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Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels

Numbers Matter: 1-hour Post Prandial Glucose Possible Predictor Of Prediabetes Risk

Numbers Matter: 1-hour Post Prandial Glucose Possible Predictor Of Prediabetes Risk

Elevated 1-hour level proves significant despite 2-hour level within normal glucose tolerance range. The current approach of screening for type 2 diabetes using the fasting metabolic state, while convenient, is not effective. In a recent review evaluating the status of screening for type 2 diabetes, M.M. Engelgau et al (2000) stated that one of the criteria for appropriate screening is that the tests should detect the preclinical stage of disease and that the tests be shown to be acceptable and reliable. The conclusion that current screening recommendations are not consistent with available evidence was briefly reviewed. Evidence is accumulating that most people with a 54%–67% range of impaired glucose tolerance have fasting glucose in the normal range. Meta-analysis of 20 different European studies showed as many as 31% of those who were have diabetes according to post-challenge plasma glucose had normal fasting values and therefore would not have been detected by a screening procedure based upon fasting glucose measurements alone. In an analysis over more than 30 years of a large population assessed for all-cause mortality researchers, it was found that an elevated 2-hour glucose level indicated increased mortality risk, independent of the 1-hour level. Previous studies have suggested that the 1-hour glucose level above 155 mg/dL is a better predictor of progression to diabetes than the 2-hour level. The researchers conclude that present findings, in conjunction with the other observations, suggest that individuals at high risk for developing diabetes could be identified earlier by measuring the 1-hour postload glucose level. This study followed 2,138 individuals over a 33-year period. Researchers categorized the cohort by baseline 1- and 2-hour glucose levels: grou Continue reading >>

Why Checking Postprandial Glucose Is Important

Why Checking Postprandial Glucose Is Important

Checking your blood sugar (glucose) levels at home is part of your type 2 diabetes management plan. You can use the results of these tests to help improve your blood sugar control. But if you’re only testing first thing in the morning, you might be missing the full picture. “I like to tell my patients that the first morning glucose level check is usually the lowest of the day, and checking only in the morning is akin to purposefully ‘blindfolding’ yourself to only see the best-case scenario,” says endocrinologist Ildiko Lingvay, MD, MPH, an associate professor in the department of internal medicine/endocrinology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. “If you want to see a more complete picture, I recommend patients mix it up and check their glucose level at various times during the day — and, most importantly, when they know they might have not followed the best advice — to see the full effect of their choices.” The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends checking blood sugar levels before eating (fasting blood sugar) and then again one to two hours after the beginning of a meal — particularly if target A1C goals aren’t being met. The test after the meal is called the postprandial glucose (PPG) test. You might also need to test your blood sugar at other times during the day, or after certain activities, depending on the information you and your medical team are trying to gather about your type 2 diabetes. PPG 101 The term “postprandial glucose” might sound like jargon, but it literally means “sugar after the meal.” “Glucose levels begin to rise about 10 minutes after the start of a meal and peak two hours after a meal… and they return to pre-meal levels within two to three hours,” explains endocrinolo Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Two-hour Postprandial Glucose Test

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Two-hour Postprandial Glucose Test

By the dLife Editors Also known as: the postprandial plasma glucose test; PPG. What is it? A blood test that measures the body’s ability to metabolize carbohydrates and produce insulin. Postprandial means after-meal, and this test is administered two hours following a meal. Why is this test performed? The test is used to evaluate the efficacy of medication or dietary therapy in those already diagnosed with diabetes. How is this test performed? The test is performed using a glucose meter to test your blood sugar two hours after the start of a meal. Wash your hands to remove anything on them that could affect your test results. Insert a test strip into your meter, and use the lancing device to get a drop of blood from the side of your fingertip. Hold the edge of the test strip to the drop of blood, and your blood sugar level will appear on the meter. How frequently should this test be performed? As required when monitoring a treatment regimen. What is the “normal” range for results? In people without diabetes, the normal postprandial glucose range is less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l). For people with diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends a postprandial glucose target of less than 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l). The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommends a slightly stricter target of less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l). What do abnormal results mean? A number of factors can affect your postprandial glucose level, including what and how much you eat, how active you are, your insulin sensitivity, and your medication. Blood sugar levels that are consistently too high or low may mean that it’s time to adjust your diabetes treatment or management plan. Work with your doctor or certified diabetes educator to make the necessary changes to get y Continue reading >>

How To Manage Blood Sugar Spikes After Meals

How To Manage Blood Sugar Spikes After Meals

If you're trying to manage diabetes, you already know it's important to keep track of your blood sugar levels. But how do you handle a spike that comes after you eat? It's called "postprandial" blood glucose, and if you take some simple steps, you can get it under control and help avoid health problems. When your blood sugar is high, you can get symptoms like a foggy-headed feeling that makes it hard to focus or think clearly. Your energy may also take a dive, and you may feel nervous or moody. If your levels go too low, you could even pass out. In the long run, if your blood sugar stays up, you could be at risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, or other problems. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends you check your blood sugar levels right before mealtime with a blood sample from a finger stick. Then do it again 1 to 2 hours after that first bite of food. Keep this up for a week or so. Write down the time and the blood sugar number. Make a note about anything you think might affect your levels, like medicine or exercise. And don't forget to log exactly what you ate, along with portion sizes and the amount of carbs. What levels are too high after a meal? Experts vary on what the number should be, but the ADA says a general goal is a blood sugar level under 180 mg/dL, 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Talk to your doctor about what you should aim for, and don't adjust your medicine without speaking to him first. Get medicine that works for you. The right insulin or medication program can make a big difference. In general, to cover after-meal spikes, those that kick in quickly and for a short time are a better choice than ones that work slowly over a long period. Your doctor can explain your options. Keep blood sugar in check before meals. That way, even if Continue reading >>

Postprandial Blood Glucose

Postprandial Blood Glucose

Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk of developing microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1) and U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) (2) showed that treatment programs resulting in improved glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c, reduced the microvascular complications of diabetes. The effect of these treatment programs on reducing CVD was less clear. However, some epidemiological studies suggest that there may be a relationship between glycemic levels and CVD. In the management of diabetes, health care providers usually assess glycemic control with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and premeal glucose measurements, as well as by measuring HbA1c. Therapeutic goals for HbA1c and preprandial glucose levels have been established based on the results of controlled clinical trials. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with diabetes fail to achieve their glycemic goals. Elevated postprandial glucose (PPG) concentrations may contribute to suboptimal glycemic control. Postprandial hyperglycemia is also one of the earliest abnormalities of glucose homeostasis associated with type 2 diabetes and is markedly exaggerated in diabetic patients with fasting hyperglycemia. Several therapies targeted toward lowering PPG excursions are now available and have been shown to improve glycemic control as measured by HbA1c. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the definition of PPG and, perhaps most importantly, whether postprandial hyperglycemia has a unique role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and should be a specific target of therapy. To address these issues and to provide guidance to health care providers, the American Diabetes As Continue reading >>

Postprandial Glucose Test

Postprandial Glucose Test

Changes in blood glucose over time following a high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate. A postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood after a meal. Glucose is mainly made from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after eating. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin, which assists the body in removing glucose from the blood and storing it for energy. People with diabetes may not produce or respond properly to insulin, which causes their blood glucose to remain elevated. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. A 2-hour postprandial blood glucose test ("2 hour p.c. blood glucose test", etc.) measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal,[1] timed from the start of the meal. [2] By this point blood sugar has usually gone back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes. Thus, it serves as a test of whether a person may have diabetes, or of whether a person who has diabetes is successfully controlling their blood sugar. Purpose[edit] Blood glucose tests are done to: Check for and monitor the treatment of diabetes.[1] Check for diabetes that occurs during pregnancy gestational diabetes.[1] Determine if an abnormally low blood sugar level hypoglycemia is present.[1] Procedure[edit] For a 2-hour postprandial test, a meal is eaten exactly 2 hours before the blood sample is taken. A home blood sugar test is the most common way to check 2-hour postprandial blood sugar levels. The health professional taking a blood sample will:[1] Wrap a tourniquet around the upper arm to stop the flow of blo Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Post Prandial Blood Glucose Level

Post Prandial Blood Glucose Level

I'm 26 years old and I have been diagnosed as Type-2 diabetic two weeks before since my a1c was 6.8. Now that I'm measuring my blood glucose levels 2 hours after my dinner. 1. It was 92 and 120 for the past two days. 2. It was 148 yesterday(I measured in 1.5 hours) and measured again after 1 hour and it was 85(sounds normal!). I'm neither taking any medications nor in strict diet. D.D. Family Getting much harder to control Hi and welcome to DD if your a1c is 6.8 then yes that would make you diabetic. The question is what was it before you ate, then what was it at the 2 hr mark. You have to use a baseline to see where you started at. What did you eat when you hit 148 its high enough to suspect you have issues. Diabetes is more than just taking a few readings. Are you walking or exercising at all, given the info you posted I would say you can help this by some changes. Hi, Thanks for ur reply. I did not check it before eating. I had little sweets and rice that day. I did not do any walking. At 2 hours mark it was 148. And after 1 hour it was 85. Isn't it normal? 85 mg/dl is within the normal range; 148 mg/dl is a little too high unless you ate a LOT of carbs at that meal. As furball said, the important thing is the difference before and after a meal. Test your bg immediately before and again 90 minutes after a meal. An increase of 20-40 mg/dl is expected. So if you start at 85 mg/dl before the meal you would expect 105-125 mg/dl after the meal. Don't put too much stock into any one reading or any one day. Test your fbg and your pre- and post- meal readings for several days and see what the trend is. Then you can start to make some decisions about your health and how to proceed from here. "My fitness trajectory in my senior years does not have to be a continuous downward Continue reading >>

