeable signs and symptoms, such as: Dizziness or lightheadedness Nausea Dehydration and unusual thirst Dehydration can sometimes cause blood pressure to drop. However, dehydration does not always cause low blood pressure. Fever, vomiting, severe diarrhea, overuse of diuretics and strenuous exercise can all lead to dehydration, a potentially serious condition in which your body loses more water than you take in. Even mild dehydration (a loss of as little as 1 percent to 2 percent of body weight) can cause weakness, dizziness and fatigue. Lack of concentration Blurred vision Cold, clammy, pale skin Rapid, shallow breathing Fatigue Depression Underlying causes of low blood pressure Low blood pressure can occur with: Prolonged bed rest Pregnancy During the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, it’s common for blood pressure to drop. Decreases in blood volume A decrease in blood volume can also cause blood pressure to drop. A significant loss of blood from major trauma, dehydration or severe internal bleeding reduces blood volume, leading to a severe drop in blood pressure. Certain medications A number of drugs can cause low blood pressure, including diuretics and other drugs that treat hypertension; heart medications such as beta blockers; drugs for Parkinson’s disease; tricyclic antidepressants; erectile dysfunction drugs, particularly in combination with nitroglycerine; narcotics and alcohol. Other prescription and over-the-counter dru Continue reading >>

Treatment

Treatment

If you have gestational diabetes, the chances of having problems with the pregnancy can be reduced by controlling your blood sugar (glucose) levels. You'll also need to be more closely monitored during pregnancy and labour to check if treatment is working and to check for any problems. Checking your blood sugar level You'll be given a testing kit that you can use to check your blood sugar level. This involves using a finger-pricking device and putting a drop of blood on a testing strip. You'll be advised: how to test your blood sugar level correctly when and how often to test your blood sugar – most women with gestational diabetes are advised to test before breakfast and one hour after each meal what level you should be aiming for – this will be a measurement given in millimoles of glucose per litre of blood (mmol/l) Diabetes UK has more information about monitoring your glucose levels. Diet Making changes to your diet can help control your blood sugar level. You should be offered a referral to a dietitian, who can give you advice about your diet, and you may be given a leaflet to help you plan your meals. You may be advised to: eat regularly – usually three meals a day – and avoid skipping meals eat starchy and low glycaemic index (GI) foods that release sugar slowly – such as wholewheat pasta, brown rice, granary bread, all-bran cereals, pulses, beans, lentils, muesli and porridge eat plenty of fruit and vegetables – aim for at least five portions a day avoid sugary foods – you don't need a completely sugar-free diet, but try to swap snacks such as cakes and biscuits for healthier alternatives such as fruit, nuts and seeds avoid sugary drinks – sugar-free or diet drinks are better than sugary versions; be aware that fruit juices and smoothies contain s Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes | Diet And Symptoms

Gestational Diabetes | Diet And Symptoms

In my clinic, I'm seeing a growing number of cases of gestational diabetes. It's definitely on the increase, most likely due to our high carbohydrate diet and lack of proteins. Diabetes is a very common condition where there is too much glucose in the blood. Insulin (continuously produced in the pancreas) is the hormone responsible for lowering blood glucose levels. Insulin transports glucose from the blood stream into cells of the body for energy. Due to our poor diets these days, we are putting ourselves at increased risk of gestational diabetes. Not only that, but also type 2 diabetes, which can occur once you have had gestational diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Symptoms Gestational diabetes usually has no obvious symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they can include: Unusual thirst Excessive urination Tiredness Thrush (yeast infections) Gestational Diabetes Risk Factors Below is a list of risk factors for gestational diabetes: Family history of type 2 diabetes. Having a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes leads to lifetime risk of 40%. Similarly 25% to 33% of all type 2 diabetics have a family history of the condition Older than 40 years of age Excess body fat, particularly if you're ‘apple shaped' with a waist circumference greater than 88 cm Sedentary lifestyle with a diet high grains and refined carbohydrates Glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension History of gestational diabetes History of polycystic ovarian syndrome History of assisted reproduction (IVF, IUI, ICSI etc) Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, Pacific Islander, Indian or Chinese, African American, Hispanic American, and Native American descent Low birth weight and/or malnutrition in pregnancy may cause metabolic abnormalities in a foetus that later lead to diabetes Gestational Diabetes Continue reading >>

Low Levels With Gestational Diabetes - How Low Is Too Low?

Low Levels With Gestational Diabetes - How Low Is Too Low?

