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Stress And Diabetes Type 2

Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

The idea that stress can cause type 2 diabetes is not new but recent media coverage of Dave Dowdeswell from the UK who, along with his doctors, believe the only explanation for his diabetes is extreme stress, has prompted discussion around this idea as another possible explanation for why many fit and otherwise healthy people can develop type 2 diabetes. At 44 Mr Dowdeswell, a keen windsurfer and diver, was not overweight and had no family history of diabetes. However, in the 12 months prior to his diagnosis of type 2 diabetes he had experienced a series of traumatic life events. His doctors believe the extreme stress he lived through could have been the trigger for diabetes. One theory is that the stress hormone cortisol may alter the body’s sensitivity to insulin. While scientists are not in agreement over whether this means stress itself is a direct cause of diabetes or just a risk factor, there are some compelling arguments and research is continuing in this area. A recent contribution to the debate comes from research funded by the Department of Defense in the US that find links between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and an increase in type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The study is still in its preliminary stages and other factors are being investigated as to why some people develop PTSD in the first place (such as stress response genetics) but initial findings make a definite link between war-related stress and depression on poor general health outcomes. In 2013 a 35 year prospective follow-up study of 7,500 middle-aged men in Sweden found a strong link between stress and diabetes risk. Levels of stress were graded by the participants and it was found that men who reported permanent stress had a 45% Continue reading >>

Where It Comes From €” How To Deal With It

Where It Comes From €” How To Deal With It

Stress is a major contributor to diabetes, but most people don’t understand what stress is or what to do about it. Here’s how stress works, and some things you can do about it. Say you’re walking down the street, and you bump into a hungry, man-eating lion. (Don’t you hate it when that happens?) You would sense a dangerous threat, and your body would automatically respond. Your adrenal glands would pump out a number of hormones. Chief among these is cortisol, which tells your liver and other cells to pour all their stored sugar (glucose) into your bloodstream. They do this so that your leg and arm muscles can use the glucose as fuel for running away, fighting, or maybe climbing a tree or a fire escape. At the same time, your other cells would become “insulin-resistant.” Insulin’s job is to get glucose into our cells to be used as fuel. In a crisis situation, most of your cells resist insulin, so the muscles involved in fighting or fleeing will have more energy. This reaction is called “stress.” In nature, the stress response is vital to survival. The antelope senses the lion (a threat) and runs. It either gets away or the lion eats it. In running, the antelope uses up the extra sugar and restores its hormonal balance. The whole thing is over in ten minutes, and the antelope can rest. But in our society, threat isn’t usually physical. When you’re threatened with job loss or eviction or the breakup of your marriage or a child’s drug problem or the thousands of other potential threats in modern society, you can’t fight, and you can’t run. You just sit there and worry. And the stress isn’t over in ten minutes either; modern stresses often act on us 24/7, week after week. Over time, insulin resistance builds up. It is a major cause of type 2 dia Continue reading >>

Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Stress is not a known cause of Diabetes. However, certainly the effects of stress and how one manages their stress can certainly contribute to the development of diabetes over time. Those who over eat and get less exercise may be at increased risk of obesity over time and this may contribute to the development of diabetes. Stress itself can be harmful to the body over prolonged periods and may cause the development of other health issues that may lead to diabetes down the road. After lots of studies and research, the best we can say is maybe. Stress can elevate blood glucose levels. Sometimes this is the direct effect of stress hormones. Other times, it's because stress leads people to eat more and be less active, which can also raise blood glucose levels. We know this is true for people who already have diabetes. So, it seems likely that if your blood glucose levels are already higher than normal (but not yet high enough to call it diabetes), stress could push your levels into the diabetes range. So the stress of a serious life event, such as the death of a loved one or the loss of a job, could play a part in developing diabetes. However, it is likely you would have eventually developed diabetes anyway as insulin resistance increased or insulin production decreased. Continue reading >>

