diabetestalk.net

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Do I Need An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test?

Do I Need An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test?

Your blood sugar level can give your doctor important clues about your health, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) shows how well your body handles sugar from foods. It can tell whether you are at risk for diabetes or if you already have it. A shorter version of an OGTT checks for diabetes during pregnancy. Normally when you eat, your blood sugar rises. Your pancreas, a long gland deep in the belly, releases a hormone called insulin. It helps move sugar from your blood into your cells for energy and storage. Then your blood sugar goes back down to normal. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body uses insulin poorly. Glucose builds up in your blood. This excess sugar can damage blood vessels around your body. Diabetes can lead to heart disease, nerve damage, eye disease, and kidney damage. You might need an oral glucose tolerance test if you: Have a close family member with diabetes Have high triglycerides (a type of fat in your blood) Have polycystic ovarian syndrome (which causes menstrual problems) Delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds A shorter version of this test is done between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to see whether you have gestational diabetes. It's called the oral glucose challenge test. To get an accurate result on the OGTT, eat about 150 grams of carbohydrates each day for 3 days before the test. Don't eat or drink anything except water after about 10 o’clock the night before. You don't need to do any special prep before the pregnancy glucose challenge test. You can eat in the morning. Just avoid foods with a lot of sugar, such as doughnuts or orange juice. You'll get the OGTT at your doctor's office, a clinic, hospital, or lab. Here’s what happens: A nurse or doctor will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm to test your s Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Tweet The Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT), also referred to as the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), is a method which can help to diagnose instances of diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance. The test is a more substantial indicator of diabetes than finger prick testing. What is an OGT test? The test is used to determine whether the body has difficulty metabolising intake of sugar/carbohydrate. The patient is asked to take a glucose drink and their blood glucose level is measured before and at intervals after the sugary drink is taken. Why is an oral glucose tolerance test done? This can be a useful test in helping to diagnose: Pre-diabetes Gestational diabetes in pregnant women Insulin resistance Reactive hypoglycemia How is the test performed? Before the test you will be asked not to eat, or drink certain fluids, for up to 8 to 12 hours before the test. You may be asked to not take certain medications in the lead up to the test, but only if these would affect the test results. For the test itself, you will first have blood taken to measure your blood glucose level before the test. The next stage is to take a very sweet tasting, glucose drink. Further blood samples will then be taken either at regular intervals of say 30 or 60 minutes or a single test after 2 hours. The test could take up to 3 hours. Between blood tests you will need to wait so it’s best to have some reading material, or something else to keep you occupied, with you. What should the OGTT results be? People without diabetes Fasting value (before test): under 6 mmol/L At 2 hours: under 7.8 mmol/L People with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Fasting value (before test): 6.0 to 7.0 mmol/L At 2 hours: 7.9 to 11.0 mmol/L Diabetic levels Fasting value (before test): over 7.0 mmol/L At 2 hours: over 11.0 mm Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

Amputations. INVOKANA® may increase your risk of lower-limb amputations. Amputations mainly involve removal of the toe or part of the foot; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, have also occurred. Some people had more than one amputation, some on both sides of the body. You may be at a higher risk of lower-limb amputation if you: have a history of amputation, have heart disease or are at risk for heart disease, have had blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg), have damage to the nerves (neuropathy) in the leg, or have had diabetic foot ulcers or sores. Call your doctor right away if you have new pain or tenderness, any sores, ulcers, or infections in your leg or foot. Your doctor may decide to stop your INVOKANA®. Talk to your doctor about proper foot care Dehydration. INVOKANA® can cause some people to become dehydrated (the loss of too much body water), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure, take medicines to lower your blood pressure (including diuretics [water pills]), are on a low sodium (salt) diet, have kidney problems, or are 65 years of age or older Talk to your doctor about what to do if you get symptoms of a yeast infection of the vagina or penis. Before you take INVOKANA®, tell your doctor if you have a history of amputation; heart disease or are at risk for heart disease; blocked or narrowed blood vessels (usually in leg); damage to the nerves (neuropathy) of your leg; diabetic foot ulcers or sores; kidney problems; liver problems; history of urinary tract infections or problems with urination; are on a low sodium (salt) diet; are going to have surgery; are eatin Continue reading >>

Pcos: Preparing For Your Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Pcos: Preparing For Your Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

