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Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Blood Tests For Diabetes: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Also known as: OGTT; 2-hour glucose tolerance test. What is it? A test that measures blood glucose levels before and 2 hours after you drink an oral dose of glucose solution (75 to 100 grams of an extremely sweet drink), which should cause glucose levels to rise in the first hour, then fall back to normal within two hours as the body produces insulin to normalize glucose levels. Test results show how well your body is able to process glucose. Why is this test performed? To confirm a diagnosis of diabetes or gestational diabetes (and to diagnose other metabolic diseases). Because the OGTT is a more sensitive test than the fasting plasma glucose test, and involves multiple blood draws to monitor insulin production, it can often detect cases of diabetes that may be missed by the fasting test. How is the oral glucose tolerance test performed? The OGTT is typically performed in the morning, after you’ve fasted for at least eight hours. Your blood will be drawn to measure your fasting blood sugar level. You will then be given the sugary solution to drink, and your blood sugar levels will be tested periodically over the next two hours. How frequently should this test be performed? Once, in select individuals, for diagnosis of diabetes. A second retest may be appropriate in some patients, particularly pregnant women being tested for gestational diabetes. Additional laboratory tests may be required for an accurate diagnosis. What is the “normal” range for results? While laboratory test methods and measurements can vary for this test, normal OGTT results in those who are not pregnant are as follows: Fasting: 60 mg/dl to 99 mg/dl (3.3 mmol/l to 5.5 mmol/l) 1 hour: Less than 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) 2 hours: Less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) Factors such as age, weight, and rac Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.[1] The test is usually used to test for diabetes, insulin resistance, impaired beta cell function,[2] and sometimes reactive hypoglycemia and acromegaly, or rarer disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later.[3] Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. History[edit] The glucose tolerance test was first described in 1923 by Jerome W. Conn.[4] The test was based on the previous work in 1913 by A. T. B. Jacobson in determining that carbohydrate ingestion results in blood glucose fluctuations,[5] and the premise (named the Staub-Traugott Phenomenon after its first observers H. Staub in 1921 and K. Traugott in 1922) that a normal patient fed glucose will rapidly return to normal levels of blood glucose after an initial spike, and will see improved reaction to subsequent glucose feedings.[6][7] Testing[edit] Since the 1970s, the World Health Organization and other organizations interested in diabetes agreed on a standard dose and duration. Preparation[edit] The patient is instructed not to restrict carbohydrate intake in the days or weeks before the test.[citation needed] The test should not be done during an illness, as results may not reflect the patient's glucose metabolism when healthy. A full adult dose should not be Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing

Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of diabetes. The recommended preparation for and administration of the OGTT are important to ensure that test results are not affected. Interpretation is based on venous plasma glucose results before and 2 hours after a 75 g oral glucose load. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of diabetes. The recommended preparation for and administration of the OGTT are important to ensure that test results are not affected. Interpretation is based on venous plasma glucose results before and 2 hours after a 75 g oral glucose load. When should an OGTT be ordered? The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) recommends an OGTT when the results of fasting or random blood glucose are equivocal (Figure 1): fasting 5.5–6.9; random 5.5–11.0 mmol/L.1 An OGTT is unnecessary if fasting or random blood glucose values are clearly in the nondiabetic or diabetic range: fasting or random <5.5; fasting ≥7.0 or random ≥11.1 mmol/L respectively. Diagnosis should be based on laboratory results, not results from a benchtop glucose meter. The Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society recommends a 50 or 75 g glucose challenge at 26–28 weeks in all pregnant women. An OGTT should be performed if the test result is abnormal: 1 hour values after a 50 or 75 g glucose challenge exceeding 7.8 or 8.0 mmol/L respectively. If a woman has had gestational diabetes, a repeat OGTT is recommended at 6–8 weeks and 12 weeks after delivery. If the results are normal, repeat testing is recommended between 1 and 3 years depending on the clinical circumstances.1 There is a recent Australian recommendation to screen all women with polycystic ovarian syndrome Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes

Diagnosing Diabetes

In diagnosing diabetes, physicians primarily depend upon the results of specific glucose tests. However, test results are just part of the information that goes into the diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Doctors also take into account your physical exam, presence or absence of symptoms, and medical history. Some people who are significantly ill will have transient problems with elevated blood sugars, which will then return to normal after the illness has resolved. Also, some medications may alter your blood glucose levels (most commonly steroids and certain diuretics, such as water pills). The 2 main tests used to measure the presence of blood sugar problems are the direct measurement of glucose levels in the blood during an overnight fast and measurement of the body's ability to appropriately handle the excess sugar presented after drinking a high glucose drink. Fasting Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar) Level A value above 126 mg/dL on at least 2 occasions typically means a person has diabetes. The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test An oral glucose tolerance test is one that can be performed in a doctor's office or a lab. The person being tested starts the test in a fasting state (having no food or drink except water for at least 10 hours but not greater than 16 hours). An initial blood sugar is drawn and then the person is given a "glucola" bottle with a high amount of sugar in it (75 grams of glucose or 100 grams for pregnant women). The person then has their blood tested again 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours after drinking the high glucose drink. For the test to give reliable results, you must be in good health (not have any other illnesses, not even a cold). Also, you should be normally active (for example, not lying down or confined to a bed like a patient in a Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test During Pregnancy: Results And Follow-up

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test During Pregnancy: Results And Follow-up

If your health care provider determines your blood glucose level was elevated, you will have an additional gestational diabetes screening test. If this test is indicated, your health care provider will provide you with information. References: American Pregnancy Association. Glucose tolerance test Accessed 3/4/2016. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosing diabetes and learning about prediabetes Accessed 3/4/2016. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Lab Tests Online: Glucose tests Accessed 3/4/2016. © Copyright 1995-2017 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. All rights reserved. This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: 03/10/2016 Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Testing

Glucose Tolerance Testing

Glucose tolerance testing (GTT) is used to evaluate the ability to regulate glucose metabolism and is indicated when random/fasting blood glucose testing alone is insufficient in establishing or ruling out the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The reference range of serum or plasma glucose is less than 140 mg/dL at 2 hours after a 75-g glucose load. Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

Amputations. INVOKANA® may increase your risk of lower-limb amputations. Amputations mainly involve removal of the toe or part of the foot; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, have also occurred. Some people had more than one amputation, some on both sides of the body. You may be at a higher risk of lower-limb amputation if you: have a history of amputation, have heart disease or are at risk for heart disease, have had blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg), have damage to the nerves (neuropathy) in the leg, or have had diabetic foot ulcers or sores. Call your doctor right away if you have new pain or tenderness, any sores, ulcers, or infections in your leg or foot. Your doctor may decide to stop your INVOKANA®. Talk to your doctor about proper foot care Dehydration. INVOKANA® can cause some people to become dehydrated (the loss of too much body water), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure, take medicines to lower your blood pressure (including diuretics [water pills]), are on a low sodium (salt) diet, have kidney problems, or are 65 years of age or older Talk to your doctor about what to do if you get symptoms of a yeast infection of the vagina or penis. Before you take INVOKANA®, tell your doctor if you have a history of amputation; heart disease or are at risk for heart disease; blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg); damage to the nerves (neuropathy) of your leg; diabetic foot ulcers or sores; kidney problems; liver problems; history of urinary tract infections or problems with urination; are on a low sodium (salt) diet; are going to have surgery; are eatin Continue reading >>

Do I Need An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test?

Do I Need An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test?

Your blood sugar level can give your doctor important clues about your health, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) shows how well your body handles sugar from foods. It can tell whether you are at risk for diabetes or if you already have it. A shorter version of an OGTT checks for diabetes during pregnancy. Normally when you eat, your blood sugar rises. Your pancreas, a long gland deep in the belly, releases a hormone called insulin. It helps move sugar from your blood into your cells for energy and storage. Then your blood sugar goes back down to normal. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body uses insulin poorly. Glucose builds up in your blood. This excess sugar can damage blood vessels around your body. Diabetes can lead to heart disease, nerve damage, eye disease, and kidney damage. You might need an oral glucose tolerance test if you: Have a close family member with diabetes Have high triglycerides (a type of fat in your blood) Have polycystic ovarian syndrome (which causes menstrual problems) Delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds A shorter version of this test is done between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to see whether you have gestational diabetes. It's called the oral glucose challenge test. To get an accurate result on the OGTT, eat about 150 grams of carbohydrates each day for 3 days before the test. Don't eat or drink anything except water after about 10 o’clock the night before. You don't need to do any special prep before the pregnancy glucose challenge test. You can eat in the morning. Just avoid foods with a lot of sugar, such as doughnuts or orange juice. You'll get the OGTT at your doctor's office, a clinic, hospital, or lab. Here’s what happens: A nurse or doctor will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm to test your s Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test - Non-pregnant

Glucose Tolerance Test - Non-pregnant

The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then be asked to drink a liquid containing a certain amount of glucose (usually 75 grams). Your blood will be taken again every 30 to 60 minutes after you drink the solution. The test may take up to 3 hours. A similar test is the intravenous (IV) glucose tolerance test (IGTT). It is rarely used, and is never used to diagnose diabetes. In one version of the IGTT, glucose is injected into your vein for 3 minutes. Blood insulin levels are measured before the injection, and again at 1 and 3 minutes after the injection. The timing may vary. This IGTT is almost always used for research purposes only. Continue reading >>

Reference Values During Pregnancy

Reference Values During Pregnancy

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Characteristics Of Patients With Abnormal Glucose Challenge Test And Normal Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results: Comparison With Normal And Gestational Diabetic Patients.

Characteristics Of Patients With Abnormal Glucose Challenge Test And Normal Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results: Comparison With Normal And Gestational Diabetic Patients.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lutheran Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients who had abnormal glucose challenge test results and subsequent normal oral glucose tolerance test results and to assess whether such patients are at a greater risk than normal pregnant patients for adverse perinatal outcome. In this retrospective cohort study that was conducted between June and December 2003, 101 pregnant women (group A) had an abnormal glucose challenge test result and a normal oral glucose tolerance test result. Data were also collected on 2 control groups: 100 pregnant women with normal glucose challenge test results (group B) and all 76 pregnant women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus during this period of time (group C). Patients with multiple pregnancies, chronic hypertension, pregestational diabetes mellitus, or any other maternal or fetal problems that were diagnosed before 24 weeks (when the glucose challenge test was performed) were excluded from the study groups. The following data were collected and analyzed: maternal age, maternal weight and height, parity and gravidity, diabetes mellitus in first-degree relatives, medical and obstetric history, ethnicity, complications during the third trimester of pregnancy, birth weight, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, Apgar scores, cord blood gas results, maternal complications of labor and during the postpartum period, and infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. For comparison between groups, we used the Student t test, 1-way analysis of variance, the chi-square test, and stepwise logistic regression. Patients in groups A and C were significantly older compared with group B (29.2 +/- Continue reading >>

