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Urine Glucose 500 Mg Dl

Diabetes: Managing Sugar Highs And Lows

Diabetes: Managing Sugar Highs And Lows

PDF format for viewing/printing in 3 column layout Extraordinary efforts have been made by the authors, the editor and the publisher of the National Center of Continuing Education, Inc. courses to ensure dosage recommendations and treatments are precise and agree with the highest standards of practice. However, as a result of accumulating clinical experience and continuing laboratory studies, dosage schedules and/or treatment recommendations are often altered or discontinued. In all cases the advice of a physician should be sought and followed concerning initiating or discontinuing all medications or treatments. The planner(s), author(s) and/or editor(s) of each course have attested to no conflict of interest nor bias on the subject. The National Center of Continuing Education, Inc. does not accept commercial support on any course nor do they endorse any products that may be mentioned in the course. Any off-label use for medications mentioned in a course is identified as such. No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher. This course expired Jan 31, 2017 and is no longer available for purchase. The statistics on diabetes are staggering. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently reported that diabetes affects 25.8 million people of all ages. The goal of this course is to provide nurses and other healthcare professionals with a comprehensive overview of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, including the impact, etiology, management and complications associated with diabetes. Explain the epidemiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Differentiate between type 1 diabetes an Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hyperglycemia in Dogs A dog with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood is said to have hyperglycemia. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a key role in maintaining normal sugar levels. Low levels or absolute deficiency of insulin results in abnormally high blood sugar levels. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female dogs; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older dogs are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, and it is more common in female dogs than in males. Any breed can be affected, but some smaller breeds appear to be more disposed, including beagles, cairn terriers, dachshunds, miniature poodles and schnauzers. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your dog may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-healing wounds;infection is increased as the excess sugar feeds fungal and bacterial invaders Tissue damage (due to oxidizing [burning] effect of the excess sugar in the tissue) Causes Other than high stress situations, harmful drug interactions (such as with he Continue reading >>

Urine Glucose Testing

Urine Glucose Testing

General concept Accuracy Limitations of urine test strips Barney's example (potentially fatal mistake) A little humor How urine glucose testing works Many vets recommend urine glucose testing as a method of monitoring your pet's diabetes at home. It is simple and inexpensive. But it has some serious limitations that must be understood and taken into consideration. Urine glucose testing is based on the fact that excessive amounts of glucose in the blood will be filtered by the kidneys into the urine. Once the amount of glucose in the blood exceeds the renal threshold (180 mg/dL) , glucose is spilled into the urine. The renal threshold is the level at the kidneys can not "process" any more blood glucose and it spills into the urine. If the blood glucose is high for an extended period of time, glucose is usually present in the urine. The amount of glucose present in the urine depends on how high the blood glucose was, and how long the blood glucose was high. Urine glucose test strips like the pictures shown below are used. The test strip has a little test area at the end that is dipped into urine or held in the urine stream. After a certain amount of time, the color of the test area is compared to a reference color chart. Bayer makes several types of urine tests strips. Diastix and Clinistix test only for urine glucose. Keto-Diastix test for both glucose and ketones. The Diastix have more "levels" of glucose measurement than the Clinistix. Follow the instructions that come with your test strips, and use the reference color chart on the bottle or box. The picture shown below is just an example - the colors are NOT to be used to compare your urine test strip. The color chart tells you approximately how much glucose has spilled into your pet's urine. Note: Different test stri Continue reading >>

