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Stress And Diabetes Type 2

Is Stress The Source Of Your Blood Sugar Swing?

Is Stress The Source Of Your Blood Sugar Swing?

A catty co-worker, an unpaid credit card bill, planning a wedding — if something causes you stress, it can also trigger an increase in your blood sugar level. Thinkstock If you have type 2 diabetes, you know that certain foods — particularly foods that are high in carbohydrates — can send your blood glucose (sugar) level through the roof. But did you know that there’s a long list of other factors — such as too little sleep, illness, even monthly menstrual cycles — that can sabotage your best efforts to control your blood sugar? High on that list, though you may not be aware of it, is stress. Whether it’s related to work, to relationships, or to some other aspect of your life, research, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), has continually shown that emotional stress can cause blood sugar to surge. And since strict blood sugar control is the key to the successful management of type 2 diabetes, it’s important to understand how stress affects you and to find healthy ways to cope when mental distress mounts. The Effect of Stress on Blood Sugar According to the ADA, stress triggers an increase in the body's fight-or-flight hormone levels, as if the body were under attack. In response, the body releases extra energy in the form of glucose and fat. People with diabetes are unable to properly process that glucose because of insulin resistance, and consequently glucose builds up in the blood. “For someone who doesn't have diabetes, stress causes a temporary rise in blood sugar, but their body can adjust,” says Amy Campbell, RD, LDN, a certified diabetes educator and a contributor to DiabetesSelfManagement.com. “For someone with diabetes, the blood sugar level stays high.” Everyone gets stressed out at times, but it’s important to underst Continue reading >>

How Stress Affects Blood Sugar Levels

How Stress Affects Blood Sugar Levels

Two types of stress can change blood sugar levels: Physical stress Mental or emotional stress Each type of stress affects blood sugar levels differently. Physical stress generally causes blood sugar levels to increase. Physical stress includes: Illness Surgery Injury Mental or emotional stress has mixed effects, depending on the type of diabetes you have: Type 1 diabetes: Mental stress can increase or decrease blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes: Mental stress generally increases blood sugar levels. Stress also can affect your blood sugar levels indirectly by causing you to forget about your regular diabetes care routine. When you're stressed out, you might: Exercise more or less Eat more or less Eat less healthy foods Not test your blood sugar level as often Forget or delay a dose of medication and/or insulin mental stress can affect your blood sugar levels Use your diabetes logbook to discover if mental stress affects your blood sugar levels, especially if you have type 2 diabetes. Some people with type 2 diabetes are very sensitive to stress. It causes the body to produce especially high levels of stress hormones, which drive blood sugar levels up. follow these steps to find out if your blood sugar levels are affected by mental stress: Rate your stress level on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 indicates the lowest stress level and 10 the highest; record your stress level in your logbook. Test your glucose using your home monitor and enter the result. After a week or two, study your results to see if there is a pattern or relationship between your stress level and your blood sugar levels. 3 ways to reduce mental stress Teach yourself to relax when under stress using deep-breathing exercises or techniques you learn in a stress-management class. Evaluate your schedule and de Continue reading >>

Managing Stress When You Have Diabetes

Managing Stress When You Have Diabetes

Stress can hamper your diabetes care. For instance, if you have so much on your mind that you skip meals or forget to take your medicines, that will affect your blood sugar level. Life will always have challenges and setbacks, but you have the power to choose how you respond to it. Use these six tips as a start. 1. Keep a positive attitude. When things seem to be going wrong, it's easier to see the bad instead of the good. Find something to appreciate in each important area of your life, such as your family, friends, work, and health. That perspective can help you get through tough times. 2. Be kind to yourself. Do you expect too much from yourself? It's OK to say "no" to things that you don't really want or need to do. 3. Accept what you can't change. Ask yourself these three questions: "Will this be important 2 years from now?" "Do I have control over these circumstances?" "Can I change my situation?" If you can make things better, go for it. If not, is there a different way to handle it that would be better for you? 4. Talk to someone. You could confide in a trusted family member or close friend. There are also professionals who can listen and help you find solutions. Ask your doctor for recommendations if you'd like to see a psychologist or counselor. 5. Tap the power of exercise. You can blow off steam with hard exercise, recharge on a hike, or do a relaxing mind-body activity like yoga or tai chi. You'll feel better. 6. Take time to unwind. Practice muscle relaxation, deep breathing, meditation, or visualization. Your doctor may know of classes or programs that teach these skills. You can also check for apps that do that. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: The Stress Of Type 1 Often Leads To Diabulimia

Type 1 Diabetes: The Stress Of Type 1 Often Leads To Diabulimia

Living with type 1 diabetes means that you have a different relationship with food than other people. You live your life in between the demanding rituals that happen multiple times a day; before and after a meal or any type of snack. When I look down at my plate I don’t just see the food itself, I see numbers. After living with type 1 diabetes for over 23 years, I have calculated the nutritional components of thousands of meals while also considering time of day, activity level, stress, and many other necessary factors before deciding how much insulin I need to inject. Although I am now at peace with this routine, there were 10 years of my life where I lived in a fog. I grew tired of the unyielding routines that type 1 diabetes demands on a daily basis. I was afraid that others would see me as broken and fragile if I had a low blood sugar at an inconvenient time (and let’s face it, it’s always an inconvenient time to be low). What started out as an attempt to just keep my blood sugars a little higher than normal to avoid any possibility of a hypoglycemic attack during a performance or out on a date, quickly manifested into a dangerous eating disorder. I became lost inside a cycle of coping behaviors that soon became my entire life. Diabetes felt like an unfair burden to me and to my life’s goals, and I rebelled forcefully against it. I didn’t know how to ask for help and for years I didn’t know if I even wanted help; I had forgotten how to take care of myself and my eating disorder became my world. My life changed in many ways the day I finally shared my secrets to my family and my husband. I was lucky enough to receive treatment at one of the most qualified eating disorder treatment facilities in the country that has a fully developed treatment track for di Continue reading >>

Journal Of Insulin Resistance

Journal Of Insulin Resistance

Copyright: © 2016. The Author(s). Licensee: AOSIS. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objective: Diabetes mellitus is considered an emotionally and behaviourally demanding condition which adds to the stress of a patient’s daily living. There is a paucity of literature in South Africa regarding stress and diabetes. This study therefore aims to identify the areas and contributory factors of psychosocial stress in South African patients with diabetes. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two public facilities and five private medical practices on the north coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Questionnaire on Stress in Diabetes – Revised was administered to 401 participants. Results: Eighteen percent of the sample reported having extreme psychosocial stress. Depression, physical complaints and self-medication/diet were the main areas which contributed to high psychosocial stress. Factors that also contributed to high levels of psychosocial stress were low educational level, unemployment, female gender, attending the public sector and high HbA1c levels. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress affects metabolic control in patients with diabetes, thereby increasing the risks of long-term complications. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased globally with an estimate of 415 million adults living with the disease in 2015.1 Type 2 diabetes is most common and affects millions of people worldwide.2 Diabetes prevalence has also rapidly risen in middle- and low-income countries.2 The International Diabetes Federation estimates that in Africa, 14.2 million adults h Continue reading >>

Reduce Stress To Help Your Diabetes

Reduce Stress To Help Your Diabetes

Stress affects people with diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes (well, of course, it affects people without diabetes, too, but we'll just stick to the people with diabetes). And managing stress isn't as easy as just telling yourself to relax and get through your to-do list. When you have diabetes, stress can affect your blood glucose level, so managing stress when you have diabetes is just another way to work on managing your blood glucose level. Realistically, you'll probably never be able to entirely get rid of stress, so it's good to learn how to manage the stress in your life. How Stress Affects People with Diabetes In people with diabetes, stress can alter the blood glucose levels in two ways. First, people under stress may not take care of themselves. They may eat more and exercise less. They may forget or feel they do not have time to check blood glucose levels or plan for healthy meals. Second, stress can change blood glucose levels directly. Scientists have studied the effects of stress on glucose levels in both animals and people. Diabetic mice have elevated glucose levels when under physical or mental stress. The effects in people with type 1 diabetes indicate that glucose levels may go up as they do in the majority of people, but they can also go down in some. In type 2 diabetes, stress often raises blood glucose levels. Stress Management Tips: Relaxation to Handle Stress Relaxation is not a substitute for exercise; it is an adjunct which will allow you to feel better all day long. In fact, relaxation includes brief or quick relaxation, a stress walk, and then the longer relaxation techniques. It also includes deep breathing. Try the ones that appeal to you. You won't be unhappy. The best thing about learning to relax is that Continue reading >>

Work-related Psychosocial Stress And The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes In Later Life

Work-related Psychosocial Stress And The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes In Later Life

Abstract Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27–7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22–31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17–76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stress

Diabetes And Stress

Stress, whether physical stress or mental stress, has been proven to instigate changes in blood sugar levels, which for people with diabetes can be problematic. While stress can affect diabetes control, both directly and indirectly, it can also be caused by various diabetic factors such as being diagnosed with diabetes, adjusting to a diabetes treatment regimen, or dealing with psychosocial pressures of the disease. What is stress? Simply out, stress is a state of emotional strain or tension that occurs when we feel that we can't cope with pressure. When we become stressed, the body quickly responds by releasing hormones that give cells access to stored energy - fat and glucose - to help the body get away from danger. This instinctive physiological response to perceived threats is known as the "fight-freeze, or flight" response. Over time, both physical and mental stress can wear us down mentally and lead to depression and other mental health issues. What can cause stress? We live in a very stressful society which is constantly putting us under pressure. This pressure can sometimes be too much to handle, leading us to feel "stressed out". This everyday feeling can be caused by simple things such as: Work pressure Marriage and relationships Parenting/children Health problems such as diabetes (see below) Financial insecurity Traffic Diabetes causing stress? Being told you have diabetes, or any serious chronic condition for that matter, can also cause a lot of stress and pressure. This can make it harder to control blood sugar levels which, in most cases, only adds to the frustration and stress. How does stress affect my diabetes? It is widely recognised that people with diabetes are who regularly stressed are more likely to have poor blood glucose control. One of the reas Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

1. Diabetes mellitus Likewise Osteoporosis, Cushing’s syndrome and Scleroderma, Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that is characterized by elevated levels of glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and insufficiency in production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas inside the body (Maritim et al., 2003). Insulin is a protein (hormone) synthesized in beta cells of pancreas in response to various stimuli such as glucose, sulphonylureas, and arginine however glucose is the major determinant (Joshi et al., 2007). Long term elevation in blood glucose levels is associated with macro- and micro-vascular complications leading to heart diseases, stroke, blindness and kidney diseases (Loghmani, 2005). Sidewise to hyperglycemia, there are several other factors that play great role in pathogenesis of diabetes such as hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress leading to high risk of complications (Kangralkar et al., 2010). 2. Types of diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus can be classified in different ways but one form of classification is as follow (American Diabetes Association, 2004): 1. Type I diabetes (Insulin dependent) is due to immune mediated beta-cells destruction, leading to insulin deficiency. 2. Idiopathic diabetes is the type 1 diabetes with no known etiologies and is strongly inherited. 3. Type II diabetes (Non-Insulin dependent) is due to insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance. 4. Gestational diabetes mellitus is any form of intolerance to glucose with onset or first recognition of pregnancy. However diabetes is mostly classified basically into TWO major types: Type I Diabetes (IDDM) and Type II Diabetes (NIDDM). 3. Pathophysiology of diabetes Whenever somebody takes the meal, there is rise in blood glucose levels that stimulates insulin secr Continue reading >>

5 Ways Your Stress Can Worsen Your Diabetes

5 Ways Your Stress Can Worsen Your Diabetes

Stress aggravates diabetes. Stress raises blood sugar levels, activates fat cells, impairs glucose tolerance, increases insulin resistance and impacts blood pressure. It’s a Catch-22: Diabetes gets you stressed out and the stress worsens your diabetes. Do you sometimes feel like your entire life is centered on your diabetes? When you’re snacking, you’re thinking about your blood sugar level. When you’re exercising, you’re nervous to work your body too hard. When you’re at work, you make sure you have a snack on you at all time or extra insulin shots. When you’re at home, your spouse and children try to not eat their favorite sweets around you. The stress of constantly thinking about diabetes can take a toll on your body. We know that stress is not just bad for our mental health, but also bad for our physical health. This includes your diabetes and its often undiagnosed companion, hypertension. It’s not bad to be a little more conscious or concerned about your health—but high stress levels can negatively impact your body and potentially worsen your condition. High stress can worsen your diabetes in 5 different ways: 1. Stress raises blood sugar levels Why does extra tension in your body cause your blood sugar to go up even if you haven’t eaten anything? There are a number of factors that go into this, but a primary reason is that stress triggers the body to release cortisol, which is a hormone that helps the body get through tough situations (the fight-or-flight situations). When cortisol comes out to play, your heart rate and breathing speed up. This also sends glucose and protein stores from your liver into the blood to make energy immediately available to your muscles. In other words, your body releases sugar into the blood so that the energy can g Continue reading >>

Work-related Stress May Increase Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes By Up To 45%

Work-related Stress May Increase Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes By Up To 45%

Between heavy paperwork and the constant ringing of your phone, it’s hard not to get stressed at work. Working under these conditions, however, can be very demanding on the body and mind, and can eventually lead to health risks. A new study now finds that stressful work environments can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes by a whopping 45 percent. For the study, a team of scientists, led by Dr. Cornelia Huth and Professor Karl-Henz Ladwig of the Institute of Epidemiology II at Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen in Germany, analyzed data collected from over 5,300 employed individuals between 29 and 56 years old. None of the participants had type 2 diabetes when the study began, but over the course of 13 years, almost 300 of them were diagnosed. The researchers found that one in five people were affected by high levels of stress in their workplace. "By that, scientists do not mean 'normal job stress' but rather the situation in which the individuals concerned rate the demands made upon them as very high, and at the same time they have little scope for maneuver or for decision making. We covered both these aspects in great detail in our surveys,” Ladwig said in a press release. According to the American Diabetes Association, over 90 percent of the 29.1 million Americans have type 2 diabetes. With those numbers expected to rise, researchers are looking for solutions. Identifying stress in the workplace as a contributor to type 2 diabetes can help scientists find new approaches to treat and prevent the disease. "In view of the huge health implications of stress-related disorders, preventive measures to prevent common diseases such as diabetes should therefore also begin at this point," Ladwig said. A 2009 study also ackowledged the relationship between stress and type 2 diabete Continue reading >>

Stress And Diabetes: A Review Of The Links

Stress And Diabetes: A Review Of The Links

Evidence suggests that stressful experiences might affect diabetes, in terms of both its onset and its exacerbation. In this article, the authors review some of this evidence and consider ways in which stress might affect diabetes, both through physiological mechanisms and via behavior. They also discuss the implications of this for clinical practice and care. In recent years, the complexities of the relationship between stress and diabetes have become well known but have been less well researched. Some studies have suggested that stressful experiences might affect the onset and/or the metabolic control of diabetes, but findings have often been inconclusive. In this article, we review some of this research before going on to consider how stress might affect diabetes control and the physiological mechanisms through which this may occur. Finally, we discuss the implications for clinical practice and care. Before going any further, however, the meaning of the term stress must be clarified because it can be used in different ways. Stress may be thought of as a) a physiological response to an external stimulus, or b) a psychological response to external stimuli, or c) stressful events themselves, which can be negative or positive or both. In this article, we address all three aspects of stress: stressful events or experiences (sometimes referred to as stressors) and the physiological and psychological/behavioral responses to these. Role of Stress in the Onset of Diabetes Stressful experiences have been implicated in the onset of diabetes in individuals already predisposed to developing the disease. As early as the beginning of the 17th century, the onset of diabetes was linked to “prolonged sorrow” by an English physician.1 Since then, a number of research studies have i Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Psychological Stress — A Modifiable Risk Factor

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Psychological Stress — A Modifiable Risk Factor

Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM. Sattar, N. et al. Serial metabolic measurements and conversion to type 2 diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study: specific elevations in alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides suggest hepatic fat accumulation as a potential contributing factor. Diabetes 56, 984–991 (2007). Mommersteeg, P. M. C., Herr, R., Zijlstra, W. P., Schneider, S. & Pouwer, F. Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up: results from the British household panel survey. BMC Public Health 12, 1109 (2012). Wagner, J. A. et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a stress management intervention for Latinos with type 2 diabetes delivered by community health workers: outcomes for psychological wellbeing, glycemic control, and cortisol. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 120, 162–170 (2016). Noordali, F., Cumming, J. & Thompson, J. L. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based interven Continue reading >>

Impact Of Stress On Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Management.

Impact Of Stress On Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Management.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one among the major health and socioeconomic problems worldwide. It is, however, not a somatic illness for which just symptomatic treatment will suffice. Stress is an important factor in not only causing diabetes onset or exacerbation, but also in hampering proper treatment by interfering with the treatment adherence of patients. Hence, it becomes important for physicians to acquaint themselves with the effects of stress on T2DM in order to ensure proper treatment of the latter. OBJECTIVE: Documentation of effect of stress on the management of T2DM. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The research was a cross-sectional study on the patients attending Sri Muthukumaran Medical College, Hospital and Research Institute, Mangadu. A total of 400 people, who werepre-established diabetic patients of the hospital of age greater than 30 years, were chosen for the study. The stress levels of the patients were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and treatment adherence using a questionnaire prepared exclusively for the study. Based on the data, a statistical relationship was framed between the degree of control (treatment adherence) and the stress levels of the patients. RESULTS: The FBS levels were a direct reflection of the stress levels (P<0.05). Stress had a major impact on treatment adherence among the diabetic subjects: Increased levels of stress decreased the adherence (P<0.001). The glycemic index (HbA1C level) was found to be linked to both treatment adherence and stress. Increased adherence kept it at bay (P<0.05) while stress proved abysmal to glycemic control. CONCLUSION: T2DM is the result of an interplay between various factors; environmental, psychiatric and somatic. Hence, a holistic treatment approach is required Continue reading >>

Stress, Lack Of Sleep Can Increase Your Risk Of Developing Diabetes

Stress, Lack Of Sleep Can Increase Your Risk Of Developing Diabetes

Developing type 2 diabetes as an adult is not only about eating habits. Several lifestyle factors — including stress — can put you at a greater risk of developing the disease. In type 2 diabetes, you have too much sugar, also called glucose, in your blood. People with diabetes have problems converting food to energy. After a meal, food is broken down into glucose, which is carried by your blood to cells throughout your body. Cells absorb glucose from your blood with the help of the hormone insulin and use it for energy. Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition linked to excess weight in which your body’s cells do not use insulin properly. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. The impact of stress Stress is one of the more overlooked factors that can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, says endocrinologist Mary Vouyiouklis Kellis, MD. “Stress puts your body into a flight or fight mode. As a result, your levels of hormone such as adrenaline and cortisol rise. This can impact your blood glucose levels,” Dr. Kellis says. “If you have pre-diabetes, these increases in blood glucose levels can’t be effectively lowered because you’re insulin-resistant,” she says. “As a result, over time, stress can increase a person’s risk to develop type 2 diabetes.” Another problem with stress is that the increase in cortisol can make you want to eat more than you should, Dr. Kellis says. People who stress-eat are more likely to gain weight. Carrying too much weight is one of the biggest risk factors for type 2 diabetes, she says. Sleep matters, too Another often-overlooked risk factor is sleep deprivation, Dr. Kellis says. In addition to making you crave carbohydrates and sugar-loaded foods, Dr. Continue reading >>

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