All You Need To Know About The Glucose Tolerance Test

All You Need To Know About The Glucose Tolerance Test

Most of the food people eat is turned directly into glucose when digested, and the body uses it as energy. The pancreas is responsible for making the hormone insulin which helps to get glucose into the cells of the body. Diabetes is a long-term disease that occurs due to the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the body being unable to use the insulin it produces effectively. The body is unable to process food properly to use for energy. Glucose builds up in the blood, which can lead to severe health problems. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and is also known as juvenile diabetes. With type 1 diabetes the body does not produce insulin. According to The American Diabetes Association, only 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In people with type 2 diabetes, their body does not use insulin properly, which is known as insulin resistance. The pancreas responds by making more insulin to cover the deficiency but is not able to keep blood glucose at normal levels. As glucose builds up in the blood, the body's cells do not receive the energy they need. Over time, high blood glucose levels can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. Glucose tolerance test: Testing for diabetes A simple blood test can often detect diabetes. If the test produces borderline results, a glucose tolerance test may help with the final diagnosis. In a healthy person, glucose levels will rise after eating a meal and return to normal once the glucose is used or stored by the body. A glucose tolerance test can help to work out the difference between normal glucose levels and the levels seen in diabetes and prediabetes. The glucose tolerance test is used to measure t Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires an enormous amount of self-care and that can affect many parts of the body. Because of this, people who have diabetes are generally advised to visit their doctors multiple times a year and also to see various specialists (such as endocrinologists, podiatrists, and eye doctors) periodically to screen for potential problems and treat any complications that arise. Along with blood pressure readings and inspection of the feet and eyes, there are a number of laboratory tests recommended by the American Diabetes Association. These tests are used to track blood glucose control, kidney function, cardiovascular health, and other areas of health. Although you certainly can’t and won’t be expected to analyze the lab report when your test results come back, knowing a little bit about what your report says can be a way for you to more fully understand and take charge of your health. If it isn’t already your doctor’s regular practice to give you copies of your lab reports, ask for a copy the next time you have lab tests done. Use the information in this article to learn more about what lab reports show, and discuss your results with your doctor to learn what your results mean with regards to your health. Lab reports All lab reports share certain standard features, regardless of the test(s) they show. A Federal law, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, regulates all aspects of clinical laboratory testing. It states exactly what information must be included in your lab test report. Some of the standard features include the following: • Your name and a unique identification number, which may be either your birth date or a medical record number assigned to you by the lab. • The name and address of the lab that tested your bloo Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

What is a glucose tolerance test? A glucose tolerance test measures how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose, or sugar, after you ingest a given amount of sugar. Doctors use fasting blood sugar levels and hemoglobin A1c values to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes. A glucose tolerance test can also be used. Doctors primarily use a glucose tolerance test to diagnose gestational diabetes. Doctors often diagnose type 1 diabetes quickly because it usually develops quickly and involves high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, often develops over years. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and it usually develops during adulthood. Gestational diabetes occurs when a pregnant woman who doesn’t have diabetes before pregnancy has high blood sugar levels as a result of the pregnancy. The American Diabetes Association estimates that gestational diabetes occurs in 9.2 percent of pregnancies. Doctors should screen all women for gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause pregnancy complications, so early detection and prompt treatment are important. If you’re pregnant, your doctor will usually recommend this test between the 24th and 28th week of your pregnancy. Your doctor may also recommend that you have this test earlier if you’re having the symptoms of prediabetes or diabetes. Preparing for the glucose tolerance test involves the following: Continue to eat a normal diet in the days leading up to the test. Consult with your doctor about any medications you’re currently taking. Some medications, such as corticosteroids, beta-blockers, diuretics, and antidepressants, can interfere with the results. Abstain from food for at least eight hours before the scheduled test. You may drink water, but avoid Continue reading >>

Glucose Screening Tests During Pregnancy

Glucose Screening Tests During Pregnancy

TWO-STEP TESTING During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change your diet in any way. You will be asked to drink a liquid that contains glucose. Your blood will be drawn 1 hour after you drink the glucose solution to check your blood glucose level. If your blood glucose from the first step is too high, you will need to come back for a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. For this test: DO NOT eat or drink anything (other than sips of water) for 8 to 14 hours before your test. (You also cannot eat during the test.) You will be asked to drink a liquid that contains glucose, 100 grams (g) . You will have blood drawn before you drink the liquid, and again 3 more times every 60 minutes after you drink it. Each time, your blood glucose level will be checked. Allow at least 3 hours for this test. ONE-STEP TESTING You need to go to the lab one time for a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. For this test: DO NOT eat or drink anything (other than sips of water) for 8 to 14 hours before your test. (You also cannot eat during the test.) You will be asked to drink a liquid that contains glucose (75 g). You will have blood drawn before you drink the liquid, and again 2 more times every 60 minutes after you drink it. Each time, your blood glucose level will be checked. Allow at least 2 hours for this test. Continue reading >>

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