Many women diagnosed with gestational diabetes are not given much information or advice around low levels. A question that we get asked frequently in our Facebook support group, is "how low is too low?" Levels below 2.0mmol/L should be reported to a health care professional, but if they are just lower than normal then please continue reading... The answer to this question differs depending on how your gestational diabetes is controlled: If you take Insulin or Glibenclamide:- If you are taking Glibenclamide or Insulin to help control your blood sugar levels (at any point in the day) then levels below 4.0mmol/L are classed as 'too low', a good phrase to remember is "four is the floor" As Glibenclamide is a sulfonylureas medicine it can cause hypoglycaemia (or hypos), the same as insulin. Please note: some medical teams may advise that a hypo is a blood sugar level below 3.5mmol/L rather than 4.0mmol/L. To learn more about hypos and how to treat them, please read more here. If you do not take any medication OR if you use Metformin:- If you are controlling your blood sugar levels with dietary changes alone OR with Metformin then you cannot have a true 'life threatening' hypo and lower levels should not be a cause of concern. You may experience low levels (e.g. levels below 4.0mmol/L) and have 'hypo type symptoms', which can be unpleasant, but there is no need to treat the hypo symptoms with glucose to raise levels, in fact this can worsen the problem. Eating a normal, gestational diabetes suitable snack will raise levels enough and should make you feel better. This is known as a 'false hypo'. More information on false hypos can be found on our false hypo page. Low levels below my lower test target Ladies often get concerned when their levels are below or towards the lower e Continue reading >>

Early Signs Of Pregnancy

Early Signs Of Pregnancy

Knowing you are pregnant sooner affords you an early start on a healthier pregnancy for both you and your baby. Most women know the basic early signs of pregnancy, especially a expected period. But that's not the only sign. If you're wondering whether or not you're pregnant, it's probably time to take a pregnancy test – especially if you're experiencing any of the following early pregnancy symptoms. Early Symptoms & Signs Or, afternoon sickness. Or, evening sickness. Nausea – with or without vomiting – can occur any time of day starting as early as three weeks after conception and it’s one of the most common early signs of pregnancy. These bouts can be caused by rapidly rising hormone levels, which cause the stomach to empty more slowly. Early on, progesterone levels peak, making you feel sleepy. High progesterone — combined with lower blood sugar levels, lower blood pressure and increased blood production — may leave you feeling drained. Take it easy and get that sleep while you can. Often, one of the first early pregnancy signs women notice is that their breasts may feel tingly or sore as early as two to three weeks after conception. They may also feel fuller or heavier. Like most early signs of pregnancy, food preferences are typically thought to be the result of hormonal changes, especially during the dramatic shifts of the first trimester. Sometimes women notice a small amount of bleeding, known as implantation bleeding, very early on in pregnancy. This happens when a fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus around 10-14 days after fertilization. Sometimes mistaken for a period, it's usually lighter, spottier and happens earlier. Increased production of progesterone means food makes its way through your intestines slower, leading to constipat Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Alternative names for gestational diabetes Diabetes in pregnancy What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is any level of sugar in the bloodstream above the normal range, which is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Blood glucose levels usually return to normal after the birth. However, some women who are diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy may have had diabetes before becoming pregnant, but had not been tested before the pregnancy. In addition, other types of diabetes other than gestational diabetes can appear during pregnancy. In these cases, the diabetes is unlikely to disappear after the baby is born. What causes gestational diabetes? The hormones that are secreted by the placenta make the mother’s body cells less responsive to insulin. This is known as insulin resistance. Insulin is the hormone that is secreted by the pancreas and results in the lowering of sugar levels in the bloodstream. It should be noted that all pregnancies have a degree of insulin resistance in order to make maternal nutrients available for the growing foetus. In pregnancy, the pancreas secretes increasing amounts of insulin to overcome the body’s increasing insulin resistance. If a woman does not secrete enough insulin during pregnancy, she is likely to develop gestational diabetes. What are the signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes may not cause any symptoms but even so, if not diagnosed, may still cause problems for both mother and baby. Gestational diabetes can result in bigger babies, so women whose babies seem to be big may be offered a test for gestational diabetes. How common is gestational diabetes? In general, gestational diabetes affects 2–9% of pregnancies worldwide. However, these figures vary widely depending on the woman’s ethnici Continue reading >>

Counteract Symptoms For Low Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

Counteract Symptoms For Low Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

During pregnancy, a woman can come across several health imbalances. Apart from mental stability, an expecting mother needs great care to stay physically fit without any health disorder. However, even the natural changes occurring in a woman’s body can make her a victim of low blood sugar levels. To regulate healthy blood sugar during pregnancy, the body is required to produce up to three times the usual amount of insulin to deal with any instability in glucose levels. A fall in blood sugar can be dangerous for women during pregnancy, as at later stages, the baby’s condition can worsen. When blood pressure rises during pregnancy along with unstable blood sugar levels then it gives rise to a condition called pre-eclampsia. Women who suffer from this infirmity condition, their babies are at higher risk of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. “According to recent reports, about 5% of women contract gestational diabetes in their 20th week of pregnancy.” Warning Symptoms Of Low Blood Sugar Or Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar signs during pregnancy can prove riskier. When the blood glucose levels reach 70mg/dl or drops further it can complicate and worsen the baby’s condition. The signs of hypoglycemia in pregnancy are very hard to treat alone as the body develops increased energy requirements. Some of the debilitating symptoms are: fatigue, nervous and anxiety attacks, shaking, headache, intense hunger, nausea, vomiting, frequent infections profuse sweating, hot flashes, dizziness, confusion, irritability and blurred vision. An expecting woman should plan activities well in order to ensure that her body strength and state of health remain at safer levels. The body has its own defense mechanism, so when blood glucose counts drop, the brain triggers a function to level the decre Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

Hypoglycemia In Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

Predictors and role of metabolic control Abstract OBJECTIVE—In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated occurrence of mild and severe hypoglycemia and analyzed the influence of strict metabolic control, nausea, vomiting, and other potential predictors of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A prospective observational study of 108 consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes was conducted. At 8, 14, 21, 27, and 33 weeks of gestation, patients performed self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) (eight/day) for 3 days and completed a questionnaire on nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia awareness, and history of mild (managed by the patient) and severe (requiring assistance from others) hypoglycemia. RESULTS—Forty-nine (45%) women experienced 178 severe hypoglycemic events, corresponding to 5.3, 2.4, and 0.5 events/patient-year in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. The incidence of mild hypoglycemia was 5.5 events/patient-week in early pregnancy and decreased throughout pregnancy (P < 0.0001), regardless of presence of severe hypoglycemia. Prevalence of nausea and vomiting, mild hypoglycemia, and fraction of SMPG readings ≤3.9 mmol/l did not differ between women with and without severe hypoglycemia. A1C, median SMPG, and fluctuations in SMPG decreased during pregnancy, with no differences between women with and without severe hypoglycemia. Logistic regression analysis identified history of severe hypoglycemia the year preceding pregnancy (odds ratio 3.3 [95% CI 1.2–9.2]) and impaired awareness or unawareness (3.2 [1.2–8.2]) as independent predictors for severe hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS—In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, the incidence of mild and severe hypoglycemia was highest in early pregnancy, although metabolic c Continue reading >>

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Definition A fetus (baby) of a mother with diabetes may be exposed to high blood sugar (glucose) levels throughout the pregnancy. Alternative Names IDM; Gestational diabetes - IDM; Neonatal care - diabetic mother Causes Women may have diabetes during pregnancy in 2 ways: Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Other women have type 1 diabetes before their pregnancy begins. If the diabetes is not well controlled during pregnancy, the baby is exposed to high blood sugar levels. This can affect the baby and mom during the pregnancy, at the time of birth, and after birth. Infants who are born to mothers with diabetes are often larger than other babies. Larger infants make vaginal birth harder. This can increase the risk for nerve injuries and other trauma during birth. Also, C-sections are more likely. The infant is more likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth, and during first few days of life. Mothers with poorly controlled diabetes are also more likely to have a miscarriage or stillborn child. If the mother had diabetes before her pregnancy, her infant has an increased risk of birth defects if the disease was not well controlled. Symptoms The infant is often larger than most babies born after the same amount of time in the mother's womb (called gestational age.) Other symptoms, mostly caused by low blood sugar, may include: Blue or patchy (mottled) skin color, rapid heart rate, rapid breathing (signs of immature lungs or heart failure) Newborn jaundice (yellow skin) Poor feeding, lethargy, weak cry, seizures (signs of severe low blood sugar) Puffy face Reddish appearance Tremors or shaking shortly after birth Exams and Tests Before the baby is born: Ultrasound performed o Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes In Pregnancy?

What Is Diabetes In Pregnancy?

Having diabetes means that there is too much sugar (glucose) in your blood. Some women have diabetes before they get pregnant. Others start having it during pregnancy. Diabetes that starts during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. If you had diabetes before you became pregnant, it may get harder for you to control your sugar levels during pregnancy. Pregnancy can make both high and low blood sugar levels happen more often. It can make diabetic eye, kidney, heart, blood vessel, and nerve problems worse. You may need to change your insulin dosage. If you were not using insulin before the pregnancy, you may need to use it while you are pregnant. If you develop diabetes during pregnancy, you may need to start a special diet. You may need to have insulin shots or take a pill to help control your blood sugar. If diabetes is not treated well before and during pregnancy, and your sugars are poorly controlled, these problems might occur: The high sugar levels in your blood might cause the baby to get too big before birth. Very large babies tend to have more problems. Babies who are very large or have other problems may need to be delivered by C section. If delivered vaginally, a big baby is slightly more likely to have an injury at the time of delivery. The baby might have birth defects, such as problems with the heart, kidney, spine, or brain. Some of these problems may be life threatening. You might have high blood pressure during the pregnancy, which can cause problems for both you and the baby. You may develop ketones in your blood and urine when you have very high blood sugar. This can cause a very serious, life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. You might go into labor early. The baby might need to be delivered early. After delivery the baby’s blo Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments

Hypoglycemia in dogs is the condition of having low blood sugar, which results in symptoms that mostly relate to an affected dog’s energy level. It can be caused by underlying conditions or exposure to certain substances. When it becomes severe, hypoglycemia can cause pain, seizures, unconsciousness, and even death in canines. Sugar, which takes the form of glucose, provides energy for your dog’s entire body. When the blood sugar level is too low, it will eventually affect the organs and brain function. That’s why it is important to consult your veterinarian if you see signs that your dog might be hypoglycemic. Here is what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for hypoglycemia in dogs. Symptoms Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs Symptoms of hypoglycemia in dogs usually begin mildly with signs of low energy, but the condition can progress to more dangerous symptoms quickly if left untreated. Sometimes these symptoms come and go, while other times they are persistent. If you spot the following signs that your dog is hypoglycemic, you should take them to the vet immediately. Lethargy Slow response to stimuli Weakness Loss of coordination Increased thirst or urination Decreased or increased appetite Weight gain Muscle spasms Trembling Irregular heart rate or breathing Paralysis of the hind legs Seizures Blindness Collapse or unconsciousness Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs Hypoglycemia in dogs can be caused by a number of underlying conditions, or it can be the result of exposure to certain substances. It results from glucose being removed from the bloodstream, an inadequate amount of glucose from diet, or low production of glucose from glycogen stores by the liver. Any condition that affects glucose levels could result in hypoglycemia. Here are several known Continue reading >>

Low Blood Sugar - Newborns

Low Blood Sugar - Newborns

Babies need blood sugar (glucose) for energy. Most of that glucose is used by the brain. The baby gets glucose from the mother through the placenta before birth. After birth, the baby gets glucose from the mother through her milk or from formula, and the baby also produces it in the liver. Glucose level can drop if: There is too much insulin in the blood. Insulin is a hormone that pulls glucose from the blood. The baby is not producing enough glucose. The baby's body is using more glucose than is being produced. The baby is not able to feed enough to keep the glucose level up. Neonatal hypoglycemia occurs when the newborn's glucose level causes symptoms or is below the level considered safe for the baby's age. It occurs in about 1 to 3 out of every 1,000 births. Low blood sugar level is more likely in infants with one or more of these risk factors: Born early, has a serious infection, or needed oxygen right after delivery Mother has diabetes (these infants are often larger than normal) Have slower than usual growth in the womb during pregnancy Continue reading >>

Low Blood Pressure During Pregnancy? Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Low Blood Pressure During Pregnancy? Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Finding out that your blood pressure is low can be alarming – especially when you’re pregnant. But in many cases, low blood pressure is normal in pregnant women. It may also be a sign of something more serious, especially if other symptoms are present. Why are pregnantwomen more susceptible to low blood pressure, and is there anything you can do to prevent it? Understanding Blood Pressure Blood pressure is a reading of the pressure in your arteries during the resting and active phases of every heartbeat. There are two numbers included in each reading: Systolic: This is the first, or top, number and relates to the amount of pressure your heart is generating when it’s pumping blood. Diastolic: This is the second, or bottom, number and relates to the amount of pressure in your arteries when your heart is resting (in between each beat). Medically speaking, a person is considered to have low blood pressure if their reading is lower than 120/80 mmHg. What Causes Low Blood Pressure during a Pregnancy? It’s not uncommon for blood pressure to fluctuate throughout a pregnancy. For many women, their blood pressure changes on a daily basis depending on what they’re doing. Typically, women experience a drop in blood pressure during the first and second trimester. Early on in the pregnancy, your body is producing an immense amount of hormones, mostly progesterone. Progesterone relaxes blood vessel walls, which can cause your blood pressure to plummet. As you inch closer to the third trimester, your blood pressure will slowly start to return to pre-pregnancy levels. Don’t worry – your doctor or midwife will be keeping a close eye on your blood pressure levels throughout your pregnancy and will let you know if it’s ever in the abnormal range. Other causes of low blood p Continue reading >>

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