diabetestalk.net

The Step In Aerobic Respiration That Produces The Most Atp Per Molecule Of Glucose Is

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

This chapter describes how the catabolic pathways of glycolysis and respiration capture chemical energy and store it in ATP. You will also learn about Fermentation. As open systems, cells require outside energy sources to perform cellular work (e.g. chemical, transport and mechanical). Energy flows into most ecosystems as sunlightPhotosynthetic organisms trap a portion of the light energy and transform it into chemical bond energy of organic molecules. O2 is released as byproduct. Cells use some of the chemical bond energy in organic molecules to make ATP-the energy source for cellular work. Energy leaves living organisms as it dissipates as heat. The products of respiration (CO2 and HO2) are the raw materials for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis produces glucose and oxygen, the raw materials for respiration. Chemical elements essential for life are recycled, but energy is not. How do cells harvest chemical energy? The catabolic pathways of glycolysis and respiration capture the chemical energy in glucose and other fuels and store it in ATP. Glycolysis, occurring in the cytosol, produces ATP, pyruvate, and NADH; the later two, may then enter the mitochondria for respiration. A mitochondrion consists of a matrix in which the enzymes of the krebs cycle are localized, a highly folded inner membrane (cristae) in which enzymes and the molecules of the electron transport chain (ETC) are embedded, and an intermembrane space between the two membranes, to temporarily house H+ that has been pumped across the inner membrane during the redox reactions of the ETC (a proton motive force (the definition is given below in the text) drives oxidative phosphorylation as protons move back through ATP synthases located in the membrane). Cellular respiration and fermentation are catabolic (en Continue reading >>

How Do Organisms Generate Energy?

How Do Organisms Generate Energy?

Enzymes of Glycolysis Yeast 20, J.A. Barnett, A history of research on yeast 6: the main respiratory pathway, 1015-44 (2003). All cells need energy, which they get through ATP, an inherently unstable molecule that must continually be produced. Though ATP can be produced in different ways, nearly all living cells can harness ATP through glycolysis, the stepwise degradation of glucose, and other sugars, obtained from the breakdown of carbohydrates without the need for molecular oxygen (anaerobic). Glycolysis is an ancient, universal pathway that probably developed before there was sufficient oxygen in the atmosphere to sustain more effective methods of energy extraction. When aerobic organisms evolved, they simply added more efficient energy extraction pathways onto glycolysis, breaking down the end products from glycolysis (pyruvate) still further through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, aerobic cells can still rely predominantly on glycolysis when oxygen is limiting, such as in hard working muscle cells where glycolysis ends in the production of lactate, causing muscle fatigue. The aerobic and anaerobic processes are kept separate in eukaryotic cells, with glycolysis occurring in the cytoplasm, and the aerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle occurring in the mitochondria. Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose is broken down in ten steps to two molecules of pyruvate, which then enters the mitochondria where it is oxidised through the tricarboxylic acid cycle to carbon dioxide and water. Glycolysis can be split into two phases, both of which occur in the cytosol. Phase I involves splitting glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) at the expense of 2 ATP molecules, but allows the subsequent energy-producing reactions to be doubled up with a higher net gain Continue reading >>

Bsc1010 Chapter 7 Flashcards - Cram.com

Bsc1010 Chapter 7 Flashcards - Cram.com

Which of the following is TRUE of the citric acid cycle? A. It yields most of the NAD+ in cell respiration. C. It yields ATP, NADH, and FADH2 as energy intermediates. D. It occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. E. It produces ATP as the primary energy intermediate. C. It yields ATP, NADH, and FADH2 as energy intermediates. Which of the following function: location relationship is INCORRECT? B. citric acid cycle; mitochondria matrix C. oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondria inner membrane E. electron transport chain and ATP synthase; mitochondria inner membrane Which compound has the highest free energy and produces the most ATP when oxidized? Cellular respiration produces the most chemical in the form of ATP from which of the following? How many ATP and NADH molecules are produced from each molecule of glucose in the citric acid cycle only? How many net ATP and NADH molecules are produced from one molecule of glucose during glycolysis? High-energy electrons from molecules of NADH and FADH2 are transferred to a chain of proteins within the electron transport chain. What is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain? Which of the following statements is TRUE of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration? A. Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose to pyruvate. B. Both produce NADH as high-energy intermediates. C. Both produce either lactic acid or enthanol as a bioproduct. D. Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose to pyruvate and both produce NADH as high-energy intermediates. E. Both produce NADH as high-energy intermediates and both produce either lactic acid or enthanol as a bioproduct. D. Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose to pyruvate and both produce NADH as high-energy intermediates. Which would be TRUE if a metabolic poison were to comp Continue reading >>

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Hydrogenions (protons) are pumped across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Theseprotons flow through ATP synthase enzyme molecules, and thereby release energywhich drives the formation of 34 ATP molecules. Each of the 2-carbon acetyl groups produced from the original glucose molecule is bonded to a pre-existing molecule of oxaloacetate to form citrate (i.e. citric acid). These two citric acid molecules are gradually oxidized, and the hydrogen ions are bound to NAD to form NADH and to FAD to form FADH2. Oxaloacetate is produced when the last carbon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide. Video clip summarizing the citric acid(Krebs) cycle: Having played the trombone in high schoolmarching band, I have a soft spot in my heart for THIS version The electrons removed from the molecules inglycolysis and citric acid follow a series of cytochromes on the mitochondrialmembrane, while the hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped across the innermembrane of the mitochondrion. The fluid is this sector of the mitochondrionhas, therefore, a very low pH. These protons flow through ATP synthase enzymemolecules, and thereby release energy which drives the formation of ATPmolecules. The last step in aerobic respiration is thebonding of 2 electrons, 2 protons, and oxygen to form water. Aerobic respiration is much more efficient atextracting chemical energy than is fermentation: Efficiency of Fermentation versus Aerobic Respiration Continue reading >>

Ch.8 Mastering Biology 1001

Ch.8 Mastering Biology 1001

Eating food provides fuel and building blocks for your body how food molecules reach the body's cells and fuel cellular respiration. Step 1 After food is broken down in the digestive system, it transported to cells via the circulatory system how food molecules reach the body's cells and fuel cellular respiration. Step 2 Fuel molecules are broken down further in glycolysis and the ctric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) how food molecules reach the body's cells and fuel cellular respiration. Step 3 ATP is produced with the help of the electron transport chain how food molecules reach the body's cells and fuel cellular respiration. Step 4 Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration. A. glycolysis acetyl CoA citric acid cycle electron transport chain B. glycolysis citric acid cycle acetyl CoA electron transport chain A. glycolysis acetyl CoA citric acid cycle electron transport chain What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration? A. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2 B. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy C. 6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 B. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell? In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain? A. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose. B. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose. C.This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion. B. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose. Which statement describes the citric acid cycle? A. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of gl Continue reading >>

Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

This requires energy, and one way of providing this is from the oxidation of glucose which is an exergonic reaction. There are two reasons why energy from the oxidation of glucose is not used directly to drive chemical reactions in the cell: the hydrolysis of ATP releases small amounts of energy compared to the oxidation of glucose, and in a controlled way energy is released instantaneously from the hydrolysis of ATP, but the oxidation of glucose takes time The types of chemical reactions called oxidation and reduction lie at the heart of respiration. They always occur together - one substance is oxidised as another is reduced. We often use the term redox reactions to describe this. There are two useful ways of thinking about redox reactions. One is that oxidation is the addition of oxygen and reduction is the removal of oxygen from a substance. For example: 6CO2 + 6H2O (oxidation of glucose). However, a more useful definition is in terms of electron transfer: Oxidation is the removal of electrons, e.g. Fe2+ Reduction is the addition of electrons, e.g. Fe3+ + e- A chemical that supplies electrons is called a reducing agent (or a reductant), and a chemical that accepts electrons is called an oxidising agent (or an oxidant). Aerobic respiration may be represented by the general equation About 3000 kJ mol-1 of energy is released. Burning glucose in air would release this amount of energy in one go. However, it is not as simple as this in aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a series of enzyme-controlled reactions that release the energy stored up in carbohydrates and lipids during photosynthesis and make it available to living organisms. This is a complicated cycle. It may be summarised: Citrate (a six-carbon molecule) forms when an acetyl CoA molecule combines wit Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (red arrows) is the main means by which both fungi and animals utilize chemical energy in the form of organic compounds that were previously created through photosynthesis (green arrow). Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to Continue reading >>

Chapter 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

What is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain? Which of the following is a correct description of the events of cellular respiration and the sequence of events in cellular respiration? Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate; oxidation of pyruvate; oxidation of acetyl-coA; oxidative phosphorylation In what molecule(s) is the majority of the chemical energy from pyruvate transferred during the citric acid cycle? All of the processes involved in cellular respiration produce ATP. Which of the following processes produces the most ATP? Fermentation by itself produces no ATP but keeps glycolysis going, which produces a small amount of ATP. How does fermentation do this? Fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+, which facilitates the production of ATP in glycolysis. Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate to do which of the following? Which of the following metabolic pathways produce(s) the most ATP, per glucose molecule metabolized, during cellular respiration? The electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation The energy from the electrons in NADH and FADH2 fuel what process in the electron transport chain? The pumping of H+ across the cristae of the mitochondrion During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes? At the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule? Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step __________ enables the cell to recycle the reduced NADH to oxidized NAD+ In which process is glucose oxidized to form two molecules of pyruvate? A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysi Continue reading >>

Anaerobic Respiration Atp Per Glucose

Anaerobic Respiration Atp Per Glucose

(anaerobic) respiration. Start studying BISC 002 Chapter 6 lactic acid is a product of anaerobic respiration. Read 1601 times 1 Reply Report Replies Which process produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose? A. Aerobic respiration in a bacterial cell O + 36-38 ATP Anaerobic Respiration: 2 which results in the production of nearly 90% of the 36-38 ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule metabolized Lecture Notes Respiration (or a total of TWO NADH per glucose molecule In anaerobic respiration, the 2 ATP produced during glycolysis is all that is Cellular respiration is produces a net yield of 2 ATP per molecule of glucose. tot energy production 38 while 2 is used in glycolysis preparatory phase while net ATP is 36 in cellular res. ppt Cell Respiration Chapter 5 Cellular Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Produce ATP in the absence of O2 How Much ATP is Produced Per Glucose Molecule? Jul 23, 2008 In aerobic respiration, one molecule of glucose yields 38 ATP molecules, eight produced during glycolysis, six from the link reaction and 24 from the Krebs cycle. The post glycolytic reactions take place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells. Biology Test Cellular Respiration. and a net gain of 2 ATP and two NADH per glucose. 2 What is the purpose of anaerobic and aerobic respiration?; 1. The process of anaerobic respiration generates only 2 ATP per glucose molecule. into ATP via the normal aerobic respiration pathways. made per oxidised glucose molecule during cellular respiration range around 29 to 30 ATP per glucose. 1. Like aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration involves glycolysis, The total energy yield per glucose Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration - Cellular respiration consists of three related These initial series of Continue reading >>

Ch 6 Bio Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch 6 Bio Flashcards | Quizlet

Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria. How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration? The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is Which of the following are products of cellular respiration? The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance. In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule. Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order? glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place? Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs. After glycolysis but before the citric acid cycle, The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a channel in ATP synthase. In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized? Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false? Cellular re Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and where these reactions occur in a cell Now that weve learned how autotrophs like plants convert sunlight to sugars, lets take a look at how all eukaryoteswhich includes humans!make use of those sugars. In the process of photosynthesis, plants and other photosynthetic producers createglucose, which stores energy in its chemical bonds. Then, both plantsand consumers, such as animals, undergo a series of metabolic pathwayscollectively called cellular respiration. Cellular respirationextracts the energy from the bonds in glucose and converts it into a form that all living things can use. Describe the process of glycolysis and identify its reactants and products Describe the process of pyruvate oxidation and identify its reactants and products Describe the process of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and identify its reactants and products Describe the respiratory chain (electron transport chain) and its role in cellular respiration Cellular respiration is a process that all living things use to convert glucose into energy. Autotrophs (like plants)produce glucose during photosynthesis. Heterotrophs (like humans) ingest other living things to obtain glucose. While the process can seem complex, this page takes you through the key elements of each part of cellular respiration. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism. Nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. The process does not use oxygen and is therefore anaerobic (processes that use oxygen are called aerobic). Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Glucose enters heterotrophic cells in two ways. Through secondary active tran Continue reading >>