If you have PCOS and you’re getting ready to have an oral glucose tolerance test, you may be wondering how to prepare for the test and what the results may mean. The test can help your health care provider figure out whether you have a high risk of developing diabetes and whether lifestyle changes and medications such as Metformin might be helpful in treating your PCOS. What is Glucose? Glucose is a type of sugar and the main source of energy used by your body. The glucose that your body uses for energy comes from many kinds of foods called carbohydrates, such as cereal, bread, rice, pasta, and other grains, not just sugary foods. Dairy products, fruits, and vegetables all contain carbohydrates as well. Your body uses the glucose it needs and then stores the rest as “glycogen” in your liver and muscles. What is an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)? An OGTT is a way to measure your body’s ability to use glucose. Your pancreas (a gland located behind the stomach) makes a hormone called insulin, which helps your body use the glucose in your blood. If your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or if your body is unable to use the insulin it makes, you may have a high blood glucose level. The OGTT involves fasting overnight and then having your blood checked early in the morning. You will then drink a special glucose drink and have your blood tested again after 2 hours. Sometimes blood sugar levels are also checked at other times such as 1 hour, 3 hours, or 4 hours after the glucose drink. What if my blood glucose level is high? If the OGTT shows that your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, your health care provider may tell you that you have “impaired glucose tolerance”. This often means that you are at risk for developing diabetes. Rarely, diabetes Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Tests: What Exactly Do They Involve?

Glucose Tolerance Tests: What Exactly Do They Involve?

Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) are used to measure how well the body can process a larger amount of sugar. If the blood sugar measured in the test is above a certain level, this could be a sign that sugar is not being absorbed enough by the body’s cells. Diabetes or gestational diabetes might be at the root of this problem. In gestational diabetes, blood sugar levels are often higher due to changes in the metabolism during pregnancy – but they usually come back down again after the child is born. What types of glucose tolerance tests are there? There are two types of glucose tolerance tests: a short version called the glucose challenge test, and a full glucose tolerance test. The short version is easier to do and serves as a preliminal test to determine someone's risk of diabetes or gestational diabetes. Glucose challenge test The glucose challenge test is the short version of the glucose tolerance test. The test can be done at any time of the day. It involves drinking a glass of concentrated glucose solution (50 g of glucose dissolved in 250 to 300 ml of water). After one hour has passed, a blood sample is taken to determine the blood sugar level. Glucose tolerance test For this test, you should not eat anything before going to the doctor in the morning. In other words, you should not have breakfast, and you should eat your last meal the evening before. This also applies to all drinks with the exception of water. First of all, blood is taken to determine your baseline blood sugar level. The blood is drawn from a vein or your fingertip or earlobe. After that you drink a large glass of concentrated sugar solution. In the glucose tolerance test, 75 g of glucose are dissolved in 250 to 300 ml of water. The amount given to children is based on their body weight. If Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test - Non-pregnant

Glucose Tolerance Test - Non-pregnant

The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then be asked to drink a liquid containing a certain amount of glucose (usually 75 grams). Your blood will be taken again every 30 to 60 minutes after you drink the solution. The test may take up to 3 hours. A similar test is the intravenous (IV) glucose tolerance test (IGTT). It is rarely used, and is never used to diagnose diabetes. In one version of the IGTT, glucose is injected into your vein for 3 minutes. Blood insulin levels are measured before the injection, and again at 1 and 3 minutes after the injection. The timing may vary. This IGTT is almost always used for research purposes only. Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.[1] The test is usually used to test for diabetes, insulin resistance, impaired beta cell function,[2] and sometimes reactive hypoglycemia and acromegaly, or rarer disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later.[3] Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. History[edit] The glucose tolerance test was first described in 1923 by Jerome W. Conn.[4] The test was based on the previous work in 1913 by A. T. B. Jacobson in determining that carbohydrate ingestion results in blood glucose fluctuations,[5] and the premise (named the Staub-Traugott Phenomenon after its first observers H. Staub in 1921 and K. Traugott in 1922) that a normal patient fed glucose will rapidly return to normal levels of blood glucose after an initial spike, and will see improved reaction to subsequent glucose feedings.[6][7] Testing[edit] Since the 1970s, the World Health Organization and other organizations interested in diabetes agreed on a standard dose and duration. Preparation[edit] The patient is instructed not to restrict carbohydrate intake in the days or weeks before the test.[citation needed] The test should not be done during an illness, as results may not reflect the patient's glucose metabolism when healthy. A full adult dose should not be Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test During Pregnancy: About This Test

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test During Pregnancy: About This Test

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test During Pregnancy: About This Test What is an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)? An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is one of several tests that check for gestational diabetes. You may have already had a different glucose screening test (for example, a glucose challenge test). For the OGTT, you will prepare ahead of time by not eating before the test. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that can develop when you are pregnant. An OGTT measures your body's ability to use a type of sugar, called glucose, that is your body's main source of energy. If your blood sugar level first becomes too high when you are pregnant, you might have gestational diabetes. The condition usually goes away after the baby is born. When you have gestational diabetes, a hormone called insulin is not able to keep your blood sugar in a normal range. This condition may not cause symptoms. That's why it's important for you to be tested for it. Most women are screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. High blood sugar can cause problems for you and your baby. Your baby may grow too large, which can cause problems during delivery. Your baby may also be born with low blood sugar, which can cause seizures. But if you find out you have gestational diabetes, you can treat it with medicine and lifestyle changes. With treatment, most women are able to control their blood sugar and give birth to healthy babies. Tell your doctor about all prescription and non-prescription medicines you are taking. You may be told to stop taking certain medicines before the test. For 3 days before the test, eat a balanced diet that contains carbohydrates. Do not eat, drink, smoke, or do strenuous exercise for at least 8 hours before your first blood samp Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test And The Preparatory Diet.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test And The Preparatory Diet.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: A 3-day diet containing at least 150 g carbohydrate per day has been used in many centers in preparation for the oral glucose tolerance test. The preparatory diet is thought to reduce false-positive diagnoses of gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of a 3-day preparatory diet containing > or =150 g carbohydrate in otherwise healthy pregnant patients. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty healthy obstetric patients with abnormal results on a 1-hour glucose challenge test (> or =140 mg/dL) were enrolled in this prospective pilot study. Two oral glucose tolerance tests were administered. The first was with no dietary restrictions, and the second test was performed after a 3-day diet containing at least 150 g carbohydrate. Patients were given a 3-day dietary supplement, which contained 150 g carbohydrate per day. A food diary verified compliance with the diet and indicated other food intake. RESULTS: There was no difference in the number of oral glucose tolerance tests with abnormal results, with or without the diet (5 in each group). Additionally, no significant difference was found in the mean glucose values in the diet versus no-diet groups. CONCLUSION: A preparatory diet does not significantly alter the results of an oral glucose tolerance test administered to healthy pregnant women. The diet unnecessarily delays the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt)

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt)

Reminder systems for women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus to increase uptake of testing for type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance To assess the effects of reminder systems to increase uptake of testing for type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in patients during acute coronary syndrome hospitalization: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy BACKGROUND: The appropriateness of the routine performance of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen for diabetes mellitus (DM) during acute coronary syndrome hospitalization is still under debate. Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Reduce the Risk of Diabetes in People with Impaired Glucose Regulation: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in the UK and worldwide. Before the onset of T2DM, there are two conditions characterised by blood glucose levels that are above normal but below the threshold for diabetes. If screening for T2DM in introduced, many people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) will be found and it is necessary to consider how they should be treated. The number would depend on what screening test was used and what cut-offs were chosen. Continue reading >>

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

What is a glucose tolerance test? A glucose tolerance test measures how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose, or sugar, after you ingest a given amount of sugar. Doctors use fasting blood sugar levels and hemoglobin A1c values to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes. A glucose tolerance test can also be used. Doctors primarily use a glucose tolerance test to diagnose gestational diabetes. Doctors often diagnose type 1 diabetes quickly because it usually develops quickly and involves high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, often develops over years. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and it usually develops during adulthood. Gestational diabetes occurs when a pregnant woman who doesn’t have diabetes before pregnancy has high blood sugar levels as a result of the pregnancy. The American Diabetes Association estimates that gestational diabetes occurs in 9.2 percent of pregnancies. Doctors should screen all women for gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause pregnancy complications, so early detection and prompt treatment are important. If you’re pregnant, your doctor will usually recommend this test between the 24th and 28th week of your pregnancy. Your doctor may also recommend that you have this test earlier if you’re having the symptoms of prediabetes or diabetes. Preparing for the glucose tolerance test involves the following: Continue to eat a normal diet in the days leading up to the test. Consult with your doctor about any medications you’re currently taking. Some medications, such as corticosteroids, beta-blockers, diuretics, and antidepressants, can interfere with the results. Abstain from food for at least eight hours before the scheduled test. You may drink water, but avoid Continue reading >>

The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt) Revisited.

The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt) Revisited.

Eur J Intern Med. 2011 Feb;22(1):8-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2010.07.008. Epub 2010 Aug 17. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revisited. Clinica Medica, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Universit degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been the mainstay for diagnosing diabetes for decades. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) suggested abandoning the OGTT, while resorting to a simpler screening test, exclusively based on baseline fasting blood glucose concentration. This review article rewinds the history of OGTT and its recent advancements, and compares its power in detecting early diabetes with that of fasting blood glucose alone. The key point is that there are more diabetics originating from a population with normal fasting blood glucose than from subjects with impaired fasting glucose, those who can be detected by the new ADA recommendations. Conversely, the OGTT detects more efficiently early diabetes as well as subjects with IGT, as the glycemia at the second hour seems crucial as a diagnostic tool. We discuss the different significance of fasting versus second hour glycemia during OGTT, according to different mechanisms of glucose homeostasis. Finally, we provide recent evidence on very simple additional information that can be obtained from the OGTT, which renders this test even more useful, discussing pathophysiologic significance. Continue reading >>

Glucose And Insulin Measurements From The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test And Relationship To Muscle Mass.

Glucose And Insulin Measurements From The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test And Relationship To Muscle Mass.

Glucose and insulin measurements from the oral glucose tolerance test and relationship to muscle mass. Kalyani RR, et al. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. [email protected] J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Jan;67(1):74-81. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glr022. Epub 2011 Feb 24. BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with decreased muscle mass. The effect of higher levels of glucose and insulin on muscle mass has not been studied in individuals without diabetes. We sought to determine the relationship of insulin and glucose measurements from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with muscle mass in persons without diabetes. METHODS: We analyzed data from 587 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (mean age 67.3 years, range 26-95 years) without diabetes who underwent a 2-hour OGTT, including glucose and insulin measurements taken every 20 minutes and assessment of midthigh muscle cross-sectional area by computed tomography, taken as a proxy measure of muscle mass. Linear regression models and Bayesian model averaging were used to explore the independent cross-sectional association of various OGTT-derived measures and midthigh muscle cross-sectional area, independent of confounders. RESULTS: Individually, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT glucose (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 minutes), OGTT insulin (20, 60, 80, 100, and 120 minutes), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, integrated glucose area, and integrated insulin area were inversely associated, and the Matsuda index was positively associated, with the midthigh muscle cross-sectional area (standardized to body weight) after adjustment for age, sex, race, Continue reading >>

Insulin Release And Peripheral Sensitivity At The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

Insulin Release And Peripheral Sensitivity At The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

Insulin release and peripheral sensitivity at the oral glucose tolerance test. Cederholm J, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1990. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1990 Oct;10(2):167-75. With the use of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, both insulin release (IRG) and the degree of peripheral sensitivity (SI) were evaluated simultaneously in groups with normal (NGT) and impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance as well as NIDDM. IRG was expressed as the ratio of the area under the insulin curve to that of the glucose curve above fasting levels. The peripheral glucose uptake rate (M) during the OGTT was measured as the difference between the glucose load and the increase in the amount of glucose in the glucose space during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). SI was expressed as the ratio of the metabolic clearance rate (M/mean blood glucose) to log mean serum insulin. In the non-obese groups, both mean IRG and mean SI values were decreased with an increasing degree of hyperglycemia from NGT to NIDDM. Decreased mean SI values were also found in obese subjects. IGT-subjects given 3 months of diet and exercise achieved improved SI values. A non-obese NIDDM-group had higher mean IRG and mean SI values after 6 months of treatment with glipizide. The results were comparable to data obtained with more complicated techniques, such as the insulin clamp and suppression tests, and should be easy to apply on a large scale in epidemiological studies. Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt)

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (ogtt)

A screening test for diabetes that involves testing an individuals plasma glucose level after he drinks a solution containing 75 grams of glucose. Currently, a person is diagnosed with diabetes if his plasma glucose level is 200 mg/dl or higher two hours after ingesting the glucose. Those with a plasma glucose level less than 200 mg/dl but greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl are diagnosed with a condition called impaired glucose tolerance, or prediabetes . People with this condition have trouble metabolizing glucose, but the problem is not considered severe enough to classify them as having diabetes. Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance are at a slightly elevated risk for developing high blood pressure, blood lipid disorders, and Type 2 diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, the OGTT is not necessary to diagnose diabetes and should rarely be used. The screening test of choice for diagnosing diabetes is the fasting plasma glucose test , which measures a persons plasma glucose level after he has fasted (not eaten) for at least eight hours. This test is favored because it is simpler, more accurate, less expensive, and less variable than the OGTT. This article was written by Robert S. Dinsmoor, a Contributing Editor of Diabetes Self-Management. Disclaimer Statements: Statements and opinions expressed on this Web site are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the publishers or advertisers. The information provided on this Web site should not be construed as medical instruction. Consult appropriate health-care professionals before taking action based on this information. Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar