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Stress And Diabetes Type 1

Stress

Stress

The first longitudinal (long-term) study of stress and type 1 diabetes found that experiencing a stressful event during childhood was associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes later in life (Nygren et al. 2015). A large study from Denmark found that if a child experienced the death of an immediate family member after age 11, they were more likely to develop type 1 diabetes (Virk et al. 2015). Sepa and Ludvigsson (2006) reviewed earlier studies concerning psychological stress and type 1 diabetes. They found that 9 of 10 studies found associations between stress and type 1 diabetes. Additionally, one large study found an association between stress and type 1-related autoimmunity at early ages in life in the general population. They conclude that psychological stress can accelerate the appearance of type 1 diabetes, and may also contribute to the induction or progression of type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity, but more research is needed. The mechanisms for these effects are not known, but may involve stressing the insulin-producing beta cells, or direct influence on the immune system; psychological stress can also increase insulin resistance. Psychological stress in children is linked to changes in the immune system, as well as effects on beta cells (Carlsson et al. 2014). Major life events have also been associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes, possibly due to increased levels of stress hormones, which are also increased in conditions involving inflammation (such as type 1 diabetes) (Dahlquist 2006). A study from Israel found that that trauma of war was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Children living in regions that were attacked during the Second Lebanon War had a higher risk of type 1 in the four years after the war, Continue reading >>

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As you were browsing psycnet.apa.org something about your browser made us think you were a bot. There are a few reasons this might happen: You're a power user moving through this website with super-human speed. You've disabled JavaScript in your web browser. A third-party browser plugin, such as Ghostery or NoScript, is preventing JavaScript from running. Additional information is available in this support article. To request an unblock, please fill out the form below and we will review it as soon as possible. You reached this page when attempting to access from 35.194.38.250 on 2017-12-30 23:20:56 UTC. Trace: 1dc47fff-a8a3-4ff6-ba62-381b8b0be13b via 7bcaee21-0f58-4c1e-b08a-f4cd97c75010 Continue reading >>

Stress And Diabetes Connection

Stress And Diabetes Connection

What is Diabetes? Types of Diabetes What Causes Diabetes? Symptoms of Diabetes Diagnosis of Diabetes Treatment of Diabetes Complications of Diabetes Low Blood Glucose Cholesterol in Diabetics Heart Disease in Diabetics Vitamins for Diabetics Stress Causes Diabetes While there are several factors that contribute to the development of diabetes, stress is an important one. This is how: Type 2 Diabetes: About 95% of diabetics suffer from Type 2 diabetes, which occurs due to a process in the body called insulin resistance. Stress is a major cause for insulin resistance. Obesity is another important culprit for insulin resistance. Stress through Stress Eating plays the main underlying cause for obesity. In this way, stress significantly contributes to a person’s obesity and risk for developing diabetes. Insulin resistance is a process in the body which causes insulin, a chemical in your body, to be less effective in keeping your blood sugar normal. Consequently, your body produces more insulin in order to keep your blood sugar normal. This compensatory increase in the amount of insulin may control your blood sugar for a while, but it’s harmful for the rest of the body. Large amounts of insulin can raise your blood pressure and increase your risk for cancer. Insulin resistance also increases your risk for heart attacks and strokes. After many years of escalating insulin resistance, eventually your insulin producing cells in the pancreas get exhausted and cannot churn out the huge amounts of insulin needed to keep your blood sugar normal. At this point, your blood sugar starts to rise and you end up being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: Type I diabetes is the other type of diabetes. It is much less common, accounting for about 5% of diabetics. Type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

The Role For Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Diabetes Mellitus

The Role For Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Diabetes Mellitus

Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, contributing to pancreatic β-cell loss and insulin resistance. Components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play a dual role in β-cells, acting as beneficial regulators under physiological conditions or as triggers of β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis under situations of chronic stress. Novel findings suggest that “what makes a β-cell a β-cell”, i.e., its enormous capacity to synthesize and secrete insulin, is also its Achilles heel, rendering it vulnerable to chronic high glucose and fatty acid exposure, agents that contribute to β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we address the transition from physiology to pathology, namely how and why the physiological UPR evolves to a proapoptotic ER stress response and which defenses are triggered by β-cells against these challenges. ER stress may also link obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. High fat feeding and obesity induce ER stress in liver, which suppresses insulin signaling via c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. In vitro data suggest that ER stress may also contribute to cytokine-induced β-cell death. Thus, the cytokines IL-1β and interferon-γ, putative mediators of β-cell loss in type 1 diabetes, induce severe ER stress through, respectively, NO-mediated depletion of ER calcium and inhibition of ER chaperones, thus hampering β-cell defenses and amplifying the proapoptotic pathways. A better understanding of the pathways regulating ER stress in β-cells may be instrumental for the design of novel therapies to prevent β-cell loss in diabetes. Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Is It Affected By A Single Bout Of Prolonged Exercise?

Oxidative Stress In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Is It Affected By A Single Bout Of Prolonged Exercise?

Abstract Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m−2; HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol−1) and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m−2) performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L−1 H2O2; p<0.001). In both groups, oxidative stress remained constant throughout the exercise (p = NS), while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (p<0.02) from 1.16±0.13 to 1.19±0.10 mmol·L−1 Trolox in patients and from 1.09±0.21 to 1.22±0.14 mmol·L−1 Trolox in controls, without any significant difference between the two groups. Oxidative stress was positively correlated to HbA1c (p<0.005) and negatively related with uric acid (p<0.005). In conclusion, we were the first to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet). Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single b Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress And Antioxidant Protection: The Science Of Free Radical Biology And Disease

Oxidative Stress And Antioxidant Protection: The Science Of Free Radical Biology And Disease

This chapter reviews the role of free radicals during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D), both in the immune system and on the target β cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to β-cell dysfunction during the development of diabetes. Autoimmune β-cell destruction is a fundamental feature in the pathogenesis of T1D. β cells are considered to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage compared to other tissues as a result of lower antioxidant defenses. This exquisite sensitivity has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of T1D. A preponderance of evidence suggesting that ROS participate β-cell death during T1D development has come from studies using mouse models. Phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is critical for the production of ROS as biological messengers that participate in signal transduction within lymphocytes. NOX2 has been proposed to be critical to dendritic cell-mediated diabetogenic CD8+ T cell priming through cross-presentation. Continue reading >>

How Stress Hormones Raise Blood Sugar

How Stress Hormones Raise Blood Sugar

In this excerpt from “Think Like a Pancreas”, certified diabetes educator Gary Scheiner describes why this happens and what to do about it. (excerpted from Think Like A Pancreas: A Practical Guide to Managing Diabetes With Insulin by Gary Scheiner MS, CDE, DaCapo Press, 2011) Last weekend I decided to stay up late and watch a scary movie. It had something to do with super-gross vampires who get their jollies by eating the flesh of unsuspecting hotel guests. Anyway, after the final gut-wrenching, heart-pumping scene, I decided to check my blood sugar. I’ll be darned – it had risen about 200 mg/dL (11 mmol) during the movie. With blood that sweet, I felt like the grand prize for any vampires that might happen to be lurking in my neighborhood. As you may be aware, the liver serves as a storehouse for glucose, keeping it in a concentrated form called glycogen. The liver breaks down small amounts of glycogen all the time, releasing glucose into the bloodstream to nourish the brain, nerves, heart and other “always active” organs. The liver’s release of glucose depends largely on the presence of certain hormones. Of all the hormones in the body, only insulin causes the liver to take sugar out of the bloodstream and store it in the form of glycogen. All the other hormones—including stress hormones, sex hormones, growth hormones and glucagon—cause the liver to secrete glucose back into the bloodstream. Growth hormone is produced in a 24-hour cycle and is responsible for the blood sugar rise that we sometimes see during the night or in the early morning. The other “stress” hormones, particularly epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol, are produced when our body needs a rapid influx of sugar for energy purposes. The glucose rise I experienced during the scary Continue reading >>