Cell Respiration | Wyzant Resources

Cell Respiration | Wyzant Resources

Just like we need energy to get through the day, individual cells need energy for survival too. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells get their energy in the form of ATP. There are two types of cellular respiration, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration is more efficient and can be utilized in the presence of oxygen, while anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen. Many organisms (or cells) will use aerobic respiration primarily, however, if there is a limited oxygen supply they can utilize anaerobic respiration for survival. Although there are some organisms (or cells) that always require anaerobic respiration and others that will always require aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration has fewer steps, so lets start there. The first step in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration is called glycolysis . This is the process of taking one glucose (sugar) molecule and breaking it down into pyruvate and energy (2 ATP). We will discuss this in depth during aerobic respiration. The second step in anaerobic respiration is called fermentation. Fermentation starts with pyruvate (the end product of glycolysis). Depending on the organism, pyruvate can either be fermented into ethanol (a fancy name for alcohol) or lactate (lactic acid). Fermentation releases CO2, but does not make any ATP all ATP during anaerobic respiration is produced during glycolysis. Since glycolysis produces 2 ATP, anaerobic respiration yields 2 ATP for every molecule of glucose. Both glycolysis and fermentation take place within the cytosol/cytoplasm of a cell. In fact, the entire process of anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytosol. Fermentation is the process by which we make wine and other types alcohol. Through an anaerobic process, yeast will break down the glucose in the Continue reading >>

The Step In Aerobic Respiration That Produces The

The Step In Aerobic Respiration That Produces The

The step in aerobic respiration that produces the most ATP per molecule of The step in aerobic respiration that produces the 100% (3) 3 out of 3 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 3 - 4 out of 4 pages. 35) The step in aerobic respiration that produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose isA) the ETC.B) alcohol fermentation.C) glycolysis.D) the citric acid cycle.E) lactate fermentation.Answer: A35)Chapter Section: 8.3Learning Outcome: 8.836) Which of the following parts of the mitochondria is (are) directly involved in the synthesis of ATPduring chemiosmosis?36)Chapter Section: 8.3Learning Outcome: 8.837) If ATP is made in the mitochondria, how does it provide energy for reactions in the cytoplasm ofthe cell?37)Chapter Section: 8.3Learning Outcome: 8.838) Which of the following most closely matches the correct order of the main events of aerobiccellular respiration?38) As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students. Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business 17, Course Hero Intern I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. Its truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero. Dana University of Pennsylvania 17, Course Hero Intern The ability to access any universitys resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLAs materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time. Jill Tulane University 16, Course Hero Intern Continue reading >>

Chapter 6 Test Biology

Chapter 6 Test Biology

How do cells capture and store the energy released by cellular respiration? The process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is _____. Which of the following are some of the products of cellular respiration Which of the following statements about cellular respiration is false. Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step. The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is _____. Humans use the calories they obtain from _____ as their source of energy. The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing 200 Calories per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving? During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose ______. electrons are lost from one substance and are added to another substance Oxidation is the _____, and reduction is the ______. delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water by combining with hydrogen. Which if the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order? Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (ETC) A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes (inner and outer). Scientists believe this drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ATPs. How many molecules if NADH are produced during glycolysis Which of the foll Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Catabolism

Carbohydrate Catabolism

Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP . The production of ATP is achieved through the oxidation of glucose molecules. In oxidation, the electrons are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD . NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy potential to drive the production of ATP in the electron transport chain . ATP production occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. There are two methods of producing ATP: aerobic and anaerobic . In aerobic respiration, oxygen is required. Oxygen plays a key role as it increases ATP production from 4 ATP molecules to about 30 ATP molecules. In anaerobic respiration, oxygen is not required. When oxygen is absent, the generation of ATP continues through fermentation.There are two types of fermentation: alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation . There are several different types of carbohydrates : polysaccharides (e.g., starch , amylopectin , glycogen , cellulose ), monosaccharides (e.g., glucose , galactose , fructose , ribose ) and the disaccharides (e.g., sucrose , maltose , lactose ). Glucose reacts with oxygen in the following redox reaction, C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O, Carbon dioxide and water are waste products, and the overall reaction is exothermic . The breakdown of glucose into energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important biochemical pathways found in living organisms. Glycolysis , which means sugar splitting, is the initial process in the cellular respiration pathway. Glycolysis can be either an aerobic or anaerobic process. When oxygen is present, glycolysis continues along the aerobic respiration pathway. If oxygen is not present, then ATP production is restricted to anaerobic respiration . The location where glycolysis, aerobic or Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar