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Pancreatic Control Of Glucose Homeostasis

Pancreatic Regulation Of Glucose Homeostasis

Pancreatic Regulation Of Glucose Homeostasis

Go to: The pancreas is an exocrine and endocrine organ The pancreas has key roles in the regulation of macronutrient digestion and hence metabolism/energy homeostasis by releasing various digestive enzymes and pancreatic hormones. It is located behind the stomach within the left upper abdominal cavity and is partitioned into head, body and tail. The majority of this secretory organ consists of acinar—or exocrine—cells that secrete the pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes, such as amylase, pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen, into the ducts, that is, the main pancreatic and the accessory pancreatic duct. In contrast, pancreatic hormones are released in an endocrine manner, that is, direct secretion into the blood stream. The endocrine cells are clustered together, thereby forming the so-called islets of Langerhans, which are small, island-like structures within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that account for only 1–2% of the entire organ (Figure 1).1 There are five different cell types releasing various hormones from the endocrine system: glucagon-producing α-cells,2 which represent 15–20% of the total islet cells; amylin-, C-peptide- and insulin-producing β-cells,2 which account for 65–80% of the total cells; pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-producing γ-cells,3 which comprise 3–5% of the total islet cells; somatostatin-producing δ-cells,2 which constitute 3–10% of the total cells; and ghrelin-producing ɛ-cells,4 which comprise <1% of the total islet cells. Each of the hormones has distinct functions. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels, whereas insulin decreases them.5 Somatostatin inhibits both, glucagon and insulin release,6 whereas PP regulates the exocrine and endocrine secretion activity of the pancreas.3, 7 Altogether, these hormones regul Continue reading >>

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem. In this Article Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose...it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during Continue reading >>

Introduction

Introduction

INTRODUCTION Glucose in the blood provides a source of fuel for all tissues of the body. Blood glucose levels are highest during the absorptive period after a meal, during which the stomach and small intestine are breaking down food and circulating glucose to the bloodstream. Blood glucose levels are the lowest during the postabsorptive period, when the stomach and small intestines are empty. Despite having food only periodically in the digestive tract, the body works to maintain relatively stable levels of circulatory glucose throughout the day. The body maintains blood glucose homeostasis mainly through the action of two hormones secreted by the pancreas. These hormones are insulin, which is released when glucose levels are high, and glucagon, which is released when glucose levels are low. The accompanying animation depicts the functions of these hormones in blood glucose regulation. CONCLUSION Throughout the day, the release of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas maintains relatively stable levels of glucose in the blood. During the absorptive period blood glucose levels tend to increase, and this increase stimulates the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by most cells of the body. Thus, as long as the circulating glucose supply is high, cells preferentially use glucose as fuel and also use glucose to build energy storage molecules glycogen and fats. In the liver, insulin promotes conversion of glucose into glycogen and into fat. In muscle insulin promotes the use of glucose as fuel and its storage as glycogen. In fat cells insulin promotes the uptake of glucose and its conversion into fats. The nervous system does not require insulin to enable its cells to take up and utilize glucose. If glucose Continue reading >>

