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Post Prandial Glucose Levels

Food Order Has A Significant Impact On Postprandial Glucose And Insulin Levels

Food Order Has A Significant Impact On Postprandial Glucose And Insulin Levels

Food Order Has a Significant Impact on Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Levels Comprehensive Weight Control Center, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY Copyright 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Postprandial hyperglycemia is an important therapeutic target for optimizing glycemic control and for mitigating the proatherogenic vascular environment characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Existing evidence indicates that the quantity and type of carbohydrate consumed influence blood glucose levels and that the total amount of carbohydrate consumed is the primary predictor of glycemic response ( 1 ). Previous studies have shown that premeal ingestion of whey protein, as well as altering the macronutrient composition of a meal, reduces postmeal glucose levels ( 2 4 ). There are limited data, however, regarding the effect of food order on postprandial glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes ( 5 ). In this pilot study, we sought to examine the effect of food order, using a typical Western meal, incorporating vegetables, protein, and carbohydrate, on postprandial glucose and insulin excursions in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes. A total of 11 subjects (6 female, 5 male) with metformin-treated type 2 diabetes were studied using a within-subject crossover design. The average (mean SD) age and BMI were 54 9 years and 32.9 5 kg/m2, respectively. The average duration of diabetes was 4.8 2.4 years and the mean HbA1c was 6.5 0.7%. After a 12-h overnight fast, subjects consumed an isocaloric meal (628 kcal: 55 g protei Continue reading >>

Point: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are A Clinically Important Treatment Target

Point: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are A Clinically Important Treatment Target

Point: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are a Clinically Important Treatment Target From the Insititute d'Investigacions Biomdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Corresponding author: Antonio Ceriello, [email protected] . Author information Copyright and License information Copyright 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. See " Counterpoint: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are Not a Clinically Important Treatment Target " onpage1908. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The results of the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial have been recently reported ( 1 2 ). Nateglinide, a member of the meglitinide class, which has been shown to lower postprandial hyperglycemia by increasing the first phase of insulin secretion, was not effective in decreasing both the new cases of diabetes and the new cardiovascular events in a population at high risk ( 1 ). Valsartan, an angiotensin (AT-1) blocker, was ineffective on cardiovascular events but significantlyeven marginallyreduced the onset of new diabetes ( 2 ). The negative results of nateglinide immediately raised the concern about the possibility that postprandial hyperglycemia could be considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether its treatment may give any advantage in the management of diabetes ( 3 ). Diabetologists have long debated whether the lack of insulin action (insulin resistance) or impaired insulin secretion represents the primary pathological mechanism underlying type 2 diabetes. Recent analyses confirm that impaired pancreatic -cell gluc Continue reading >>

Postprandial Plasma Glucose Test

Postprandial Plasma Glucose Test

Tweet A Postprandial Plasma Glucose Test is a blood test that measures blood glucose levels following a meal containing a set amount of carbohydrate. Postprandial Plasma Glucose Tests show how tolerant the body is to glucose. In the UK, a more rigorous test, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test may be used instead for diagnostic purposes of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes. How is the test performed? A set amount of glucose is taken orally. The IDF (International Diabetes Federation) targets are based on taking 75g of glucose. A blood test is taken two hours after ingesting the glucose. When is diabetes diagnosed? The following results are based on the IDF guidelines for diagnosing diabetes. Normal: under 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl) Impaired glucose tolerance: between 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/l (140 and 200 mg/dl) Diabetes: equal or above 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) Other conditions, certain medications or recent illnesses may also affect the results which will be taken into consideration for diagnostic purposes. In some cases therefore, the test may be repeated at a later date. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar. The good news i Continue reading >>

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Two-hour Postprandial Glucose Test

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Two-hour Postprandial Glucose Test

By the dLife Editors Also known as: the postprandial plasma glucose test; PPG. What is it? A blood test that measures the body’s ability to metabolize carbohydrates and produce insulin. Postprandial means after-meal, and this test is administered two hours following a meal. Why is this test performed? The test is used to evaluate the efficacy of medication or dietary therapy in those already diagnosed with diabetes. How is this test performed? The test is performed using a glucose meter to test your blood sugar two hours after the start of a meal. Wash your hands to remove anything on them that could affect your test results. Insert a test strip into your meter, and use the lancing device to get a drop of blood from the side of your fingertip. Hold the edge of the test strip to the drop of blood, and your blood sugar level will appear on the meter. How frequently should this test be performed? As required when monitoring a treatment regimen. What is the “normal” range for results? In people without diabetes, the normal postprandial glucose range is less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l). For people with diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends a postprandial glucose target of less than 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l). The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommends a slightly stricter target of less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l). What do abnormal results mean? A number of factors can affect your postprandial glucose level, including what and how much you eat, how active you are, your insulin sensitivity, and your medication. Blood sugar levels that are consistently too high or low may mean that it’s time to adjust your diabetes treatment or management plan. Work with your doctor or certified diabetes educator to make the necessary changes to get y Continue reading >>

Counterpoint: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are Not A Clinically Important Treatment Target

Counterpoint: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are Not A Clinically Important Treatment Target

Counterpoint: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are Not a Clinically Important Treatment Target We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Counterpoint: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are Not a Clinically Important Treatment Target The recently published randomized controlled Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study evaluated the effect of nateglinide in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who also had cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors ( 1 ). After a median of five years, there was no effect on either incident diabetes or CVD. In five studies ( 2 6 ) in which the development of diabetes in subjects with IGT was delayed by lifestyle intervention or drugs, the beneficial effect was postulated to be mainly due to decreasing insulin resistance with resulting less demands on -cell insulin secretion. On the other hand, subjects with IGT in an older small study treated with tolbutamide (a first-generation sulfonylurea agent) ( 7 ) or in the more recent Study To Prevent Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) given acarbose ( 8 ), there was significantly less incident diabetes than in their control groups. (The STOP-NIDDM study, however, has been severely criticized [ 9 ]). Neither tolbutamide nor acarbose are thought to primarily affect insulin resistance. It is very possible, of course, that all of these drugs were simply masking the development of diab Continue reading >>

Numbers Matter: 1-hour Post Prandial Glucose Possible Predictor Of Prediabetes Risk

Numbers Matter: 1-hour Post Prandial Glucose Possible Predictor Of Prediabetes Risk

Elevated 1-hour level proves significant despite 2-hour level within normal glucose tolerance range. The current approach of screening for type 2 diabetes using the fasting metabolic state, while convenient, is not effective. In a recent review evaluating the status of screening for type 2 diabetes, M.M. Engelgau et al (2000) stated that one of the criteria for appropriate screening is that the tests should detect the preclinical stage of disease and that the tests be shown to be acceptable and reliable. The conclusion that current screening recommendations are not consistent with available evidence was briefly reviewed. Evidence is accumulating that most people with a 54%–67% range of impaired glucose tolerance have fasting glucose in the normal range. Meta-analysis of 20 different European studies showed as many as 31% of those who were have diabetes according to post-challenge plasma glucose had normal fasting values and therefore would not have been detected by a screening procedure based upon fasting glucose measurements alone. In an analysis over more than 30 years of a large population assessed for all-cause mortality researchers, it was found that an elevated 2-hour glucose level indicated increased mortality risk, independent of the 1-hour level. Previous studies have suggested that the 1-hour glucose level above 155 mg/dL is a better predictor of progression to diabetes than the 2-hour level. The researchers conclude that present findings, in conjunction with the other observations, suggest that individuals at high risk for developing diabetes could be identified earlier by measuring the 1-hour postload glucose level. This study followed 2,138 individuals over a 33-year period. Researchers categorized the cohort by baseline 1- and 2-hour glucose levels: grou Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

Mastication Frequency And Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels In Normoglycaemic And Dysglycaemic Individuals: A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study

Mastication Frequency And Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels In Normoglycaemic And Dysglycaemic Individuals: A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study

J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Jul; 10(7): OC06OC08. Published online 2016 Jul 1. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/18855.8082 Mastication Frequency and Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels in Normoglycaemic and Dysglycaemic Individuals: A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study 1 Junior Resident, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, India. 2 Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, India. 3 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Kanachur Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, India. 4 Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, India. 5 Additional Professor, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, India. 6 Professor, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Mangalore, India. NAME, ADDRESS, E-MAIL ID OF THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Dr. Arun Shirali, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, KMC Attavar, Manipal University, Mangalore, India. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2016 Jan 13; Revisions requested 2016 Feb 29; Accepted 2016 Mar 26. Copyright 2016 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Mastication has potential to affect postprandial blood glucose levels by affecting cephalic phase of insulin release. However, limited number of studies done in this regard has yielded conflicting results. To evaluate effects of mastication on postprandial blood glucose levels. We compared routine and thorough mastication in 2 separate groups: dysglycaemic (prediabetics and diabetics) and normoglycaemic in prospective interventional study. Blood glucose levels were measured pre-prandi Continue reading >>

Postprandial Blood Glucose

Postprandial Blood Glucose

Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk of developing microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1) and U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) (2) showed that treatment programs resulting in improved glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c, reduced the microvascular complications of diabetes. The effect of these treatment programs on reducing CVD was less clear. However, some epidemiological studies suggest that there may be a relationship between glycemic levels and CVD. In the management of diabetes, health care providers usually assess glycemic control with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and premeal glucose measurements, as well as by measuring HbA1c. Therapeutic goals for HbA1c and preprandial glucose levels have been established based on the results of controlled clinical trials. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with diabetes fail to achieve their glycemic goals. Elevated postprandial glucose (PPG) concentrations may contribute to suboptimal glycemic control. Postprandial hyperglycemia is also one of the earliest abnormalities of glucose homeostasis associated with type 2 diabetes and is markedly exaggerated in diabetic patients with fasting hyperglycemia. Several therapies targeted toward lowering PPG excursions are now available and have been shown to improve glycemic control as measured by HbA1c. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the definition of PPG and, perhaps most importantly, whether postprandial hyperglycemia has a unique role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and should be a specific target of therapy. To address these issues and to provide guidance to health care providers, the American Diabetes As Continue reading >>

Postprandial Glucose Test

Postprandial Glucose Test

Changes in blood glucose over time following a high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate. A postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood after a meal. Glucose is mainly made from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after eating. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin, which assists the body in removing glucose from the blood and storing it for energy. People with diabetes may not produce or respond properly to insulin, which causes their blood glucose to remain elevated. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. A 2-hour postprandial blood glucose test ("2 hour p.c. blood glucose test", etc.) measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal,[1] timed from the start of the meal. [2] By this point blood sugar has usually gone back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes. Thus, it serves as a test of whether a person may have diabetes, or of whether a person who has diabetes is successfully controlling their blood sugar. Purpose[edit] Blood glucose tests are done to: Check for and monitor the treatment of diabetes.[1] Check for diabetes that occurs during pregnancy gestational diabetes.[1] Determine if an abnormally low blood sugar level hypoglycemia is present.[1] Procedure[edit] For a 2-hour postprandial test, a meal is eaten exactly 2 hours before the blood sample is taken. A home blood sugar test is the most common way to check 2-hour postprandial blood sugar levels. The health professional taking a blood sample will:[1] Wrap a tourniquet around the upper arm to stop the flow of blo Continue reading >>

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Does this test have other names? Glucose, postprandial; glucose, two-hour postprandial; two-hour PPG; two-hour postprandial blood sugar What is this test? This is a blood test to check for diabetes. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar in check. This means your blood sugar levels are too high, and over time this can lead to serious health problems including nerve and eye damage. This test is done to see how your body responds to sugar and starch after you eat a meal. As you digest the food in your stomach, blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels rise sharply. In response, your pancreas releases insulin to help move these sugars from the blood into the cells of muscles and other tissues to be used for fuel. Within two hours of eating, your insulin and blood glucose levels should return to normal. If your blood glucose levels remain high, you may have diabetes. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your healthcare provider wants to see if you have diabetes or another insulin-related disorder, especially if you have symptoms such as: Frequent urination Unusual thirst Blurred vision Tiredness Repeated infections Sores that heal slowly If you're pregnant, you may have this test to screen for gestational diabetes, diabetes that can develop during pregnancy. Treating gestational diabetes reduces the risk for health problems for you and your baby. What other tests might I have with this test? Your healthcare provider may order other tests to confirm or evaluate whether you have diabetes. These may include: Fasting blood glucose test. This measures the amount of sugar in your blood. A1C (glycosylated hemoglobin) test. This measures your average blood sugar level over the last 2 to 3 months. Glucose tolerance test. This m Continue reading >>

Importance Of Postprandial Glucose Levels As A Target For Glycemic Control In Type 2 Diabetes.

Importance Of Postprandial Glucose Levels As A Target For Glycemic Control In Type 2 Diabetes.

South Med J. 2009 Jan;102(1):60-6. doi: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318188898e. Importance of postprandial glucose levels as a target for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Department of Medicine at Flushing Hospital Medical Center, Flushing, NY, USA. [email protected] Increasing evidence supports the importance of postprandial glucose (PPG) in glycemic control with regard to the development of complications in patients with diabetes. PPG plays a critical role in determining overall glycemic control, particularly in patients who are close to their glycemic goals. Data also indicate that postprandial hyperglycemia may have a greater effect on the development of cardiovascular complications compared with elevated fasting plasma glucose. Several antidiabetic agents that specifically target PPG are currently available, including glinides, glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and rapid-acting insulin analogs. A more intensive approach to managing PPG may improve the care of patients with diabetes and, ultimately, the outcome of these patients. Continue reading >>

How To Manage Blood Sugar Spikes After Meals

How To Manage Blood Sugar Spikes After Meals

If you're trying to manage diabetes, you already know it's important to keep track of your blood sugar levels. But how do you handle a spike that comes after you eat? It's called "postprandial" blood glucose, and if you take some simple steps, you can get it under control and help avoid health problems. When your blood sugar is high, you can get symptoms like a foggy-headed feeling that makes it hard to focus or think clearly. Your energy may also take a dive, and you may feel nervous or moody. If your levels go too low, you could even pass out. In the long run, if your blood sugar stays up, you could be at risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, or other problems. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends you check your blood sugar levels right before mealtime with a blood sample from a finger stick. Then do it again 1 to 2 hours after that first bite of food. Keep this up for a week or so. Write down the time and the blood sugar number. Make a note about anything you think might affect your levels, like medicine or exercise. And don't forget to log exactly what you ate, along with portion sizes and the amount of carbs. What levels are too high after a meal? Experts vary on what the number should be, but the ADA says a general goal is a blood sugar level under 180 mg/dL, 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Talk to your doctor about what you should aim for, and don't adjust your medicine without speaking to him first. Get medicine that works for you. The right insulin or medication program can make a big difference. In general, to cover after-meal spikes, those that kick in quickly and for a short time are a better choice than ones that work slowly over a long period. Your doctor can explain your options. Keep blood sugar in check before meals. That way, even if Continue reading >>

Why Checking Postprandial Glucose Is Important

Why Checking Postprandial Glucose Is Important

Checking your blood sugar (glucose) levels at home is part of your type 2 diabetes management plan. You can use the results of these tests to help improve your blood sugar control. But if you’re only testing first thing in the morning, you might be missing the full picture. “I like to tell my patients that the first morning glucose level check is usually the lowest of the day, and checking only in the morning is akin to purposefully ‘blindfolding’ yourself to only see the best-case scenario,” says endocrinologist Ildiko Lingvay, MD, MPH, an associate professor in the department of internal medicine/endocrinology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. “If you want to see a more complete picture, I recommend patients mix it up and check their glucose level at various times during the day — and, most importantly, when they know they might have not followed the best advice — to see the full effect of their choices.” The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends checking blood sugar levels before eating (fasting blood sugar) and then again one to two hours after the beginning of a meal — particularly if target A1C goals aren’t being met. The test after the meal is called the postprandial glucose (PPG) test. You might also need to test your blood sugar at other times during the day, or after certain activities, depending on the information you and your medical team are trying to gather about your type 2 diabetes. PPG 101 The term “postprandial glucose” might sound like jargon, but it literally means “sugar after the meal.” “Glucose levels begin to rise about 10 minutes after the start of a meal and peak two hours after a meal… and they return to pre-meal levels within two to three hours,” explains endocrinolo Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

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