Laboratory Medicine Curriculum

Laboratory Medicine Curriculum

Diabetes mellitus (DM) types 1 and 2 are characterized by hyperglycemia. The two measures are: fasting blood glucose of 126 mg/dL, and The less commonly performed glucose tolerance test is diagnostic for DM when the 2-hour plasma glucose is 200 mg/dL. DM type 1 is characterized by an absolute decrease in plasma insulin. Plasma C-peptide is secreted along with insulin. Persons with DM type 1 usually have insulin antibodies and low C-peptide levels. For short-term control of DM in monitoring response to insulin injections or to oral agents, the plasma glucose is monitored. The hemoglobin A1C (glycated hemoglobin) gives a better indication of glucose control over time, since only about 1% of RBCs are replaced each day. Hyperglycemia leads to end-glcosylation of proteins, including hemoglobin. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Coma Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of DM type 1, with an absolute decrease in insulin. This means that about 2/3 of body mass (muscle and adipose tissues that require insulin for glucose uptake) begin to metabolize fatty acids, resulting in production of ketoacids and metabolic acidosis with anion gap. The respiratory rate increases to compensate (Kussmaul respirations). Typical laboratory findings with diabetic ketoacidosis: Osmolality 320 mOsm/L (normal 275 - 295 mOsmo/L) Glucose 500 mg/dL (normal 70 - 110 mg/dL fasting) Blood Gas Findings (Metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation) Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma is a complication of DM type 2, because there is generally enough insulin present to prevent ketoacidosis, but not enough to keep glucose from rising. There is generally some degree of dehydration that exacerbates serum electrolyte and glucose concentrations. Osmolality 330 mOsm/L (normal 275 - 295 mOsm Continue reading >>

Sugar Cat Journals - Pet Health | Cat Health | Pet Supplies

Sugar Cat Journals - Pet Health | Cat Health | Pet Supplies

Experiences with Diabetes: Marmalade, 12/8/96 Thank you so much for your feline diabetes home page. Your story of Austin touched me deeply as it very closely mirrored what my family went through with our female orange tabby Marmalade. Although only 9 years old, Marmalade is a 2 times-per-day insulin dependent cat and is doing very well after taking nearly 4 months to regulate. That wasn't always the case. After returning from vacation in June of this year, we noticed that she was extremely light weight and she was peeing and drinking excessively. We suspected diabetes, but did not want to believe it. Sure enough, her glucose level was almost 600 and her weight had dropped from 14 pounds to 8.8. We had a sick little kitty. Our vet, Doctor Knott at the Countryside Vet Clinic in Ellicott City, Md, has been wonderful. She loves Marmalade as does the entire staff. They call her "sugar kitty" which seems appropriate. We take Marmalade in every two weeks for her $8.00 glucose check and she is holding steady at 135-170 at her high end. We give her 11 units of Lente insulin twice a day and we feed her 1/2 cup of WD twice a day and her weight is back to almost 12 pounds, a good "playing weight." It is so good to see people on the web that have gone through similar experiences. We love Marmalade and there was no question but that we would do all that we could to get her better. We have been lucky in that we have had no hypoglycemic episodes, but we will be much more observant from now on. Thanks again for your informative home page. I would be happy to address any questions people may have or relate my experiences about our diabetic sweety. Good luck with Austin! 8 Dec 1996 Experiences with Diabetes: Gi Hello my name is Tracey Campbell and I'm currently using a friends computer to Continue reading >>

Too Much Sugar In The Urine

Too Much Sugar In The Urine

Sugar in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria. “Glyco” or “gluco” refers to the sugar glucose, and uria means “in the urine.” Usually the amount of sugar in the urine is too low to be detected. If you have had sugar in your urine, you should get follow-up testing to check your blood sugar level. Glycosuria is usually caused by elevated blood glucose, or hyperglycemia. Video of the Day Glucose is the body’s preferred energy source. As blood circulates through the kidneys, glucose is filtered through the glomeruli, then reabsorbed by the renal tubules so that it remains in the bloodstream. Normally, virtually all glucose is reabsorbed. However, if the level of blood glucose exceeds the amount that the tubules can reabsorb completely, the excess glucose “spills over” into the urine, causing glycosuria. The level at which this occurs is called the renal threshold. The average renal threshold for glucose is often given as 180 mg/dL, however, it can vary widely. It can be very low in children and pregnant women, tends to rise with age and can be much higher in those with long-standing diabetes. Elevated Blood Glucose Glycosuria is usually caused by hyperglycemia, which in turn usually indicates impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Other causes of hyperglycemia include hyperthyroidism, acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome and dumping syndrome. The blood glucose level may also be elevated by stress hormones during severe anxiety or pain, infections such as meningitis or IV glucose, or parenteral, nutrition. Urine glucose testing is most commonly used to screen for diabetes. If glucose is found in the urine, further testing is needed. Ketones in the urine could also be a sign of diabetes and requires follow-up testing. Your health care provider will usua Continue reading >>

Glucose Urine Test

Glucose Urine Test

After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours. Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. Continue reading >>

Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, And Laboratory Examinations. 3rd Edition.

Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, And Laboratory Examinations. 3rd Edition.

Go to: Glucosuria, glucose in the urine, results from the glomerular filtration of more glucose than the renal tubule can absorb. It occurs in all normal individuals in amounts up to 25 mg/dl (1–5). Abnormally increased glucosuria [more than 25 mg/dl in random fresh urine (4)], results from either an elevated plasma glucose, an impaired renal glucose absorptive capacity, or both. The plasma glucose concentration above which significant glucosuria occurs is called the renal threshold for glucose. Its value is variable, and deviations occur both above and below the commonly accepted "normal" threshold of 180 mg/dl. In diabetic patients, the value is reported to vary from 54 to 300 mg/dl (6–14). Although glucosuria greater than 25 mg/dl is considered pathologic, many commercial semiquantitative urine tests for glucosuria that are available to patients fail to detect glucosuria until it reaches a level of 50–250 mg/dl (4). The association between blood and urine glucose was first observed in the eighteenth century by Matthew Dobson, an English physician. For many years urine glucose testing was the major method used to monitor glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Early methods of urine glucose detection included evaporation of urine to reveal sugar crystals and urine sugar fermentation by yeast. Methods based on copper reduction were developed by von Fehling in the nineteenth century and by Benedict at the turn of the twentieth century. In 1941, the Ames Company marketed Clinitest, a copper reduction method, and followed it with Clinistix, a glucose oxidase-based determination. Since then, several companies have marketed glucose oxidase-based tests. Measurement of glucosuria is an indirect index of the blood glucose concentration, however, and tests for urine glucos Continue reading >>

What Are The Dangers Of A Sugar Count Over 500?

What Are The Dangers Of A Sugar Count Over 500?

Blood sugar control is a critical aspect of diabetes management. People without diabetes typically have fasting blood sugar readings below 100 milligrams per deciliter. If you are diabetic, your doctor sets an individualized blood sugar goal that you aim for with the help of an individualized treatment regimen. A reading higher than your target indicates your blood sugar is not under control, and having a reading over 500 is a medical emergency. Your body needs glucose to function properly, but it's unhealthy for high levels to circulate in your bloodstream. The hormone insulin regulates blood sugar by allowing glucose to get into your cells. Typically, blood sugar is considered high when it's 160 milligrams per deciliter or above your glucose target, notes the Joslin Diabetes Center. Your doctor may need to adjust your treatment plan if your glucose remains above 180 milligrams per deciliter for three consecutive days. If glucose stays elevated for a long time, it can affect your eyes, kidneys and heart. Ketoacidosis A dangerously high blood sugar level increases your risk for diabetes-related ketoacidosis. When glucose circulates in your bloodstream and can't get into your cells, your cells don't get the energy they need. To compensate, your body begins to burn fat for fuel, producing acids called ketones. These acids build up in your bloodstream and can poison your body when levels get too high. This happens when your body doesn't have enough insulin and is more common with Type 1 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association recommends checking your urine for ketones when your glucose is higher than 240 milligrams per deciliter. Hyperosmolar Syndrome Your kidneys typically excrete extra glucose to help compensate for high blood sugar levels, but when glucose is extrem Continue reading >>

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms These symptoms are due to the ketone poisoning and should never be ignored. As soon as a person begins to vomit or has difficulty breathing, immediate treatment in an emergency room is required to prevent coma and possible death. Early Signs, Symptoms: Late Signs, Symptoms: very tired and sleepy weakness great thirst frequent urination dry skin and tongue leg cramps fruity odor to the breath* upset stomach* nausea* vomiting* shortness of breath sunken eyeballs very high blood sugars rapid pulse rapid breathing low blood pressure unresponsiveness, coma * these are more specific for ketoacidosis than hyperosmolar syndrome Everyone with diabetes needs to know how to recognize and treat ketoacidosis. Ketones travel from the blood into the urine and can be detected in the urine with ketone test strips available at any pharmacy. Ketone strips should always be kept on hand, but stored in a dry area and replaced as soon as they become outdated. Measurement of Ketones in the urine is very important for diabetics with infections or on insulin pump therapy due to the fact it gives more information than glucose tests alone. Check the urine for ketones whenever a blood sugar reading is 300 mg/dl or higher, if a fruity odor is detected in the breath, if abdominal pain is present, if nausea or vomiting is occurring, or if you are breathing rapidly and short of breath. If a moderate or large amount of ketones are detected on the test strip, ketoacidosis is present and immediate treatment is required. Symptoms for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are linked to dehydration rather than acidosis, so a fruity odor to the breath and stomach upset are less likely. How To Detect Ketones During any illness, especially when it is severe and any time the stomach becomes upset, ketone Continue reading >>

What Is Hyperglycemia?

What Is Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia, a high level of sugar in the blood, is a hallmark of diabetes. Your blood sugar levels fluctuate over the course of a day: Levels are higher right after meals, as carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (sugar), and lower after exercise, when glucose has been burned to fuel the activity. In someone who doesn't have diabetes, blood sugar levels stay within a narrow range. Between meals, the concentration of sugar in the blood ranges from about 60 to 100 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). After meals it may reach 120 to 130 mg/dl, but rarely goes higher than 140 mg/dl. But if you have type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels can go much higher — to 200, 300, or even 400 mg/dl and beyond — and will go much higher unless you take the necessary steps to bring them down. Hyperglycemia Symptoms High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms, so it's important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. Hyperglycemia symptoms include: Frequent urination Extreme thirst Feeling tired and weak Blurry vision Feeling hungry, even after eating Causes of Hyperglycemia If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a treatment plan is put in place to lower blood sugar and keep it as close to the normal range as possible. But even after you start treatment, you may still develop hyperglycemia at times. When you have diabetes, it's almost impossible not to have hyperglycemia — and high blood sugar can happen for no identifiable reason. Some of the reasons blood sugar may go too high include: Missing prescribed medicines or taking medication at the wrong times or in the wrong amounts High food intake or larger consumptions of carbohydrate than expected or intended Lack of sleep Emotional stress Intense exercise Illness is another important — and Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes With Blood Sugar Level 500 Dangerous At 32 Years Age?

Is Diabetes With Blood Sugar Level 500 Dangerous At 32 Years Age?

Blood sugar level of 500 mg/100 ml is very high. If your blood sugar level remains always high as you mentioned 500 mg/dl, then consult a physician or endocrinologist for treatment. High blood sugar will lead to following symptoms and disease:- Frequent urination (increase urine volume; polyuria) Increased thirst (Polydipsia) Increased hunger (polyphagia) Frequent skin infection Dry and itchy skin Tiredness Periodontal diseases Rampant dental caries Delayed wound healing Because of chronic hyperglycemia, following long-term complications will also develop. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic neuropathy Diabetic nephropathy Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis and CHD Diabetic foot Therefore, I further advice you consult a physician or endocrinologist for treatment. Continue reading >>

Ketone Testing: What You Need To Know

Ketone Testing: What You Need To Know

What are ketones? Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel. They are also produced when you lose weight or if there is not enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood. Since the body is unable to use glucose for energy, it breaks down fat instead. When this occurs, ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine. These ketones can make you very sick. How can I test for ketones? You can test to see if your body is making any ketones by doing a simple urine test. There are several products available for ketone testing and they can be purchased, without a prescription, at your pharmacy. The test result can be negative, or show small, moderate, or large quantities of ketones. When should I test for ketones? Anytime your blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl for two tests in a row. When you are ill. Often illness, infections, or injuries will cause sudden high blood glucose and this is an especially important time to check for ketones. When you are planning to exercise and the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If you are pregnant, you should test for ketones each morning before breakfast and any time the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If ketones are positive, what does this mean? There are situations when you might have ketones without the blood glucose being too high. Positive ketones are not a problem when blood glucose levels are within range and you are trying to lose weight. It is a problem if blood glucose levels are high and left untreated. Untreated high blood glucose with positive ketones can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). What should I do if the ketone test is positive? Call your diabetes educator or physician, as you may need additional Continue reading >>

When You Need To Go To The Emergency Room With High Blood Sugars

When You Need To Go To The Emergency Room With High Blood Sugars

My uncle, like all his family, was a bit of a cheapskate. He hated to spend money unless it was absolutely necessary. He was thin and active, having only recently given up a career as a singer and dancer performing weekly on a nationally televised variety show. So when he felt unwell one weekend night, he turned down his wife's suggestion that she drive him to the emergency room and told her he'd wait til Monday when he could see his family doctor. Why waste all that money on an ER visit that was probably unnecessary? As it turned out, he didn't need to see his doctor on Monday. He died that night. He was a few years younger than I am now and the fatal heart attack he experienced was the first symptom he had of our family's odd form of inherited diabetes. But this is why, even though I've inherited the family "cheap" gene, if there's any possibility something dangerous is going on, I head for the ER. Usually it is a waste of money. I was in a small car accident a few weeks ago that left me with nerve pain running up and down my arms and legs. I sat for four hours at our local ER, saw the doctor for five minutes, and was sent home. The diagnosis, whiplash. The treatment, wait and see if it gets worse. The bill? Over $900. I went to the ER because I'd called my family doctor's office and they told me to. Whiplash usually resolves on its own, but occasionally it can cause swelling in your neck that can kill you. I'm not equipped to judge what kind I had, and unlike my uncle, I wasn't about to gamble. So with this in mind, you can understand my reaction when a stranger contacted me recently, after reading my web page, and told me that his blood sugar, which had been normal until very recently, was testing in the 500s on his meter except when his meter wasn't able to give hi Continue reading >>

Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?

Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?

Question: I went to my Doctor for general check up, and mentioned frequent urination, and a feeling that my bladder was full. I thought I may have urinary tract infection. Urine sample revealed sugar in urine although my blood was only 7.5 mmo/L nearly two hours after a breakfast of Special K. I am scheduled for a fasting blood sugar. I would be very grateful if you could advise me whether sugar can be present in urine for reasons other than diabetes and also if there is a link between having underactive thyroid and developing diabetes? Thank you, Answer: Hello Kate! You ask good questions and have astute observation! The most common cause of sugar in the urine, by far, is the presence of diabetes mellitus. There is other potential cause for sugar in the urine which includes the use of certain drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements; and renal glycosuria which is a rare condition in which glucose is excreted in the urine, even when blood glucose levels are normal or low, due to improper functioning of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Fasting blood glucose levels in the 5.5 to 7 mmol/L range (100 to126 mg/dl), and blood glucose levels two hours following an oral glucose tolerance test in the 7.7 to 11.11 mmol/L range (140 to 200 mg/dl) are considered Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and are indicative of Pre-Diabetes. Your blood glucose reading of 7.5 mmol/L two hours following a light meal of Special-K (most likely a lesser glucose load than a glucose tolerance test involves) would therefore raise concern that you may have Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes. And sugar in the urine is not indicative of the actual blood glucose level at time of a urine test, but rather of blood glucose levels prior to the time of sampling . . . perhaps in the early AM hours when blood g Continue reading >>

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