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Serum Glucose

Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Postprandial plasma glucose at 2 hours: Less than 140 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Less than 140 mg/dL Serum glucose values are 1.15% lower than plasma glucose values. [ 1 ] Values for diabetes mellitus are as follows: Fasting plasma glucose: Greater than 125 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Greater than 200 mg/dL Postprandial glucose at 2 hours: Greater than 200 mg/dL Impaired fasting glucose: Fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance testing: Postprandial glucose at 2 hours of 140-200 mg/dL The value for hypoglycemia is as follows: Collect 0.5-1 ml of blood in gray-top tube containing sodium fluoride. For serum glucose, a red-top tube can be used. Serum is separated within 45 minutes of collection. For fasting glucose testing, collect the blood sample in the morning after an overnight or 8-hour fast. For postprandial glucose testing, collect the blood sample 2 hours after a regular meal. For oral glucose tolerance testing, after oral intake of 75 g of glucose, collect blood samples at 1 hour and 2 hours. For gestational diabetes testing, parameters are 1 hour after 50 g of glucose and 2 hours after 100 g of glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide and is a primary metabolite for energy production in the body. Glucose enters via GLUT receptors. Of the 10 GLUT receptors, GLUT-4 receptors are present in muscle and adipose tissues and require insulin for glucose transport. Glucose is initially used by glycolysis and is converted to pyruvate. During this process, 4 adenosine triphosphates (ATPs) and 2 NADHs are generated and 2 ATPs are used, resulting in net production of 2 ATPs. This process does not use oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes metabolism by the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria. During the Krebs cycle, each mo Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Test

Blood Sugar Test

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into glucose in your body. This raises your blood glucose level. Hormones made in the body help control blood glucose level. Continue reading >>

Serum Glucose Level - Dictionary Definition Of Serum Glucose Level | Encyclopedia.com: Free Online Dictionary

Serum Glucose Level - Dictionary Definition Of Serum Glucose Level | Encyclopedia.com: Free Online Dictionary

The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests The serum glucose or blood sugar level is a measurement of the amount of a particular form of simple sugar in the blood. When carbohydrates are ingested, they are broken down in the intestines into component parts, including sugars such as glucose. Glucose is absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream. It circulates throughout the body and is used by all of the body’s tissues and organs to generate the energy necessary for their normal functioning. In order for glucose to enter the body’s cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced in and excreted by the pancreas. Insulin functions to allow the transport of glucose into the cells of the body, as well as being involved in the body’s storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen or triglycerides. The blood levels of glucose and insulin are intimately related. When carbohydrates are metabolized after a meal, the blood glucose begins to rise. Under normal circumstances, the pancreas then secretes insulin, in an amount relative to the blood glucose elevation. Between meals, or after heavy exertion, glucose levels may begin to drop below a safe threshold for the body’s cells (particular cells of the brain and nervous system). In response to this lowering of blood glucose, the pancreas secretes a different hormone, called glucagon. Glucagon prompts the liver to convert glycogen into glucose, thereby elevating the blood glucose back into a safe range. Abnormal levels of blood glucose can be life-threatening. High blood glucose is termed hyperglycemia; low blood glucose is termed hypoglycemia. Either of these conditions can result in organ failure, severe brain damage, coma, or death. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas fails to produce n Continue reading >>

Glucose, Plasma Or Serum

Glucose, Plasma Or Serum

Patient Preparation Collect Gray (sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate), plasma separator tube, or serum separator tube. Specimen Preparation Separate serum or plasma from cells ASAP or within 2 hours of collection. Transfer 1 mL serum or plasma to an ARUP Standard Transport Tube. (Min: 0.2 mL) Storage/Transport Temperature Unacceptable Conditions Remarks Stability After separation from cells: Ambient: 24 hours; Refrigerated: 1 week; Frozen: 1 year Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose Serum?

What Is Glucose Serum?