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Does this test have other names? Glucose, postprandial; glucose, two-hour postprandial; two-hour PPG; two-hour postprandial blood sugar What is this test? This is a blood test to check for diabetes. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar in check. This means your blood sugar levels are too high, and over time this can lead to serious health problems including nerve and eye damage. This test is done to see how your body responds to sugar and starch after you eat a meal. As you digest the food in your stomach, blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels rise sharply. In response, your pancreas releases insulin to help move these sugars from the blood into the cells of muscles and other tissues to be used for fuel. Within two hours of eating, your insulin and blood glucose levels should return to normal. If your blood glucose levels remain high, you may have diabetes. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your healthcare provider wants to see if you have diabetes or another insulin-related disorder, especially if you have symptoms such as: Frequent urination Unusual thirst Blurred vision Tiredness Repeated infections Sores that heal slowly If you're pregnant, you may have this test to screen for gestational diabetes, diabetes that can develop during pregnancy. Treating gestational diabetes reduces the risk for health problems for you and your baby. What other tests might I have with this test? Your healthcare provider may order other tests to confirm or evaluate whether you have diabetes. These may include: Fasting blood glucose test. This measures the amount of sugar in your blood. A1C (glycosylated hemoglobin) test. This measures your average blood sugar level over the last 2 to 3 months. Glucose tolerance test. This m Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose | Michigan Medicine

Blood Glucose | Michigan Medicine

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in your blood. Glucose comes from carbohydrate foods . It is the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body's cells use the glucose. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released into the blood when the amount of glucose in the blood rises. Normally, your blood glucose levels increase slightly after you eat. This increase causes your pancreas to release insulin so that your blood glucose levels do not get too high. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage your eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. There are several different types of blood glucose tests. Fasting blood sugar (FBS). This test measures blood glucose after you have not eaten for at least 8 hours. It is often the first test done to check for prediabetes and diabetes . 2-hour postprandial blood sugar. This test measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after you start eating a meal. This is not a test used to diagnose diabetes. This test is used to see if someone with diabetes is taking the right amount of insulin with meals. Random blood sugar (RBS). It measures blood glucose regardless of when you last ate. Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day. Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy people do not vary widely throughout the day. Blood glucose levels that vary widely may mean a problem. This test is also called a casual blood glucose test. Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test is a series of blood glucose measurements taken after you drink a sweet liquid that contains glucose. This test is commonly used to diagnose diabetes that occurs during pregnancy ( Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

Diabetes The Basics: Blood Sugars: The Nondiabetic Versus The Diabetic

Diabetes The Basics: Blood Sugars: The Nondiabetic Versus The Diabetic

BLOOD SUGARS: THE NONDIABETIC VERSUS THE DIABETIC Since high blood sugar is the hallmark of diabetes, and the cause of every long-term complication of the disease, it makes sense to discuss where blood sugar comes from and how it is used and not used. Our dietary sources of blood sugar are carbohydrates and proteins. One reason the taste of sugar—a simple form of carbohydrate—delights us is that it fosters production of neurotransmitters in the brain that relieve anxiety and can create a sense of well-being or even euphoria. This makes carbohydrate quite addictive to certain people whose brains may have inadequate levels of or sensitivity to these neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers with which the brain communicates with itself and the rest of the body. When blood sugar levels are low, the liver, kidneys, and intestines can, through a process we will discuss shortly, convert proteins into glucose, but very slowly and inefficiently. The body cannot convert glucose back into protein, nor can it convert fat into sugar. Fat cells, however, with the help of insulin, do transform glucose into fat. The taste of protein doesn’t excite us as much as that of carbohydrate— it would be the very unusual child who’d jump up and down in the grocery store and beg his mother for steak or fish instead of cookies. Dietary protein gives us a much slower and smaller blood sugar effect, which, as you will see, we diabetics can use to our advantage in normalizing blood sugars. The Nondiabetic In the fasting nondiabetic, and even in most type 2 diabetics, the pancreas constantly releases a steady, low level of insulin. This baseline, or basal, insulin level prevents the liver, kidneys, and intestines from inappropriately converting bodily proteins (muscle, vital organs) into g Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar (glucose) Fasting (fbs), Pp (post Prandial) & Random Lab Test

Blood Sugar (glucose) Fasting (fbs), Pp (post Prandial) & Random Lab Test

*I authorize Portea representative to contact me. I understand that this will override the DND status on my mobile number. Clinical Definition Blood sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. It serves as the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's cells to use the glucose. Excess or shortage of insulin in the body causes an imbalance of the blood glucose in the body, leading to its severe drop or drastic increase in the blood. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. Chronic low glucose levels can lead to brain and nerve damage. Fasting blood sugar is a test for glucose content in a person’s blood that, as the name suggests, is conducted after fasting. The test is generally carried out in the morning, after an overnight fasting. As a part of the test, a sample of the patient’s blood is collected and then sent to the lab for testing. A fasting blood sugar test offers information about how the body is managing the blood sugar levels. Normally, the range of glucose in a person’s blood is between 70 to 100 mg/dl. Fasting blood sugar levels between 100 to 126 mg/dl are considered as pre-diabetic or impaired fasting glucose and blood sugar levels of 126 mg/dl or higher are diagnosed as diabetes. Estimated Time 24 to 36 Hours Why Get Tested? This test determines the quantity of glucose present in the blood. It is a test generally called for during routine health checkups to analyse the recomended glucose level. To monitor and detec Continue reading >>

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