Pancreas

Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the upper abdomen, but really it serves as two glands in one: a digestive exocrine gland and a hormone-producing endocrine gland. Functioning as an exocrine gland, the pancreas excretes enzymes to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food. Functioning as an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to control blood sugar levels throughout the day. Both of these diverse functions are vital to the body’s survival. Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... Click To View Large Image Related Anatomy: Body of Pancreas Common Bile Duct Head of Pancreas Kidneys Neck of Pancreas Pancreatic Notch Small Intestine Tail of Pancreas Continued From Above... Anatomy of the Pancreas The pancreas is a narrow, 6-inch long gland that lies posterior and inferior to the stomach on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The pancreas extends laterally and superiorly across the abdomen from the curve of the duodenum to the spleen. The head of the pancreas, which connects to the duodenum, is the widest and most medial region of the organ. Extending laterally toward the left, the pancreas narrows slightly to form the body of the pancreas. The tail of the pancreas extends from the body as a narrow, tapered region on the left side of the abdominal cavity near the spleen. Glandular tissue that makes up the pancreas gives it a loose, lumpy structure. The glandular tissue surrounds many small ducts that drain into the central pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct carries the digestive enzymes produced by endocrine cells to the duodenum. The pancreas is classified as a heterocrine gland because it contains both endocrine and exocrine glandular tissue. The exocrine tissue makes up about 99% of the pancrea Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Ball-and-stick model of a glucose molecule Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This tight regulation is referred to as glucose homeostasis. Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, and glucagon, which raises it, are the most well known of the hormones involved, but more recent discoveries of other glucoregulatory hormones have expanded the understanding of this process.[1] Mechanisms[edit] Blood sugar regulation the flatline is the level needed the sine wave the fluctuations. Blood sugar levels are regulated by negative feedback in order to keep the body in balance. The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. Glucagon[edit] If the blood glucose level falls to dangerous levels (as during very heavy exercise or lack of food for extended periods), the alpha cells of the pancreas release glucagon, a hormone whose effects on liver cells act to increase blood glucose levels. They convert glycogen into glucose (this process is called glycogenolysis). The glucose is released into the bloodstream, increasing blood sugar. Hypoglycemia, the state of having low blood sugar, is treated by restoring the blood glucose level to normal by the ingestion or administration of dextrose or carbohydrate foods. It is often self-diagnosed and self-medicated orally by the ingestion of balanced meals. In more severe circumstances, it is treated by injection or infusion of glucagon. Insulin[edit] When levels of blood sugar rise, whether as a result of glycogen conversion, or from digestion of a meal, a different hormone is released from beta cells found in the Islets of Langerhans in the p Continue reading >>

L-serine Supplementation Lowers Diabetes Incidence And Improves Blood Glucose Homeostasis In Nod Mice

L-serine Supplementation Lowers Diabetes Incidence And Improves Blood Glucose Homeostasis In Nod Mice

L-serine supplementation lowers diabetes incidence and improves blood glucose homeostasis in NOD mice Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing Affiliation The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing Affiliation The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing Affiliation Cell Death and Metabolism Unit, Center for Autophagy, Recycling and Disease, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Visualization, Writing review & editing Affiliation Cell Death and Metabolism Unit, Center for Autophagy, Recycling and Disease, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing review & editing Affiliation The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Continue reading >>

Zip14-mediated Zinc Transport Contributes To Regulation Of Glucose Homeostasis In Intestine, Pancreas And Liver

Zip14-mediated Zinc Transport Contributes To Regulation Of Glucose Homeostasis In Intestine, Pancreas And Liver

Zip14-Mediated Zinc Transport Contributes to Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis in Intestine, Pancreas and Liver Zinc influences signaling pathways through controlled targeted zinc transport. ZIP14 is a SLC39 family member zinc transporter which traffics zinc into the cytoplasm. We have previously shown that ZIP14 was the most up-regulated transporter in models of liver inflammation. Using a Zip14 knockout (KO) mouse model, we further demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for controlling signaling events for glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Metabolic endotoxemia is one of the major factors contributing to obesity and diabetes, two of the most prevalent metabolic disorders with incidence that is increasing rapidly worldwide. Zip14 KO mice present with signatures of metabolic endotoxemia including elevated serum endotoxin levels due to impaired intestinal barrier function leading to low grade chronic inflammation; increased cytokine expression by metabolic tissues; increased production/secretion of leptin with insulin insensitivity in adipose tissue; and enlarged pancreatic islets with greater serum insulin levels through activation of the MYD88 pathway. In Zip14 KO mice, elevated serum endotoxin levels; insulin insensitivity in adipose tissue; and greater biosynthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreas were returned to control level when mice were treated with antibiotics. Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and obesity is caused by insulin resistance. Insulin resistance results in inhibition of glucose uptake by liver and other peripheral tissues, principally adipose and muscle and with concurrently higher hepatic glucose production. We demonstrate that during glucose uptake the cell surface abundance of zinc transporter ZIP14 and mediated zinc transport increases Continue reading >>

Central Control Of Glucose Homeostasis: The Brain - Endocrine Pancreas Axis

Central Control Of Glucose Homeostasis: The Brain - Endocrine Pancreas Axis

Glucose homeostasis requires the tight regulation of glucose utilization by liver, muscle and white or brown fat, and glucose production and release in the blood by liver. The major goal of maintaining glycemia at 5 mM is to ensure a sufficient flux of glucose to the brain, which depends mostly on this nutrient as a source of metabolic energy. This homeostatic process is controlled by hormones, mainly glucagon and insulin, and by autonomic nervous activities that control the metabolic state of liver, muscle and fat tissue but also the secretory activity of the endocrine pancreas. Activation or inhibition of the sympathetic or parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous systems are controlled by glucose-excited or glucose-inhibited neurons located at different anatomical sites, mainly in the brainstem and the hypothalamus. Activation of these neurons by hyper- or hypoglycemia represents a critical aspect of the control of glucose homeostasis, and loss of glucose sensing by these cells as well as by pancreatic -cells is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. In this article, aspects of the brain-endocrine pancreas axis are reviewed, highlighting the importance of central glucose sensing in the control of counterregulation to hypoglycemia but also mentioning the role of the neural control in -cell mass and function. Overall, the conclusions of these studies is that impaired glucose homeostasis, such as associated with type 2 diabetes, but also defective counterregulation to hypoglycemia, may be caused by initial defects in glucose sensing. The effects of exercise on glucose and metabolic events preceding and following a freely initiated meal have never been assessed. Moreover, the relationship between these events and sympathovagal balance is not known. The objective of thi Continue reading >>

Central Control Of Glucose Homeostasis: The Brain Endocrine Pancreas Axis - Em|consulte

Central Control Of Glucose Homeostasis: The Brain Endocrine Pancreas Axis - Em|consulte

Central control of glucose homeostasis: the brain endocrine pancreas axis Contrle central de lhomostasie glucidique : laxe cerveau-pancras endocrine Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Genopode Building, 1215 Lausanne, Switzerland A large body of data gathered over the last decades has delineated the neuronal pathways that link the central nervous system with the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, which controls alpha- and beta-cell secretion activity and mass. These are important regulatory functions that are certainly keys for preserving the capacity of the endocrine pancreas to control glucose homeostasis over a lifetime. Identifying the cells involved in controlling the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, in response to nutrient, hormonal and environmental cues and how these cues are detected to activate neuronal activity are important goals of current research. Elucidation of these questions may possibly lead to new means for preserving or restoring defects in insulin and glucagon secretion associated with type 2 diabetes. The full text of this article is available in PDF format. Les cellules beta pancratiques, en scrtant linsuline, jouent un rle cl dans le contrle de lhomostasie glucidique. Cette scrtion est rgule trs finement pour que laction hypoglycmiante de linsuline soit prcisment adapte aux augmentations de glycmie. En plus de cette rgulation aigue, la rgulation du nombre total des cellules bta, ou masse cellulaire bta, est un aspect important du maintien de la capacit du pancras endocrine de scrter linsuline au cours de modifications physiologiques, comme la grossesse ou lobsit, associes au dveloppement dune insulinorsistance des tissus priphriques. Cette plasticit de la masse cellulaire bta est maintenant co Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Regulation

Blood Glucose Regulation

Glucose is needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood. How glucose is regulated Glucose level Effect on pancreas Effect on liver Effect on glucose level too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up Use the animation to make sure you understand how this works. You have an old or no version of flash - you need to upgrade to view this funky content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Glucagon – Higher tier The pancreas releases another hormone, glucagon, when the blood sugar levels fall. This causes the cells in the liver to turn glycogen back into glucose which can then be released into the blood. The blood sugar levels will then rise. Now try a Test Bite- Higher tier. Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. It can be treated by injecting insulin. The extra insulin allows the glucose to be taken up by the liver and other tissues, so cells get the glucose they need and blood-sugar levels stay normal. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin. It can be controlled by: monitoring the diet injecting insulin People with type 1 diabetes have to monitor their blood sugar levels throughout the day as the level of physical activity and diet affect the amount of insulin required. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is caused by a person becoming resistant to insulin. It can be controlled by diet and exercise. There is a link between rising levels of obesity (chronic overweight) and i Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Pyy Is Critical In The Control Of Insulin Secretion And Glucose Homeostasis In Female Mice

Pancreatic Pyy Is Critical In The Control Of Insulin Secretion And Glucose Homeostasis In Female Mice

Pancreatic PYY Is Critical in the Control of Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Mice Neuroscience (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., K.Le., L.Z., J.La., H.H.) Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia Faculty of Medicine (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., J.C., D.R.L., H.H.), UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW, 2052 Australia Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Yan-Chuan Shi, MD, PhD, Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia. Search for other works by this author on: Neuroscience (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., K.Le., L.Z., J.La., H.H.) Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia Faculty of Medicine (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., J.C., D.R.L., H.H.), UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW, 2052 Australia Search for other works by this author on: Neuroscience (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., K.Le., L.Z., J.La., H.H.) Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia Diabetes and Metabolism (M.B., J.C., J.Lu., D.R.L.) Divisions, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia Search for other works by this author on: Neuroscience (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., K.Le., L.Z., J.La., H.H.) Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia Search for other works by this author on: Neuroscience (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., K.Le., L.Z., J.La., H.H.) Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Sydney, Australia Search for other works by this author on: Neuroscience (Y.-C.S., K.Lo., K.Le., L.Z., J.La., H.H.) Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlin Continue reading >>

Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis And Pancreatic Islet Function In Mice With Inactivation Of The Fem1b Gene

Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis And Pancreatic Islet Function In Mice With Inactivation Of The Fem1b Gene

Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis and Pancreatic Islet Function in Mice with Inactivation of the Fem1b Gene 1G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery Veterans Affairs Medical Center 2Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose homeostasis involving complex gene and environmental interactions that are incompletely understood. Mammalian homologs of nematode sex determination genes have recently been implicated in glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These are the Hedgehog receptor Patched and Calpain-10, which have homology to the nematode tra-2 and tra-3 sex determination genes, respectively. Here, we have developed Fem1b knockout (Fem1b-KO) mice, with targeted inactivation of Fem1b, a homolog of the nematode fem-1 sex determination gene. We show that the Fem1b-KO mice display abnormal glucose tolerance and that this is due predominantly to defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Arginine-stimulated insulin secretion is also affected. The Fem1b gene is expressed in pancreatic islets, within both cells and non- cells, and is highly expressed in INS-1E cells, a pancreatic -cell line. In conclusion, these data implicate Fem1b in pancreatic islet function and insulin secretion, strengthening evidence that a genetic pathway homologous to nematode sex determination may be involved in glucose homeostasis and suggesting novel genes and processes as potential candidates in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The fem-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes an ankyrin repeat protein that is part of a signal transduction and transcriptional regulatory pathway controlling cell fate decisions during sex determination in the nematode ( 10 , 17 , 31 ). A mammalian Fem1 gene family, encoding Continue reading >>

Functional And Molecular Aspects Of Glucocorticoids In The Endocrine Pancreas And Glucose Homeostasis

Functional And Molecular Aspects Of Glucocorticoids In The Endocrine Pancreas And Glucose Homeostasis

Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Its based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. How? By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the worlds most-cited researchers. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Alex Rafacho, Antonio C. Boschero and Henrik Ortsater (October 3rd 2012). Functional and Molecular Aspects of Glucocorticoids in the Endocrine Pancreas and Glucose Homeostasis, State of the Art of Therapeutic Endocrinology Sameh Magdeldin, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50233. Available from: Alex Rafacho, Antonio C. Boschero and Henrik Ortsater (October 3rd 2012). Functional and Molecular Aspects of Glucocorticoids in the Endocrine Pancreas and Glucose Homeostasis, State of the Art of Therapeutic Endocrinology Sameh Magdeldin, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50233. Available from: Embed this chapter on your site Copy to clipboard Embed this code snippet in the HTML of your website to show this chapter Over 21,000 IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Homeostasis

Blood Glucose Homeostasis

The glucose levels in the blood are controlled by the hormonal system and these hormones are produced in the pancreas in the ares called islets of Langerans. EXCESS NORM DEFICIENCY Change detected by beta cells in pancreas Change detected by alpha cells in pancreas Increase in insulin secretion Increase in glucagon secretion - Activates enzymes converting glucose to glycogen - Activates enzymes converting glycogen to to glycogen glucose -Increases rate of glucose uptake Levels return to norm Levels return to norm (Biology guide.net, ©2006) “The maintenance of the blood sugar at normal levels is brought about by an efficient regulatory mechanism. The main organs in this mechanism are the liver, the autonomic nervous system, pancreas and other glands of internal secretion called endocrine glands.” (Homeostasis of sugar, ©2012) In the control of blood glucose concentrations in the body are influenced by factors such as digestion of carbohydrates in food which increases the production of glucose depending on how many carbohydrates consumed. The breakdown of glycogen is another which when detects an excess of glucose, glycogen is secreted returning the amount back to normal balance. Polysaccharide is made from excess glucose by glycogenesis, and glycogen becomes abundant in both liver and muscles. The pancreatic Islets of Langerhans are the sites of production of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. Other things that influence the blood glucose concentrations are the conversion of non-carbohydrates to glucose by gluconeogenesis, oxidation of glucose by respiration which puts glucose to energy as well as a few more (Biology guide.net, ©2006). Glucose homeostasis relies on the balance and interaction between glucose and insulin. The pancreas produces insulin which allows Continue reading >>

Role Of Leptin In The Pancreatic Β-cell: Effects And Signaling Pathways

Role Of Leptin In The Pancreatic Β-cell: Effects And Signaling Pathways

Introduction A fine regulation of pancreatic β-cell function is essential for the control of plasma glucose homeostasis and nutrient metabolism. β-cell secretion and mass are dynamic features that adapt in the short and/or long term to the insulin requirements of the organism (Sachdeva & Stoffers 2009). These insulin needs depend on multiple factors, including nutritional status and metabolic, hormonal, and neural signals. This functional plasticity also occurs during physiological or pathological situations such as pregnancy or obesity respectively (Sachdeva & Stoffers 2009). The regulation of β-cell function in the short and long term allows for an adequate level of plasma insulin levels, which restores plasma glucose concentrations to normoglycemia by inducing glucose uptake and accumulation as glycogen and fatty acids, principally in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. However, a decrease in β-cell mass or impaired β-cell function can lead to abnormal plasma insulin levels that can promote glucose intolerance and diabetes. Among the different risk factors for the development of diabetes, obesity is a major one. The progression of obese individuals to diabetes is attributed to an altered compensation in β-cell mass and function in response to insulin demand (Sachdeva & Stoffers 2009). Obesity involves an increasing accumulation of adipose tissue and enhanced release of adipokines. Among others, leptin has been revealed as an important regulator of pancreatic β-cell function at different levels including insulin gene expression, insulin secretion, apoptosis, and cell growth. Thus, in addition to its central actions for the control of glucose metabolism (Morton & Schwartz 2011), leptin can modulate glucose homeostasis owing to these different direct effects on th Continue reading >>

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