Glucose serum is more commonly referred to as blood sugar, and it refers to the concentration of sugar, or glucose, in the bloodstream. The carbohydrates you eat are converted to glucose, which is the human body’s primary source of energy. If glucose levels are too high or too low overall, health problems result, the most prevalent of which is diabetes. The Role of Insulin The amount of glucose in the bloodstream is regulated by a hormone called insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas. The role of insulin is to transport glucose out of the bloodstream and into the body’s cells, where it is either converted to energy or stored for later use. Eating and drinking stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin. Glucose levels in the bloodstream vary throughout the day, rising when sugar is ingested and dropping as insulin removes the sugar from the bloodstream. Normal Blood Sugar Levels Normal fasting glucose serum or blood sugar levels range from 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. Blood sugar may rise as high as 180 mg/dL following a meal, but it should be neutralized within two hours thereafter. A person is considered to be diabetic if the glucose serum concentration is 126 mg/dL or higher after fasting (not having had anything to eat or drink for the previous six to eight hours). Types of Diabetes There are two types of diabetes. In type I, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. In type II, the pancreas produces insulin, but the cells develop a resistance or immunity to it, such that they no longer respond to insulin as they should. According to the Merck Manual of Medical Information, type I diabetes accounts for only about 10 percent of all cases of diabetes, and it’s usually diagnosed at a young age, whereas the prevalence of type II diabete Continue reading >>

[fasting Serum Glucose And Subsequent Liver Cancer Risk In A Korean Prospectivecohort].

[fasting Serum Glucose And Subsequent Liver Cancer Risk In A Korean Prospectivecohort].

1. J Prev Med Public Health. 2007 Jan;40(1):23-8. [Fasting serum glucose and subsequent liver cancer risk in a Korean prospectivecohort]. Gwack J(1), Hwang SS, Ko KP, Jun JK, Park SK, Chang SH, Shin HR, Yoo KY. (1)Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine. OBJECTIVES: Chronic infections with hepatitis B or C and alcoholic cirrhosis are three well-known major risk factors for liver cancer. Diabetes has also beensuggested as a potential risk factor. However, the findings of previous studieshave been controversial in terms of the causal association. Therefore, the aim ofthis study was to evaluate the association between serum glucose levels and livercancer development in a Korean cohort.METHODS: Thirty-six liver cancer cases were identified in the Korean Multi-CenterCancer Cohort (KMCC). Baseline information on lifestyle characteristics wasobtained via questionnaire. Serum glucose levels were measured at the study'senrollment. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazardregression model. The adjusting variables included age, gender, smoking history, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)seropositivity.RESULTS: The RRs of serum glucose for liver cancer were 1.20 (95% CI = 0.48-2.99)for the category of 100 to 125 mg/dL of serum glucose and 2.77 (95% CI =1.24-6.18) for the > 126 mg/dL serum glucose category (both compared to the < 100mg/dL category). In a subgroup analysis, the RR of serum glucose among those who were both HBsAg seronegative and non-drinkers was 4.46 (95% CL = 1.09-18.28) for those with glucose levels > 100 mg/dL.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a high level of serum glucosecan increase liver cancer risk independently of hepatitis infection Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Measurement: Is Serum Equal To Plasma?

Blood Glucose Measurement: Is Serum Equal To Plasma?

In 2002, the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) published "Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus" [1]. Measurement of plasma glucose was the only diagnostic criterion for diabetes. Glycemic control was monitored by measuring glucose using patients' plasma or blood glucose with meters and laboratory analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Ten years later, these recommendations were updated by a multidisciplinary guideline team including clinical, laboratory, and evidence-based guideline methodology experts [2]. The guidelines were reviewed by the joint evidence-based Laboratory Medicine Committee of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry and the NACB, and the guidelines were accepted after revision by the Professional Practice Committee and approved by the Executive Committee of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). In addition to measurement of venous plasma glucose, HbA1c concentration in blood can also be used for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When glucose is used to diagnose diabetes, the guideline recommends it to be measured in venous plasma in an accredited laboratory. Sample tube should be placed immediately in an ice-water slurry to minimize glycolysis, and the plasma should be separated from the cells within 30 minutes, otherwise a tube containing a rapidly effective glycolysis inhibitor like citrate buffer should be used. Samples for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) analysis should be drawn in the morning rather than in the daytime because of diurnal variation in FPG, which is higher in the morning than in the afternoon [3]. The concentration of glucose decreases due to glycolysis by erythrocyte, white blood cells, and platelet, which degrades glucose at a ra Continue reading >>

Glucose Blood Test

Glucose Blood Test

CAN I GET A GLUCOSE BLOOD TEST AT ANY LAB TEST NOW? Yes, you can. AM I REQUIRED TO FAST FOR THIS LAB TEST? Yes. You must fast at least eight (8) hours prior to having your specimen collected. WHAT IS THE PRICE FOR A GLUCOSE BLOOD TEST? $49.00 *Price may vary by location – contact your local ANY LAB TEST NOW HOW LONG WILL IT TAKE TO GET MY LAB TEST RESULTS? Test results generally take between 24 to 72 business hours after your specimen is collected. DESCRIPTION: The Glucose (Serum) Test, also known as the Fasting Blood Glucose Test, is the most common test used to diagnose hyperglycemia (higher than normal levels of blood sugar), hypoglycemia (lower than normal levels of blood sugar) and diabetes. It’s commonly given by your doctor every year and during pregnancy. In addition, Diabetics self conduct this test multiple times a day to monitor their blood glucose. Note: Be sure to fast (not eat) for 10‐12 before the test to ensure its accuracy. WHY DO I NEED A GLUCOSE BLOOD TEST? Are you diabetic or want to know if you’re diabetic? This test will determine if your blood glucose level is within a healthy range. It will also screen for, diagnose, and monitor pre‐diabetes, diabetes, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. OTHER RELEVANT LAB TESTS: Customers who purchase this test may also consider the Hemoglobin A1c or upgrade to a Value Panel including the Diabetes Maintenance Panel or the Basic Check‐Up Panel. WHAT ARE THE TEST RESULT RANGES? Normal Range: Fasting ranges should be between 70 to 110 mg/dL High Results Indicate: High result values are between 100 and 126 mg and are considered to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Results higher than 126 mg can be considered to be dangerous and you should seek medical attention. Sometimes elevated results are an indicati Continue reading >>

Serum Glucose Test: Facts, Types Of Test & Results

Serum Glucose Test: Facts, Types Of Test & Results

The serum glucose blood test measures the amount of glucose in the blood sample obtained from the patient. The test is usually performed to check for elevated blood glucose levels which can be an indication of diabetes or insulin inhibition. The carbohydrates that make a larger portion of the food are broken down into glucose. For most of the cells in the body, glucose makes for the major source of energy. The glucose in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin. However, if a person consumes too much carbohydrates or simple sugars, the amount of glucose in the blood can rise beyond the amount that insulin can control. In another case, there may be some problems with the production of insulin because of which glucose in the blood stream cannot be controlled. There are two types of serum glucose testing. One is the fasting serum glucose test in which the patient should not have eaten for at least 6-8 hours before the test, and the other test can be performed randomly at any given time. Unlike the fasting test, which establishes the glucose level in the blood without eating anything, the random test can be done at any time of the day. However, the results of the random test depend on what you consume before the test and the kind of physical activity that you have been doing. Doctors usually prescribe this test if there have been symptoms of diabetes. For patient who have been diagnosed with diabetes and are continuing treatment, serum glucose test could also be used to monitor the efficacy of the treatment. Though the normal results vary, the amount of glucose up to 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is usually considered to be a normal result. In persons who have a glucose level higher than 100 mg/dL but lower than 126 mg/dL, this may be an indication of pre Continue reading >>

How To Lower Blood Glucose Levels

How To Lower Blood Glucose Levels

Blood sugar (glucose) is at the heart of diabetes management. Diabetes develops when your pancreas can no longer produce insulin in sufficient quantity, or your body becomes less sensitive to the insulin you produce. Without enough effective insulin, your blood sugar levels can get out of control. High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) is most common in type 2 diabetes. But any person with diabetes can have bouts of high blood sugar. Lowering your blood sugar is crucial to both short-term and long-term diabetes management. When left untreated, hyperglycemia can cause: eye damage cardiovascular disease kidney failure nerve damage (neuropathy) skin and gum infections joint problems diabetic coma Many people with diabetes can detect hyperglycemia. According to the Mayo Clinic, signs of high blood sugar start to develop when levels reach more than 200 mg/dL. Some common symptoms include: sudden, excessive fatigue severe headaches blurry vision increased urination abdominal pain nausea dry mouth confusion The goal is to prevent hyperglycemia before it starts. It can develop suddenly, but in many cases high blood sugar develops over the course of several days. Symptoms worsen the longer you experience elevated blood sugar. The key is knowing where your blood sugar levels stand. Regular blood glucose monitoring is essential, especially in type 2 diabetes. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends a range of 70 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and blood glucose less than 180 mg/dL after eating. Dietary changes are among the first actions taken by diabetics. Not only does a healthy diet make you feel good, but you can also lower your blood sugar during the process. Carbohydrates are often a source of criticism because they affect glucose more than any other food group. But it’s im Continue reading >>

Test Id: Glura Glucose, Random, Serum

Test Id: Glura Glucose, Random, Serum

Diagnosing and managing diabetes mellitus and other carbohydrate metabolism disorders including gestational diabetes, neonatal hypoglycemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell carcinoma The most common disease related to carbohydrate metabolism is diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by insufficient blood levels of active insulin. Symptoms include polyuria, abnormally elevated blood and urine glucose values, excessive thirst, constant hunger, sudden weight loss, and possibly elevated blood and urine ketones. Complications from diabetes are the third leading cause of death in the United States. There are approximately 16 million diabetics in the United States, and that number is growing. It is estimated that at least 5 million of these people have not been diagnosed. The prevalence in the population age 65 and older is 18.4%, representing 6.3 million cases. The cost of diabetes to the US economy exceeds $92 billion annually. Overproduction or excess administration of insulin causes a decrease in blood glucose to levels below normal. In severe cases, the resulting extreme hypoglycemia is followed by muscular spasm and loss of consciousness, known as insulin shock. Any of the following results, confirmed on a subsequent day, can be considered diagnostic for diabetes: -Fasting plasma or serum glucose > or =126 mg/dL after an 8-hour fast -2-Hour plasma or serum glucose > or =200 mg/ dL during a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) -Random glucose >200 mg/dL, plus typical symptoms Patients with "impaired" glucose regulation are those whose fasting serum or plasma glucose fall between 101 and 126 mg/dL, or whose 2-hour value on oral glucose tolerance test fall between 140 and 199 mg/dL. These patients have a markedly increased risk of developing type Continue reading >>

What Is Considered A High Level Of Serum Glucose?

What Is Considered A High Level Of Serum Glucose?

Glucose is required by the body to maintain life. However, it is possible to have too much of a good thing. Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose levels, may be due to diabetes, medications, stress, illness, hyperthyroidism, Cushing syndrome, pancreatitis or pancreatitis cancer. It is important to know the symptoms of high blood glucose and to see your doctor immediately if you experience any signs to prevent further complications. Video of the Day A fasting blood glucose test is usually the first step to determining if you have high blood glucose levels, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. It is most reliable when done in the morning, after you have fasted for at least eight hours. Normal levels should be below 99 mg/dL. Pre-diabetes is diagnosed when levels are between 100 to 125 mg/dL. Diabetes is confirmed if your fasting blood glucose levels are 126 mg/dL or above on repeated tests. Random or nonfasting blood glucose levels of above 200 mg/dL could mean you have diabetes, as well. According to the American Diabetes Association, symptoms of high glucose levels include frequent urination, extreme hunger and thirst, extreme fatigue and irritability, unusual weight loss, frequent infections, blurred vision, tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, cuts and bruises that take a long time to heal, and recurring bladder, gum or skin infections. It is possible for you to have high glucose levels with no symptoms, so be sure to have your doctor check your levels at your regular physical. Dangers of Hyperglycemia The danger of continuously high blood glucose or hyperglycemia is that sugar coats the red blood cells, causing them to become stiff and “sticky”. These cells interfere with proper blood circulation and can cause Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Effects Of Several Simple Sugars On Serum Glucose And Serum Fructose Levels In Normal And Diabetic Subjects.

Effects Of Several Simple Sugars On Serum Glucose And Serum Fructose Levels In Normal And Diabetic Subjects.

Effects of several simple sugars on serum glucose and serum fructose levels in normal and diabetic subjects. Kim HS, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988. Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Korea. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988 Apr 6;4(4):281-7. Fructose has a reaction constant 7.5 times as high as that of glucose in its nonenzymatic reaction with protein in vitro. The effects of glucose, sucrose and fructose ingestion on serum fructose and glucose levels were studied to evaluate the overall biohazard, i.e., the probability of their altering proteins while circulating in the blood. Normal and diabetic subjects were given either 75 g glucose, 75 g fructose, 75 g sucrose, or 112.5 g fructose after fasting, and their serum levels of sugars were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h. In normal subjects, fructose ingestion produced significantly lower serum glucose levels and significantly higher serum fructose levels than did glucose ingestion, while sucrose produced intermediate results. The glycemic effect was found to be lowest for fructose and highest for glucose. The calculated overall biohazard was, however, highest for fructose and lowest for glucose in normal subjects. Furthermore, the serum fructosemic index was directly proportional to the amount of fructose ingested. In diabetic subjects, blood fructose clearance was significantly more delayed than in the controls when the same amount of fructose was ingested. These results suggest that an evaluation of the effects of simple in the diabetic diet requires a closer examination of the overall biological effects of the sugars. Continue reading >>

Serum Glucose Levels For Predicting Death In Patients Admitted To Hospital For Community Acquired Pneumonia: Prospective Cohort Study

Serum Glucose Levels For Predicting Death In Patients Admitted To Hospital For Community Acquired Pneumonia: Prospective Cohort Study

Serum glucose levels for predicting death in patients admitted to hospital for community acquired pneumonia: prospective cohort study Serum glucose levels for predicting death in patients admitted to hospital for community acquired pneumonia: prospective cohort study BMJ 2012; 344 doi: (Published 29 May 2012) Cite this as: BMJ 2012;344:e3397 Philipp M Lepper, consultant physician 1 , Maximilian von Eynatten, consultant physician 5 , Christian Schumann, consultant physician 6 , on behalf of the German Community Acquired Pneumonia Competence Network (CAPNETZ) 1Department of Internal Medicine V, University Hospital of Saarland, D-66421, Homburg, Germany 2Department of Pneumology, University Hospital of Bern (Inselspital) and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland 3Clinical Trials Unit, University Hospital of Bern (Inselspital) and University of Bern 4Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern 5Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany 6Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany 7Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany 8Department of Pneumology, Hannover Medical School, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany 9Department of Pneumology, Lungenklinik Heckeshorn, Klinikum Emil von Behring, Berlin, Germany 10Department of Pneumology and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Berlin (Charit), Berlin, Germany 11Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands Correspondence to: P M Lepper philipp.lepper{at}uks.eu Objective To examine whether acute dysglycaemia predicts death in people admitted to hospital with community acquired pne Continue reading >>

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