Stress Related To Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Stress Related To Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Almost three million Americans are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes annually. Formerly known as juvenile diabetes, type 1 affects mostly children, but adults have also been diagnosed. Those with type 1 cannot produce their own insulin, a hormone that regulates sugar levels in the blood. Thus, they must inject insulin into their bodies to compensate for the absence. When glycated haemoglobin, or HbA1c, levels in the blood are above average, patients are diagnosed with diabetes. After diagnosis, the lives for type 1 diabetics can be difficult to manage with all the daily insulin injections and careful diet monitoring. Such drastically adjusted schedules often take away from one's quality of life. This can lead to more health issues such as anxiety and depression. Led by Ragnhild Bjarkøy Strandberg, a study published in the September 2014 issue of Journal of Psychosomatic Research sought to determine if there was a relationship between the emotional distress revolving around diabetes and levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Studying Levels of Emotional Distress in Diabetics Recruited from an outpatient clinic, 235 individuals from ages 18 to 69 with type 1 diabetes participated in the study. Of the sample, 135 were male and 100 were female. Blood samples were taken from all participants to measure HbA1c levels. The average HbA1c level for the sample was 8.1%—the average level for someone without diabetes ranges from 4.5% to 6.5%. After HbA1c levels were recorded, Strandberg assessed levels of emotional distress using the following tools: Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID): 20-item survey assessing emotional responses. Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS): 17-item scale measuring emotional burdens, physician-related stress, regimen-related stress, and diabetes-related stress. H Continue reading >>

Stress And Diabetes Mellitus.

Stress And Diabetes Mellitus.

Abstract Stress is a potential contributor to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes. Stress has long been shown to have major effects on metabolic activity. Energy mobilization is a primary result of the fight or flight response. Stress stimulates the release of various hormones, which can result in elevated blood glucose levels. Although this is of adaptive importance in a healthy organism, in diabetes, as a result of the relative or absolute lack of insulin, stress-induced increases in glucose cannot be metabolized properly. Furthermore, regulation of these stress hormones may be abnormal in diabetes. However, evidence characterizing the effects of stress in type I diabetes is contradictory. Although some retrospective human studies have suggested that stress can precipitate type I diabetes, animal studies have shown that stressors of various kinds can precipitate--or prevent--various experimental models of the disease. Human studies have shown that stress can stimulate hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, or have no affect at all on glycemic status in established diabetes. Much of this confusion may be attributable to the presence of autonomic neuropathy, common in type I diabetes. In contrast, more consistent evidence supports the role of stress in type II diabetes. Although human studies on the role of stress in the onset and course of type II diabetes are few, a large body of animal study supports the notion that stress reliably produces hyperglycemia in this form of the disease. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence of autonomic contributions to the pathophysiology of this condition in both animals and humans. Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar & Stress

Blood Sugar & Stress

When stressed, the body prepares itself. Insulin levels fall, glucagon and epinephrine levels rise, and more glucose is available in the blood stream. Stress affects everyone… During stressful situations, epinephrine (adrenaline), glucagon, growth hormone and cortisol play a role in blood sugar levels. Stressful situations include infections, serious illness or significant emotion stress. What happens to my blood sugar levels when I’m stressed? When stressed, the body prepares itself by ensuring that enough sugar or energy is readily available. Insulin levels fall, glucagon and epinephrine (adrenaline) levels rise and more glucose is released from the liver. At the same time, growth hormone and cortisol levels rise, which causes body tissues (muscle and fat) to be less sensitive to insulin. As a result, more glucose is available in the blood stream. When you have type 1 diabetes… When you have type 1 diabetes, insulin reactions or low blood sugars are a common cause of stress. The hormonal response to a low blood sugar includes a rapid release of epinephrine (and glucagon for a year or so after diagnosis), followed by a slower release of cortisol and growth hormone. These hormonal responses to the low blood sugar may last for 6-8 hours – during that time the blood sugar may be difficult to control. The phenomena of a low blood sugar followed by a high blood sugar is called a “rebound” or “Somogyi” reaction. When you have type 1 diabetes, stress may make your blood sugar go up and become more difficult to control – and you may need to take higher doses of insulin. During times of stress, individuals with diabetes, may have more difficulty controlling their blood sugars. Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in thi Continue reading >>

Risk Of Diabetes Type 1 'can Be Tripled By Childhood Stress'

Risk Of Diabetes Type 1 'can Be Tripled By Childhood Stress'

Stressful life events in childhood such as family break-up, death or illness, can triple the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, research suggests. In a study, researchers found that children who experienced an event associated with “major stress” were almost three times more likely to develop the condition than those who had not. The Swedish study analysed more than 10,000 families with children aged between two and 14, who did not already have the condition. The aim was to pinpoint any family conflicts, unemployment problems, alteration of family structure, or intervention from social services. Subsequently, 58 children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown but it is usually preceded by the immune system attacking and killing beta cells in the pancreas, which produce insulin. Based on the results, the researchers, from Linkoping University, said they thought the stressful events could contribute to beta cell stress due to increased insulin resistance as well as increased insulin demand due to the physiological stress response, such as elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol. In the paper, published on Thursday in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), the authors write: “Consistent with several previous retrospective studies, this first prospective study concludes that the experience of a serious life event (reasonably indicating psychological stress) during the first 14 years of life may be a risk factor for developing type 1 diabetes. “The current study examined serious life events experienced at any time before diagnosis; further studies are thus needed to determine when in the autoimmune process psychological stress may contribute, and in association with which other Continue reading >>

Managing The Stress Of Living With Type 1 Diabetes

Managing The Stress Of Living With Type 1 Diabetes

Like many young girls, Olivia Di Pietro enjoys going to birthday parties with her friends. Yet when the bowls of snacks start circulating, along with the chocolate cupcakes and cans of soda, her thoughts immediately turn to the insulin pump she is wearing and what she can eat. Unlike the other children, Olivia – an 11-year-old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) – knows her food choices will affect her blood sugar readings. And that is something she has had to live with for the past seven years. “I really wish I didn’t have this disease,” Olivia admits candidly. “Looking back, I can still see myself as a little girl sitting on the examining table at the hospital, terrified, as my parents and the doctor told me that I needed insulin injections to live. All I remember thinking is: Why me?” As anyone living with diabetes knows, the demands of self-care are constant and learning to adopt a large number of new behaviours can often leave a person feeling burdened, anxious, frustrated – and even depressed. Managing a chronic illness can be challenging, and developing coping strategies is key for maintaining health, balance and happiness. Debra Glass is a Toronto-based diabetes counsellor who has worked with people living with diabetes and their families since 2010. Offering talk therapy, support and practical advice, her primary goal is to help individuals become good self-managers of their condition by mastering all the information they need to know and developing the skills they need to successfully integrate diabetes into their everyday life. As someone who has lived with T1D for the past 28 years, Glass is well-versed in the daily challenges of living with a condition that requires continuous self-care. “Diabetes is the kind of thing that you think of 24/7,” say Continue reading >>

Reduce Stress To Help Your Diabetes

Reduce Stress To Help Your Diabetes

Stress affects people with diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes (well, of course, it affects people without diabetes, too, but we'll just stick to the people with diabetes). And managing stress isn't as easy as just telling yourself to relax and get through your to-do list. When you have diabetes, stress can affect your blood glucose level, so managing stress when you have diabetes is just another way to work on managing your blood glucose level. Realistically, you'll probably never be able to entirely get rid of stress, so it's good to learn how to manage the stress in your life. How Stress Affects People with Diabetes In people with diabetes, stress can alter the blood glucose levels in two ways. First, people under stress may not take care of themselves. They may eat more and exercise less. They may forget or feel they do not have time to check blood glucose levels or plan for healthy meals. Second, stress can change blood glucose levels directly. Scientists have studied the effects of stress on glucose levels in both animals and people. Diabetic mice have elevated glucose levels when under physical or mental stress. The effects in people with type 1 diabetes indicate that glucose levels may go up as they do in the majority of people, but they can also go down in some. In type 2 diabetes, stress often raises blood glucose levels. Stress Management Tips: Relaxation to Handle Stress Relaxation is not a substitute for exercise; it is an adjunct which will allow you to feel better all day long. In fact, relaxation includes brief or quick relaxation, a stress walk, and then the longer relaxation techniques. It also includes deep breathing. Try the ones that appeal to you. You won't be unhappy. The best thing about learning to relax is that Continue reading >>

Stress

Stress

Key points Stress is a part of our daily lives Stress becomes unhealthy when it begins to make us less able to manage our physical or psychological health, or other factors in our lives such as our work and relationships Stress can be caused by physical factors (like an injury or illness) or psychological / social factors (unresolved work issues, bereavements, moving house, unresolved relationship problems) In many people with diabetes, stress can cause their blood glucose levels to rise. Learning strategies to deal with stress may lessen this effect Having diabetes is in itself a major source of stress. People with diabetes have higher rates of anxiety and depression. Learning how to manage stress and treating these skills as a priority, can help you cope with stress more effectively There are practical things you can do to reduce stress, such as learning relaxation techniques, learning different ways to respond to stress, identifying situations that cause stress and choosing to avoid them, and making changes to your life that increase your enjoyment level Developing a positive coping style may help you deal more effectively with stress You will inevitably experience ups and downs in your journey with diabetes. Learning what skills and resources you have to help you manage stress (and your response to stress) can help you effectively deal with the difficult times. What happens in my body when I get stressed? Each person will have a somewhat different response to stress. When we experience stress our body tends to respond as if it were under attack. This can be regardless of whether the stress is physical (like an injury or infection) or psychological (like an argument, a marriage break up, a bereavement, or financial problems). The body responds to stress by preparing Continue reading >>

Stress — Why And How You Should Reduce It

Stress — Why And How You Should Reduce It

Editor’s Note: This is part of our Mental Health series. Type 1 isn’t just about counting carbs, checking BGLs and administering insulin. The disease takes an emotional and psychological toll as well. Check out other clinical information and personal stories about Mental Health. Everybody experiences stress throughout his or her life. You could lose a job, home or loved one. You could suddenly lose your health. Certainly at some juncture, you’ll be stuck in traffic or step in gum or endure any number of unwanted situations. But if encountering stress is all a part of the human experience, what does it mean for someone with Type 1? Essentially, when the body senses a threat — perceived or actual — it has a physical reaction by releasing the stress hormones of epinephrine (commonly known as adrenaline) and cortisol (also known as the fat-layering hormone). These hormones trigger the liver to produce extra energy called glucose that your cells can then use to fight the threat (super-hero-style) or flee the scene (a.k.a. Road-Runner-exit). Sudden increases of glucose can pose a dangerous scenario for a T1D. Without insulin, the extra glucose energy piles up in the blood, unable to reach the cells for which it’s intended. This state is known as hyperglycemia and can occur when you’ve simply eaten more than you planned or exercised less than you intended. What makes stress so dangerous though is that more often than not, it goes undetected. On top of that, long-term exposure to stress can cause long-term high blood glucose levels. Symptoms of hyperglycemia High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Remember that a stressed person is also less likely to take care of himself or herself. When it comes to having Type 1 Continue reading >>

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