How Stress Affects Blood Sugar Levels

How Stress Affects Blood Sugar Levels

Two types of stress can change blood sugar levels: Physical stress Mental or emotional stress Each type of stress affects blood sugar levels differently. Physical stress generally causes blood sugar levels to increase. Physical stress includes: Illness Surgery Injury Mental or emotional stress has mixed effects, depending on the type of diabetes you have: Type 1 diabetes: Mental stress can increase or decrease blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes: Mental stress generally increases blood sugar levels. Stress also can affect your blood sugar levels indirectly by causing you to forget about your regular diabetes care routine. When you're stressed out, you might: Exercise more or less Eat more or less Eat less healthy foods Not test your blood sugar level as often Forget or delay a dose of medication and/or insulin mental stress can affect your blood sugar levels Use your diabetes logbook to discover if mental stress affects your blood sugar levels, especially if you have type 2 diabetes. Some people with type 2 diabetes are very sensitive to stress. It causes the body to produce especially high levels of stress hormones, which drive blood sugar levels up. follow these steps to find out if your blood sugar levels are affected by mental stress: Rate your stress level on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 indicates the lowest stress level and 10 the highest; record your stress level in your logbook. Test your glucose using your home monitor and enter the result. After a week or two, study your results to see if there is a pattern or relationship between your stress level and your blood sugar levels. 3 ways to reduce mental stress Teach yourself to relax when under stress using deep-breathing exercises or techniques you learn in a stress-management class. Evaluate your schedule and de Continue reading >>

Stress Increases The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Onset In Women: A 12-year Longitudinal Study Using Causal Modelling

Stress Increases The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Onset In Women: A 12-year Longitudinal Study Using Causal Modelling

Abstract Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Modifiable risk factors have been found to contribute up to 60% of type 2 diabetes risk. However, type 2 diabetes continues to rise despite implementation of interventions based on traditional risk factors. There is a clear need to identify additional risk factors for chronic disease prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress and type 2 diabetes onset, and partition the estimates into direct and indirect effects. Methods and findings Women born in 1946–1951 (n = 12,844) completed surveys for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010. The total causal effect was estimated using logistic regression and marginal structural modelling. Controlled direct effects were estimated through conditioning in the regression model. A graded association was found between perceived stress and all mediators in the multivariate time lag analyses. A significant association was found between hypertension, as well as physical activity and body mass index, and diabetes, but not smoking or diet quality. Moderate/high stress levels were associated with a 2.3-fold increase in the odds of diabetes three years later, for the total estimated effect. Results were only slightly attenuated when the direct and indirect effects of perceived stress on diabetes were partitioned, with the mediators only explaining 10–20% of the excess variation in diabetes. Perceived stress is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The majority of the effect estimate of stress on diabetes risk is not mediated by the traditional risk factors of hypertension, physical activity, smoking, diet quality, and body mass index. This gives a new pathway Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: The Stress Of Type 1 Often Leads To Diabulimia

Type 1 Diabetes: The Stress Of Type 1 Often Leads To Diabulimia

Living with type 1 diabetes means that you have a different relationship with food than other people. You live your life in between the demanding rituals that happen multiple times a day; before and after a meal or any type of snack. When I look down at my plate I don’t just see the food itself, I see numbers. After living with type 1 diabetes for over 23 years, I have calculated the nutritional components of thousands of meals while also considering time of day, activity level, stress, and many other necessary factors before deciding how much insulin I need to inject. Although I am now at peace with this routine, there were 10 years of my life where I lived in a fog. I grew tired of the unyielding routines that type 1 diabetes demands on a daily basis. I was afraid that others would see me as broken and fragile if I had a low blood sugar at an inconvenient time (and let’s face it, it’s always an inconvenient time to be low). What started out as an attempt to just keep my blood sugars a little higher than normal to avoid any possibility of a hypoglycemic attack during a performance or out on a date, quickly manifested into a dangerous eating disorder. I became lost inside a cycle of coping behaviors that soon became my entire life. Diabetes felt like an unfair burden to me and to my life’s goals, and I rebelled forcefully against it. I didn’t know how to ask for help and for years I didn’t know if I even wanted help; I had forgotten how to take care of myself and my eating disorder became my world. My life changed in many ways the day I finally shared my secrets to my family and my husband. I was lucky enough to receive treatment at one of the most qualified eating disorder treatment facilities in the country that has a fully developed treatment track for di Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

1. Diabetes mellitus Likewise Osteoporosis, Cushing’s syndrome and Scleroderma, Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that is characterized by elevated levels of glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and insufficiency in production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas inside the body (Maritim et al., 2003). Insulin is a protein (hormone) synthesized in beta cells of pancreas in response to various stimuli such as glucose, sulphonylureas, and arginine however glucose is the major determinant (Joshi et al., 2007). Long term elevation in blood glucose levels is associated with macro- and micro-vascular complications leading to heart diseases, stroke, blindness and kidney diseases (Loghmani, 2005). Sidewise to hyperglycemia, there are several other factors that play great role in pathogenesis of diabetes such as hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress leading to high risk of complications (Kangralkar et al., 2010). 2. Types of diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus can be classified in different ways but one form of classification is as follow (American Diabetes Association, 2004): 1. Type I diabetes (Insulin dependent) is due to immune mediated beta-cells destruction, leading to insulin deficiency. 2. Idiopathic diabetes is the type 1 diabetes with no known etiologies and is strongly inherited. 3. Type II diabetes (Non-Insulin dependent) is due to insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance. 4. Gestational diabetes mellitus is any form of intolerance to glucose with onset or first recognition of pregnancy. However diabetes is mostly classified basically into TWO major types: Type I Diabetes (IDDM) and Type II Diabetes (NIDDM). 3. Pathophysiology of diabetes Whenever somebody takes the meal, there is rise in blood glucose levels that stimulates insulin secr Continue reading >>

Managing Stress When You Have Diabetes

Managing Stress When You Have Diabetes

Stress can hamper your diabetes care. For instance, if you have so much on your mind that you skip meals or forget to take your medicines, that will affect your blood sugar level. Life will always have challenges and setbacks, but you have the power to choose how you respond to it. Use these six tips as a start. 1. Keep a positive attitude. When things seem to be going wrong, it's easier to see the bad instead of the good. Find something to appreciate in each important area of your life, such as your family, friends, work, and health. That perspective can help you get through tough times. 2. Be kind to yourself. Do you expect too much from yourself? It's OK to say "no" to things that you don't really want or need to do. 3. Accept what you can't change. Ask yourself these three questions: "Will this be important 2 years from now?" "Do I have control over these circumstances?" "Can I change my situation?" If you can make things better, go for it. If not, is there a different way to handle it that would be better for you? 4. Talk to someone. You could confide in a trusted family member or close friend. There are also professionals who can listen and help you find solutions. Ask your doctor for recommendations if you'd like to see a psychologist or counselor. 5. Tap the power of exercise. You can blow off steam with hard exercise, recharge on a hike, or do a relaxing mind-body activity like yoga or tai chi. You'll feel better. 6. Take time to unwind. Practice muscle relaxation, deep breathing, meditation, or visualization. Your doctor may know of classes or programs that teach these skills. You can also check for apps that do that. Continue reading >>

How Stress And Anxiety Affect Diabetes

How Stress And Anxiety Affect Diabetes

It seems that a lot of us are facing some degree of stress or anxiety, whether it is due to the recent elections, the upcoming holidays or just our day-to-day stressors. To build on Michelle Mendoza’s blog on stress reduction, I would like to discuss just how stress and anxiety effects blood glucose (BG) levels and some additional ways to help manage these two very real health issues. People tend to view stress in one of two ways; in a positive, motivating way, or a negative, anxiety producing way. Of course, this can change with the situation. I am a glass half full kind of person, so I typically look at stress as a motivator to push me to get something done. I may feel pressured, but I’m excited to complete the project. Now, on the other hand, if one of my family members is ill, I may react differently. While moving toward getting them treated and well, I am worried and stressed in a negative way and my body is reacting negatively as well. That’s an example of how different kinds of stress impact me. Now think about how you may handle stress in general and in specific situations. I have an anecdotal story from years ago I can use to illustrate how stress affects BG levels. I was working with a 21 year old patient with Type 1 who was wearing a 3 day continuous glucose monitor (for diagnostic reasons) that graphed the effects of stress perfectly. When we uploaded her data, there was a sharp spike from 100mg/dL to 400mg/dL for a one hour period. She had journaled at that precise time, "fight with friend on phone for one hour". She was flabbergasted at the direct effect of stress on her BG level. I do not believe that we, Certified Diabetes Educators, have done a very good job of spreading the word of just how detrimental and significant stress can be for the body, Continue reading >>

Stress: How It Affects Diabetes And How To Decrease It

Stress: How It Affects Diabetes And How To Decrease It

Diabetes management is a lifelong process. This can add stress to your daily life. Stress can be a major barrier to effective glucose control. Stress hormones in your body may directly affect glucose levels. If you’re experiencing stress or feeling threatened, your body reacts. This is called the fight-or-flight response. This response elevates your hormone levels and causes your nerve cells to fire. During this response, your body releases adrenaline and cortisol into your bloodstream and your respiratory rates increase. Your body directs blood to the muscles and limbs, allowing you to fight the situation. Your body may not be able to process the glucose released by your firing nerve cells if you have diabetes. If you can’t convert the glucose into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream. This causes your blood glucose levels to rise. Constant stress from long-term problems with blood glucose can also wear you down mentally and physically. This may make managing your diabetes difficult. Stress can affect people differently. The type of stress that you experience can also have an impact on your body’s physical response. When people with type 2 diabetes are under mental stress, they generally experience an increase in their blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes may have a more varied response. This means that they can experience either an increase or a decrease in their blood glucose levels. When you’re under physical stress, your blood sugar can also increase. This can happen when you’re sick or injured. This can affect people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Keeping track of additional information, such as the date and what you were doing at the time you were stressed, may help you determine specific triggers. For example, are you more stressed on Continue reading >>

Could Stress Give You Diabetes? It's Not Just The Overweight Who Are At Risk, Doctors Warn

Could Stress Give You Diabetes? It's Not Just The Overweight Who Are At Risk, Doctors Warn

The popular image of a patient with type 2 diabetes is someone who's overweight, with a couch-potato lifestyle. It's a stereotype that makes salesman Dave Dowdeswell furious. The father-of-two, now 48, developed the condition at the age of 44 when he had a 32 in waist and weighed only 12 st - almost ideal for his 5 ft 9 in height. As a keen windsurfer and diver who also walked his dog every day, he was physically fit. There was no family history of type 2 diabetes, and he doesn't even have a sweet tooth. In fact, Dave ticked none of the normal risk-factor boxes, such as being overweight or having a waist of 37 in or more. So how did he become one of almost three million people in the UK with type 2? His doctors believe the trigger was stress. In the 12 months before he began to feel unwell, he had witnessed his 19-year-old daughter Gemma being knocked over by a car and breaking her neck after a family meal out; his thriving paint-spraying business had collapsed because of falling trade and teetered on the verge of bankruptcy, and his beloved bulldog died. Then, in November 2010, Dave unexpectedly lost his 70-year-old father to cirrhosis of the liver. 'That really hit me for six. He went into hospital and never came out,' says Dave, who lives in Portsmouth. 'He went downhill so quickly and I couldn't believe it when he died. We were close and it hit me so badly.' Within a week Dave started to feel ill himself. 'I was suddenly needing to get up two or three times a night to have a pee. 'I was also drinking around two pints of orange juice in one go, and I couldn't wait to finish a meal so I could have a drink of water or orange juice as I felt so thirsty. 'We were on a scuba-diving holiday in Egypt at the time, but my wife Adriana said: "As soon as we get home, I think yo Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stress

Diabetes And Stress

Stress, whether physical stress or mental stress, has been proven to instigate changes in blood sugar levels, which for people with diabetes can be problematic. While stress can affect diabetes control, both directly and indirectly, it can also be caused by various diabetic factors such as being diagnosed with diabetes, adjusting to a diabetes treatment regimen, or dealing with psychosocial pressures of the disease. What is stress? Simply out, stress is a state of emotional strain or tension that occurs when we feel that we can't cope with pressure. When we become stressed, the body quickly responds by releasing hormones that give cells access to stored energy - fat and glucose - to help the body get away from danger. This instinctive physiological response to perceived threats is known as the "fight-freeze, or flight" response. Over time, both physical and mental stress can wear us down mentally and lead to depression and other mental health issues. What can cause stress? We live in a very stressful society which is constantly putting us under pressure. This pressure can sometimes be too much to handle, leading us to feel "stressed out". This everyday feeling can be caused by simple things such as: Work pressure Marriage and relationships Parenting/children Health problems such as diabetes (see below) Financial insecurity Traffic Diabetes causing stress? Being told you have diabetes, or any serious chronic condition for that matter, can also cause a lot of stress and pressure. This can make it harder to control blood sugar levels which, in most cases, only adds to the frustration and stress. How does stress affect my diabetes? It is widely recognised that people with diabetes are who regularly stressed are more likely to have poor blood glucose control. One of the reas Continue reading >>

Mental Stress And Motivation In Type 2 Diabetes - Support Is Important!

Mental Stress And Motivation In Type 2 Diabetes - Support Is Important!

back to Overview Type 2 You've just been diagnosed with diabetes. Now what? This question is a symptom of a situation that changes your whole life. And not only your life, but that of your friends and family, too. Studying stress In 2012 the most extensive study to date concerning psychosocial stress in diabetes was conducted, and finally the experiences of family members were taken into account. The DAWN2 study showed, among other things, that family members also experience psychological stress and worry about their loved ones with diabetes. This sounds obvious – of course they worry. But many of us with diabetes don’t realize how much they worry, and how much those around us want to help us! We think they’re not interested in diabetes support, but you’d be surprised just how much they care. Maybe we can learn together how they might best do it? Diabetes and mental health Diabetes and mental health is not to be taken lightly. Often people with diabetes feel enormous psychological pressure (sometimes self-imposed) which can make us reluctant to “come out” and share our struggles and challenges. It limits our opportunities to talk to other people about fears, concerns and thoughts. In addition, more and more people with diabetes feel discriminated against and experience a certain intolerance of their disease. Diabetes within the family can sometimes be a point of contention, and this wears on the family members just as much as the person living with diabetes. Isolation, intolerance, discrimination, conflict – is it any surprise that depression is common? The situation often feels hopeless, and the physical stress usually brings emotional baggage. It’s a vicious cycle, and the best tool to break free (or avoid it altogether) is a strong serving of motivati Continue reading >>

How Stress Can Actually Cause Diabetes

How Stress Can Actually Cause Diabetes

It’s not just donuts that can put you at risk: High stress levels may cause type 2 diabetes, research suggests. Psychologists interviewed more than 1.5 million Swedish men to see how well they coped with stress. The men were then tracked for 25 years to see if they developed diabetes. The guys with poor stress management were 1.5 times more likely to get the disease than those who were more resilient. Chronic stress screws with your body’s ability to regulate your blood sugar, says study author Casey Crump, M.D., Ph.D. That’s because high levels of cortisol, the hormone that plays a part in your fight or flight response, trigger high blood sugar. So when you’re in a constant state of anxiety, your body can’t bring your blood sugar back down to normal levels. Bad habits may also play a role, says Dr. Crump. “People who are stressed are more likely to eat unhealthy foods and have lower physical activity levels,” he says. “Those behaviors contribute to weight gain, which can also cause insulin resistance.” (For a fat-burning workout you can fit into the busiest of schedules, try THE 21-DAY METASHRED. You can do it in 30 minutes without even leaving your home.) Of course, you probably can’t quit your high-pressure job and move to Fiji. But if you manage daily demands better, you can trick your body into thinking you did. Related: 19 Ways to Live a Stress-Free Life Schedule one relaxing activity into each busy day, even if it’s just a 15-minute walk, says Adelaide Fortmann, Ph.D., the manager of diabetes care research at the Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute. You’ll bring your cortisol levels down, and your blood sugar with it. Continue reading >>

Brain Link Established Between Stress And Type 2 Diabetes

Brain Link Established Between Stress And Type 2 Diabetes

According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), more than 20 million people in the US are diagnosed with some form of diabetes, a metabolic condition in which the body is unable to produce enough of the hormone insulin to regulate glucose levels in the blood. Only about 1.25 million have Type 1, sometimes called “juvenile” diabetes, the auto-immune form of the disease that kills off the special cells that produce insulin. The vast majority of diabetics have Type 2, the insulin-resistant variety of the disease, where the body simply doesn’t make enough insulin to deal with glucose properly. Many older, overweight people develop Type 2 diabetes, but doctors still don’t fully understand why many others in the same condition do not. A new study out of Rice University offers another clue, establishing links between emotional stress, inflammation, and Type 2 diabetes. Microbes working with and against the body Over the past few years, neuroscientists and clinicians alike have become more interested in the so-called microbiome, or the glut of bacteria and other microorganisms that live inside the human gut, and how it influences behavior and disease states (See Gut Axis and Neuropsychiatric Disease: A Paradigm Shift). Many studies now suggest that stress alters the diversity of gut bacteria, and makes people more susceptible to mood and anxiety disorders. Such stress changes may also extend to other common disease states, including diabetes. Joe Alcock, a physician at the University of New Mexico department of emergency medicine, says it’s becoming apparent that the gut microbes are an integral part of human physiology and health. Our gut bacteria have co-evolved along with humans, and that co-evolution, along with work that shows the importance of gut bacteria Continue reading >>

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