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What Are Glucose And Fructose Examples Of?

Sugars: The Difference Between Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose

Sugars: The Difference Between Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose

29/06/2016 7:43 AM AEST | Updated 15/07/2016 12:56 PM AEST Sugars: The Difference Between Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose We're not just confused, we're also misinformed. "Fructose is the worst for you." "No way, sucrose is the devil." "I don't eat any sugar." Sugar is confusing. While some people only use certain types of sugars, others dismiss them completely. But is this necessary, or even grounded? To help settle the confusion, we spoke to Alan Barclay -- accredited practising dietitian, spokesperson for the Dietitians Association of Australia and Chief Scientific Officer at the Glycemic Index Foundation . "All the sugars are used as a source of fuel, but there are subtle differences in the way they are digested and absorbed," Barclay said. "In foods in Australia, the most common sugars are monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose), but mostly these are occurring as disaccharides (which are sucrose, lactose and maltose)." Monosaccharides and disaccharides are two kinds of simple sugars, which are a form of carbohydrate. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, on the other hand, contain more sugar combinations and are known as complex carbohydrates -- for example, whole grain breads, brown rice and sweet potatoes. Monosaccharides require the least effort by the body to break down, meaning they are available for energy more quickly than disaccharides. "Monosaccharides don't require any digestion and can be absorbed into the mouth," Barclay said. "The problem there is they can cause dental caries which is one of the primary reasons why we need to be careful of how much added sugar we're consuming." Glucose -- the body's main source of energy and is found in fruit such as pasta, whole grain bread, legumes and a range of vegetables. Fructose -- this 'fruit sugar' fo Continue reading >>

Simple Sugars: Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose

Simple Sugars: Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose

Simple sugars are carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and sucrose is a disaccharide of the two combined with a bond. Glucose and fructose have the same molecular formula (C6H12O6) but glucose has a six member ring and fructose has a five member ring structure. Fructose is known as the fruit sugar as its make source in the diet is fruits and vegetables. Honey is also a good source. Glucose is known as grape sugar, blood sugar or corn sugar as these are its riches sources. Listed in food ingredients as dextrose. Sucrose is the sugar we know as sugar or table sugar. Typically extracted as cane or beet sugar. If sucrose is treated with acid or heat, it hydrolyzes to form glucose and fructose. This mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose is also called invert sugar. Nutritionally, these sugars are the same as they all provide 4 Cal/g. This is true for starch and other digestible carbohydrates too. Of the three sugars, fructose is the sweetest and glucose the least sweet, so typically less fructose can be used than table sugar (sucrose) – if sucrose has a sweetness of one, fructose is 1.7 and glucose 0.74 Fructose is more soluble than other sugars and hard to crystallize because it is more hygroscopic and holds onto water stronger than the others. This means that fructose can be used to extend the shelf life of baked products more than other sugars. Wikipedia has lots information on sugars, including information on the three I am interested in fructose, glucose and sucrose. Continue reading >>

Glucose, Fructose & Sucrose

Glucose, Fructose & Sucrose

Kristin Janney is a registered dietitian with a passion for helping others make positive lifestyle changes through sound nutrition. She completed her bachelor's and master's degrees in dietetics and community nutrition. Cancer prevention, diabetes management and prevention, weight management, and program planning are amongst her highest interests. Which Fruits Have the Most Natural Sugar? Americans consume vast amounts of sugar, with an estimated intake of 180 pounds per person per year. Sugar makes food taste sweeter and last longer, and helps improve texture, but the carbohydrate may not be so sweet for your health. Sugar is a broad term that encompasses many small groups of sweeteners. Glucose, fructose and sucrose are three types of sugar. Sugar comes in many forms. Some sugars come from natural sources such as fruits, vegetables, sugar cane and sugar beets. Sugars can supply many of the calories you eat. A sugar is a carbohydrate and contains 4 calories per gram. Simple sugars, known as monosaccharides, are made of single molecules. Disaccharides are two monosaccharides bonded together. Many sugars we eat are made up of multiple types of basic sugar. For example, an apple contains both fructose and glucose. Glucose, also known as dextrose, is the most common sugar and the type of sugar that your body uses for fuel. It is the sugar measured in your blood during a fasting blood glucose test. This sugar is commonly found in fruits, vegetables and honey and it is a component of corn syrup. Fructose is the natural sugar that sweetens fruits and it is also present in honey and some vegetables. It is most commonly known as a component of high-fructose corn syrup. Fructose, which is the sweetest of all granulated sugars, is about 1.2 times as sweet as table sugar, reports Continue reading >>

Foods Containing Glucose Or Fructose

Foods Containing Glucose Or Fructose

Bethany Fong is a registered dietitian and chef from Honolulu. She has produced a variety of health education materials and worked in wellness industries such as clinical dietetics, food service management and public health. bowl of raw sugarPhoto Credit: S847/iStock/Getty Images Glucose and fructose are simple sugars or monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and can be combined to form more complex carbohydrates like disaccharides and polysaccharides. Examples of disaccharides and polysaccharides are sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and starch. Most foods contain glucose, fructose or both. Carbohydrates like glucose and fructose are the bodys main source of energy. raspberry jamPhoto Credit: bit245/iStock/Getty Images Glucose and fructose are naturally found in fresh fruits and vegetables. They are also in fruit and vegetable products made with added sugar because glucose and fructose combine to form common table sugar. Examples include jams, jellies, chutneys, canned fruits and vegetables, dried or candied fruits and vegetables, frozen fruit concentrates, fruit pie fillings, fruit drinks, ketchup, pickled sweet cucumbers and relish. bowl of granolaPhoto Credit: /iStock/Getty Images Grains contain glucose but do not naturally contain fructose. However, grain products that are made with sugar will contain both glucose and fructose. This includes bread, baked goods, desserts, snack foods like chips and crackers, instant oatmeal, cereal, granola, frozen pastry dough and instant rice and pasta. hot chocolate with whipped creamPhoto Credit: Jaren Wicklund/iStock/Getty Images Plain dairy products like milk, yogurt and cheese are a natural source of glucose because glucose is a building block for lactose, the sugar found in milk. D Continue reading >>

Disaccharide

Disaccharide

Sucrose, a disaccharide formed from condensation of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or biose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides). The most common types of disaccharides—sucrose, lactose, and maltose—have twelve carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11. The differences in these disaccharides are due to atomic arrangements within the molecule.[3] The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called a disaccharidase. As building the larger sugar ejects a water molecule, breaking it down consumes a water molecule. These reactions are vital in metabolism. Each disaccharide is broken down with the help of a corresponding disaccharidase (sucrase, lactase, and maltase). Classification[edit] There are two functionally different classes of disaccharides: Reducing disaccharides, in which one monosaccharide, the reducing sugar of the pair, still has a free hemiacetal unit that can perform as a reducing aldehyde group; cellobiose and maltose are examples of reducing disaccharides, each with one hemiacetal unit, the other occupied by the glycosidic bond, which prevents it from acting as a reducing agent. Non-reducing disaccharides, in which the component mo Continue reading >>

Chapter 04: Carbohydrates

Chapter 04: Carbohydrates

1. Plants use carbon dioxide, water, and the sun's energy in the process of photosynthesis to synthesize a. fat. b. protein. c. carbohydrate. d. alcohol. ANS: C Plants synthesize carbohydrate via photosynthesis. Fat and protein are produced by other metabolic processes in the plants. Living plants do not usually produce alcohol, although stored fruit or grain may ferment and produce some alcohol. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 61 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance 2. Fructose, galactose, and glucose are examples of a. disaccharides. b. polysaccharides. c. monosaccharides. d. complex carbohydrates. ANS: C Fructose, galactose, and glucose each consist of a single unit of carbohydrate and are therefore monosaccharides. Disaccharides consist of two carbohydrate units; polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates consist of several carbohydrate units. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 63 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance 3. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are examples of a. disaccharides. b. polysaccharides. c. monosaccharides. d. complex carbohydrates. ANS: A Sucrose, maltose, and lactose each consist of two units of carbohydrate and are therefore disaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of one carbohydrate unit; polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates consist of several carbohydrate units. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 63 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance 4. Glucose is a _____, often called _____ sugar. a. disaccharide; blood b. monosaccharide; blood c. disaccharide; milk d. monosaccharide; milk ANS: B Glucose is a monosaccharide and is the form of carbohydrate that travels in the blood, often call Continue reading >>

Background On Carbohydrates & Sugars

Background On Carbohydrates & Sugars

Carbohydrates and Sugars Carbohydrates are one of three basic macronutrients needed to sustain life (the other two are proteins and fats). They are found in a wide range of foods that bring a variety of other important nutrients to the diet, such as vitamins and minerals, phytochemicals, antioxidants, and dietary fiber. Fruits, vegetables, grain foods, and many dairy products naturally contain carbohydrates in varying amounts, including sugars, which are a type of carbohydrate that can add taste appeal to a nutritious diet. Carbohydrate Classification Carbohydrates encompass a broad range of sugars, starches, and fiber. The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a simple union of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The chemical definition of a carbohydrate is any compound containing these three elements and having twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen and carbon. Sugars in Foods When people hear the word “sugar” they often think of the familiar sweetener in the sugar bowl. That sugar is sucrose and is the most familiar form of sugar to home bakers. But there are many types of sugars, which scientists classify according to their chemical structure. Sugars occur naturally in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods. They can also be produced commercially and added to foods to heighten sweetness and for the many technical functions they perform, including: contributing to foods’ structure and texture, sweetening and flavor enhancement, controlling crystallization, providing a medium for the growth of yeast in baked goods, and preventing spoilage. The sweetening ability of sugar can promote the consumption of nutrient-rich foods that might not be otherwise be consumed. Some examples are a sprinkle of sugar added to oatmeal or adding sugar to cranberries in Continue reading >>

All About Fructose

All About Fructose

What is fructose? Fructose is a monosaccharide, the simplest form of carbohydrate. As the name implies, mono (one) saccharides (sugar) contain only one sugar group; thus, they can’t be broken down any further. Each subtype of carbohydrate has different effects in the body depending on the structure and source (i.e. what food it comes from). The chemical structure affects how quickly and/or easily the carbohydrate molecule is digested/absorbed. The source affects whether other nutrients are provided along with the carbohydrate. For example, both high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and fruit contain fructose, but their effects in the body are different. HFCS is essentially a simple fructose delivery system – there’s nothing else to it, while fruit contains additional nutrients along with fibre, which affect digestion and absorption of the fructose. Plus, the amount of fructose in the average apple is much less than, say, the average can of soda. Fructose has a unique texture, sweetness, rate of digestion, and degree of absorption that is different from glucose, which is the sugar that most of our ingested dietary carbohydrates become when they hit the bloodstream. Fructose is absorbed through the intestine via different mechanisms than glucose Fructose has a slower rate of uptake Unlike glucose, fructose does not stimulate a substantial insulin release Fructose is transported into cells via a different transporter than glucose Once fructose is in the liver, it can provide glycerol, the backbone of fat, and increase fat formation Some people may be unable to completely absorb fructose when given in a high dose of around 50 grams (Note: that’s an extremely high amount of fructose. We’re talking 4-5 medium apples. Yet a 16 oz juice with HFCS can provide around 45 grams Continue reading >>

What Is The Healthiest Sugar? (part 1)

What Is The Healthiest Sugar? (part 1)

I’ve been asked this question half a dozen times in recent weeks, so I think it’s time we had a little talk. There’s plenty of confusion, hype, and crazy anecdotes surrounding sugar these days. Heck, it seems the type of sugar you eat even reflects on the kind of person you are (or perhaps just the type of persona you want to project). It’s downright trendy to shun high fructose corn syrup (yup, I’m one of those “elitists,” but not for the typical reasons). Then there’s agave (lauded by hippies and yuppies alike), honey (unless you’re a vegan), brown rice syrup (for those outdoorsy energy-bar types)… well, the list goes on and on. Before we talk about the various sugar options, a little background is in order. (Forgive the science stuff, but it’s kind of important.) A Sugar Primer There are six key types of dietary sugar molecules. Three are single sugars, called monosaccharides. Glucose is the most common. It exists on its own, but is also the main building block of other sugars. It’s also the sugar that your body wants to use for energy (it’s often referred to as “blood sugar” or dextrose). Fructose is the sugar most commonly in — you guessed it — fruit. Important to note, though, is that a piece of fruit contains both fructose and glucose, to varying degrees depending on the type of fruit. The third relevant monosaccharide is galactose, which is found pretty much only in milk. Which brings us to the disaccharides. They’re made from chemically-bonded pairs of the single sugars (remember how the prefix “di-” means two?). Joining a glucose and a fructose will get you a molecule of sucrose. White table sugar, for one example, is pure sucrose — which means that table sugar is 50% glucose and 50% fructose. (Also of note: The lay-te Continue reading >>

Types Of Sugar

Types Of Sugar

There are several types of sugar. This page mentions some specific sugars but concentrates on the main categories of sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) and the relationship between these and certain larger carbohydrates. What is Sugar ? Definition of sugar : A sugar is a carbohydrate that is soluble in water. Sugars are usually crystalline and have a sweet taste. Chemicals that are sugars often have names ending in "-ose". For example, note the suffix "-ose" in fructose, glucose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose. The word-ending "-saccharide" does not necessarily indicate that the chemical or group or category of chemicals is a sugar. See more examples of prefixes and suffixes used in biology - general biology, not all medical terms. The two main categories of sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides. They are often described together with polysaccharides, and sometimes also oligosaccarides, due to the chemical relationship between these types of carbohydrates: Categories of sugars: Monosaccharides are simple ("unit") sugars. Disaccharides consist of molecules whose form is that of two monosaccharide molecules joined together. Categories of larger carbohydrate molecules formed from sugars: Oligosaccharides consist of molecules formed from a few (i.e. more than 2, but not "many") monosaccharide molecules joined together. Polysaccharides consist of molecules formed from many monosaccharide molecules attached together in the form of long chains. Courses covering the human digestive system and human diet and nutrition often include the following information about: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Oligosaccharides, and Polysaccharides 1. Monosaccharides Chemical Structure: Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars". Monosaccharides are the common base u Continue reading >>

Fructose - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Fructose - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Fructose is a 6-carbon ketose found in fruit and honey as a monosaccharide, and in sucrose (a disaccharide of fructose and glucose). J.M. Johnson, F.D. Conforti, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition) , 2003 Fructose is a monosaccharide. Fructose bonded with glucose, another monosaccharide, forms sucrose, or table sugar. Fructose also occurs naturally in abundance in fruits (Table 1) and in lesser amounts in tuberous vegetables such as onions and potatoes. These sources alone contribute some 4060% of an individual's total fructose intake. However, the major source of fructose as an ingredient in food is from the hydrolyzation of starch to glucose, which is then converted to fructose. (See CARBOHYDRATES | Classification and Properties.) Fruits are a rich source of mono- and disaccharides. Dates contain up to 48.5% sucrose, and dried figs contain a mixture of 30.9% fructose and 42.0% glucose. The sucrose content of most fruit and fruit juices is low, though some varieties of melons, peaches, pineapple, and tangerine contain 69% sucrose, and mango contains 11.6% sucrose. Reducing sugars (primarily a mixture of fructose and glucose) are the main soluble carbohydrate of most fruits and account for 70% of seedless raisins. Vegetables contain substantially less fructose and glucose than fruits, and the only significant source of sucrose is sugar beets. In the late 19th century corn or potato starch was hydrolyzed with dilute acid to yield glucose and dextrins for commercial purposes. In the 1940s, cornstarch was the primary choice for the production of glucose and the introduction of enzyme technology for hydrolysis reactions contributed to the development of glucose syrups to fructose syrups of specified glucose content. The conversion of glucose syr Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Sucrose, Glucose & Fructose?

What Is The Difference Between Sucrose, Glucose & Fructose?

Sucrose, glucose and fructose are important carbohydrates, commonly referred to as simple sugars. Sugar is found naturally in whole foods and is often added to processed foods to sweeten them and increase flavor. Your tongue can't quite distinguish between these sugars, but your body can tell the difference. They all provide the same amount of energy per gram, but are processed and used differently throughout the body. Structure Simple carbohydrates are classified as either monosaccharides or disaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest, most basic units of carbohydrates and are made up of only one sugar unit. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and are the building blocks of sucrose, a disaccharide. Thus, disaccharides are just a pair of linked sugar molecules. They are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together and a molecule of water is removed -- a dehydration reaction. The most important monosaccharide is glucose, the body’s preferred energy source. Glucose is also called blood sugar, as it circulates in the blood, and relies on the enzymes glucokinase or hexokinase to initiate metabolism. Your body processes most carbohydrates you eat into glucose, either to be used immediately for energy or to be stored in muscle cells or the liver as glycogen for later use. Unlike fructose, insulin is secreted primarily in response to elevated blood concentrations of glucose, and insulin facilitates the entry of glucose into cells. Fructose is a sugar found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, and added to various beverages such as soda and fruit-flavored drinks. However, it is very different from other sugars because it has a different metabolic pathway and is not the preferred energy source for muscles or the brain. Fructose is only metabolized in the li Continue reading >>

Sugar Explained

Sugar Explained

You've probably heard the terms fructose, glucose, lactose and sucrose before, and you may know that they're all types of sugar. But do you know how they differ from one another, or whether some are better for you than others? Use our handy guide to shed some light on the secrets of sugar... What are complex and simple carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are classified into two basic groups, complex and simple. Complex carbohydrates are composed of multiple simple sugars, joined together by chemical bonds. The more chains and branches of simple sugars, the more complex a carbohydrate is and in turn, the longer it takes to be broken down by the body and the less impact it has on blood sugar levels. Examples of complex carbohydrates include wholegrains such as jumbo oats, brown rice, spelt, rye and barley. Simple carbohydrates are either monosaccharides (one sugar molecule) or disaccharides (two sugar molecules). They are digested quickly and release sugars rapidly into the bloodstream. The two main monosaccharides are glucose and fructose. The two major disaccharides are sucrose (composed of glucose and fructose) and lactose (which is made up of galactose and glucose). Glucose What is glucose? Glucose is the primary source of energy your body uses and every cell relies on it to function. When we talk about blood sugar we are referring to glucose in the blood. When we eat carbohydrates, our body breaks them down into units of glucose. When blood glucose levels rise, cells in the pancreas release insulin, signalling cells to take up glucose from the blood. As the cells absorb sugar from the blood, levels start to drop. The nutritional profile of glucose The glycemic index is a ranking of how quickly foods make your blood sugar levels rise after eating them. High GI foods are very Continue reading >>

Fructose

Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847.[4][5] The name “fructose” was coined in 1857 by the English chemist, William Allen Miller.[6] Pure, dry fructose is a sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid, and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars.[7] Fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables. Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize. Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity. High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. All forms of fructose, including fruits and juices, are commonly added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, and for browning of some foods, such as baked goods. About 240,000 tonnes of crystalline fructose are produced annually.[8] As for any sugar, excessive consumption of fructose may contribute to insulin resistance, obesity,[9] elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to metabolic syndrome,[10][11][12] type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.[13] The European Food Safety Authority stated that fructose is preferable over sucrose and glucose in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages because of its lower effect on postprandial blood sugar levels, and also noted that “high intakes of fructose may lead to metabolic complications such as dys Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for the body e.g. glucose and a store of energy, e.g. starch in plants building blocks for polysaccharides (giant carbohydrates), e.g. cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body components of other molecules eg DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins, ATP Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars. They are the building blocks from which all bigger carbohydrates are made. Monosaccharides have the general molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n can be 3, 5 or 6. They can be classified according to the number of carbon atoms in a molecule: n = 3 trioses, e.g. glyceraldehyde n = 5 pentoses, e.g. ribose and deoxyribose ('pent' indicates 5) n = 6 hexoses, e.g. fructose, glucose and galactose ('hex' indicates 6) There is more than one molecule with the molecular formula C5H10O5 and more than one with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers. Glyceraldehyde's molecular formula is C3H6O3. Its structural formula shows it contains an aldehyde group (-CHO) and two hydroxyl groups (-OH). The presence of an aldehyde group means that glyceraldehyde can also be classified as an aldose. It is a reducing sugar and gives a positive test with Benedict's reagent. CH2OHCH(OH)CHO is oxidised by Benedict's reagent to CH2OHCH(OH)COOH; the aldehyde group is oxidised to Continue reading >>

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