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Obesity Diabetes And Heart Disease

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes

The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent of people age 65 or olderwith diabetes die from some form of heart disease; and 16% die of stroke. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to die from heart disease than adults without diabetes. The American Heart Association considers diabetes to be one of theseven major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Why are people with diabetes at increased risk for CVD? Diabetes is treatable, but even when glucose levels are under control it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. That's because people with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes,may have the following conditions that contribute to their risk for developing cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles. Abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides Patients with diabetes often have unhealthy cholesterol levels including high LDL ("bad") cholesterol, low HDL ("good") cholesterol, and high triglycerides. This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia in those patients with diabetes. Learn more about cholesterol abnormalities as they relate to diabetes. Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been strongly associated with insulin Continue reading >>

Added Sugars And Risk Factors For Obesity, Diabetes And Heart Disease

Added Sugars And Risk Factors For Obesity, Diabetes And Heart Disease

International Journal of Obesity volume 40, pages S22S27 (2016) This article is based on a presentation at a symposium entitled Sweeteners and Health: Findings from Recent Research and their Impact on Obesity and Related Metabolic Conditions held at the European Congress on Obesity (ECO) on 7 May 2015. This symposium was supported, in part, by an educational grant from Rippe Lifestyle Institute. The effects of added sugars on various chronic conditions are highly controversial. Some investigators have argued that added sugars increase the risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, few randomized controlled trials are available to support these assertions. The literature is further complicated by animal studies, as well as studies which compare pure fructose to pure glucose (neither of which is consumed to any appreciable degree in the human diet) and studies where large doses of added sugars beyond normal levels of human consumption have been administered. Various scientific and public health organizations have offered disparate recommendations for upper limits of added sugar. In this article, we will review recent randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. We conclude that the normal added sugars in the human diet (for example, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup and isoglucose) when consumed within the normal range of normal human consumption or substituted isoenergetically for other carbohydrates, do not appear to cause a unique risk of obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Subscribe to International Journal of Obesity for full access: Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know? The metabolic and endocrine response and health implications of consumi Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes is a common disease that is on the rise in America. Having diabetes raises your risk for developing other dangerous conditions, especially heart disease and stroke. November is National Diabetes Month, a time to raise awareness about preventing and managing diabetes and protecting yourself from its complications. Diabetes is a serious condition that happens when your body can’t make enough of a hormone called insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it has. Insulin helps your body digest sugars that come from what you eat and drink. Without enough insulin, sugar builds up in your blood. Over time, that sugar buildup damages your nerves, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes, or about 1 of every 11 people. 1 About 8 million of them don’t know they have diabetes. Another 86 million—more than 1 in 3 Americans older than 20 years—have prediabetes, a condition in which a person’s blood sugar is high, but not yet high enough to trigger diabetes.2 Most people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes are about twice as likely to die from heart disease as adults who do not have diabetes.3 Surprising Facts About Diabetes Women with diabetes have a 40% greater risk of developing heart disease and a 25% greater risk of stroke than men with diabetes do.5 Experts aren’t sure why the risk is so much greater in women with diabetes than in men with diabetes. Women’s biology may play a role: Women usually have more body fat, which can put them at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. If you are a woman with diabetes, you can take steps to control your condition and improve your chances for avoiding heart disease and stroke (see below). Almost 7 in 10 people with diabetes over age 65 will die o Continue reading >>

Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, Hyperlipidemia, And Metabolic Syndrome In Heart Failure

Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, Hyperlipidemia, And Metabolic Syndrome In Heart Failure

Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, Hyperlipidemia, and Metabolic Syndrome in Heart Failure The following are key points to remember from this American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Contributory Risk and Management of Comorbidities of Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperlipidemia, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chronic Heart Failure: There are no compelling data to justify a single blood pressure target in treating hypertension in patients with established heart failure. Paradox: Although hypertension results in the development of heart failure, once advanced systolic heart failure is manifest, lower blood pressure is associated with a worse prognosis, and higher blood pressure is associated with a better prognosis. Obesity paradox: Although obesity is well established as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and incident heart failure, obesity is not a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with established heart failure. Sibutramine and ephedra weight loss preparations may contribute to the development of heart failure and should be avoided. Small short-term studies have suggested that therapy of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure is associated with an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, dyspnea, and quality of life in systolic HF patients. Despite the epidemiological data linking worse glycemic control to greater rates of heart failure in observational studies and clinical trials, data from randomized, controlled, clinical trials of more intensive glucose control have not demonstrated a benefit in heart failure reduction with intensive glycemic control. Caution is urged for the use of thiazolidinediones in all patients with signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure. Initiation of these agents Continue reading >>

Added Sugars And Risk Factors For Obesity, Diabetes And Heart Disease

Added Sugars And Risk Factors For Obesity, Diabetes And Heart Disease

The effects of added sugars on various chronic conditions are highly controversial. Some investigators have argued that added sugars increase the risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, few randomized controlled trials are available to support these assertions. The literature is further complicated by animal studies, as well as studies which compare pure fructose to pure glucose (neither of which is consumed to any appreciable degree in the human diet) and studies where large doses of added sugars beyond normal levels of human consumption have been administered. Various scientific and public health organizations have offered disparate recommendations for upper limits of added sugar. In this article, we will review recent randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. We conclude that the normal added sugars in the human diet (for example, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup and isoglucose) when consumed within the normal range of normal human consumption or substituted isoenergetically for other carbohydrates, do not appear to cause a unique risk of obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are risk factors for cancer development at several tissues [1][2][3][4][5] and cardiovascular diseases [6][7][8][9]. Currently, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased significantly in developed countries [10]. ... Continue reading >>

Obesity, Diabetes, Heart Disease And Stroke Prevention (odhdsp) Project

Obesity, Diabetes, Heart Disease And Stroke Prevention (odhdsp) Project

Environmental strategies to promote and support healthy eating and active living Strategies to build support for healthy lifestyles, particularly for those at high risk to support diabetes, heart disease, and stroke prevention efforts Health system interventions to improve the quality of health care delivery to populations with the highest hypertension and pre-diabetes disparities Community-clinical linkages that bridge community prevention efforts with health care systems Environmental strategies are directed toward the entire adult population within the region and are implemented primarily through worksites and faith communities. Lifestyle change programs and health care systems activities specifically target: Populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes Racial/ethnic groups with significant disparities in the burden of stroke, diabetes, and obesity. Medicaid beneficiaries with uncontrolled high blood pressure Obesity management and prevention by working with partners to support healthy eating and physical activity in local communities, faith organizations, and worksites. Supporting local organizations and health care providers in heart disease and stroke prevention by promoting team-based care and quality improvement in order to prevent/manage cardiovascular disease. Providing technical assistance and support to partners in developing, implementing, and promoting policies and strategies to detect, control, and prevent diabetes Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Obesity, Diabetes And The Heart

The Relationship Between Obesity, Diabetes And The Heart

We have been told one too many times that being overweight or obese is bad, but did you know the extent of damage obesity has on your health? Obesity significantly increases your risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, and these conditions are also intimately intertwined with heart disease. For instance, an obese person’s risk of a heart attack is 3 times greater than that of a person who has a healthy weight. Obesity vs overweight Although we have been using these two words interchangeably, there is a subtle difference in their medical definitions. Obesity is a condition where a person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative impact on their health. This is different from being overweight, where the weight may come from muscle, bone, fat or body water. If you weigh at least 20% more than your ideal weight, you are considered obese. To calculate your ideal weight, health professionals have suggested using your body mass index (BMI) as a rough indicator. If your BMI is 30 or above, you are considered obese. Do keep in mind that this is a very rough gauge and having a higher than normal BMI does not necessarily mean you are unhealthy. Imagine bodybuilders! They are constantly building muscle, which means they are also putting on weight but it does not mean that their health is at stake. Obesity can happen for many different reasons, such as consuming too many calories, leading a sedentary lifestyle and getting insufficient sleep. But regardless of the reason, being obese puts one in danger of certain illnesses, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. How obesity increases your risk for type 2 diabetes People who are obese have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is also known as insulin-resistant or adult-onse Continue reading >>

Obesity, Diabetes, And Cardiovascular Diseases: A Compendium

Obesity, Diabetes, And Cardiovascular Diseases: A Compendium

Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Compendium 1Touchstone Diabetes Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 3Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 4Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 1Touchstone Diabetes Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 3Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 4Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 *Corresponding authors: Philipp E. Scherer, PhD, Touchstone Diabetes Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-8549, Tel: 214-648-8715, [email protected] . Joseph A. Hill, MD, PhD, Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-8573, Tel: 214-648-1400, [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available free at Circ Res See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Excess body weight, a burgeoning problem worldwide, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Diabetes mellitus affects more than 180 million people around the world, and the number of patients is anticipated to increase to 300 million by 2025. 1 Recent data indicate that diabetes pre Continue reading >>

Your Weight And Heart Disease

Your Weight And Heart Disease

How does my weight affect my health? Research shows that being overweight or obese can: raise your blood cholesterol levels increase your blood pressure increase your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Because these are risk factors for coronary heart disease, your weight can have a big impact on your long-term health. Even if you don't have any of these conditions, it's important to keep to a healthy weight so you don't develop them in future. What can I do to keep my heart healthy? The good news is that if you’re overweight or obese, you can reduce your risk of coronary heart disease by reaching and keeping to a healthy weight. Continue reading >>

Bioc3600 Obesity, Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease

Bioc3600 Obesity, Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease

Here are about 220 papers that I consulted when preparing these lectures. There is is no need to read them all, this list is mainly for the use of teaching staff who are maintaining this website. There should be links to all the papers that are mentioned on the slides. They are provided so that people can follow up ideas that they find interesting, and also to illuminate areas where I was particularly obscure. The links from the authors' names (or sometimes from the DOI) will often take you to the abstract, at which point you can opt to either read the full text HTML report, or alternatively download the PDF version. Abramson & Wright (2007) Are lipid-lowering guidelines evidence-based? The Lancet 369, 168169. Adams et al (2006) Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality in a Large Prospective Cohort of Persons 50 to 71 Years Old. N Engl J Med 355, 763778. Adan et al (2008) Anti-obesity drugs and neural circuits of feeding. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 29, 208-217. Ahmed (2005) Advanced glycation endproducts role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 67, 3-21. Ait-Oufella et al (2009) Cytokine network and T cell immunity in atherosclerosis. Semin Immunopathol 31, 2333. Andrews et al (2008) UCP2 mediates ghrelins action on NPY / AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals. Nature 454, 846851. Aragones et al (2008) Oxygen Sensors at the Crossroad of Metabolism. Cell Metabolism 9, 1122. Ashall et al (2009) Pulsatile Stimulation Determines Timing and Specificity of NF-B-Dependent Transcription. Science 324, 242246. Ashcroft (2006) K-ATP channels and insulin secretion: a key role in health and disease. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34, 243-246. Avruch et al (2009) Amino acid regulation of TOR complex 1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296, 592602. Ba Continue reading >>

Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, And Heart Failure–free Survival

Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, And Heart Failure–free Survival

Graphical abstract Download figure Open in new tab Download powerpoint Abstract Objectives This study was designed to quantify the relationship between the absence of heart failure risk factors in middle age and incident heart failure, heart failure-free survival, and overall survival. Background Quantification of years lived free from heart failure in the context of risk factor burden in mid-life may improve risk communication and prevention efforts. Methods We conducted a pooled, individual-level analysis sampling from communities across the United States as part of 4 cohort studies: the Framingham Heart, Framingham Offspring, Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry, and ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) studies. Participants with and without hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or treatment), obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), or diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or treatment), and combinations of these factors, at index ages of 45 years and 55 years through 95 years. Competing risk-adjusted Cox models, a modified Kaplan-Meier estimator, and Irwin’s restricted mean were used to estimate the association between the absence of risk factors at mid-life and incident heart failure, heart failure-free survival, and overall survival. Results For participants at age 45 years, over 516,537 person-years of follow-up, 1,677 incident heart failure events occurred. Men and women with no risk factors, compared to those with all 3, had 73% to 85% lower risks of incident heart failure. Men and women without hypertension, obesity, or diabetes at age 45 years lived on average 34.7 years and 38.0 years without incident heart failure, and they lived on average an additional 3 years to 15 years longer free of heart failure than those with 1, 2, Continue reading >>

Obesity And Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease And Type 2 Diabetes: Investigating The Role Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behaviour In Mid-life In The 1958 British Cohort

Obesity And Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease And Type 2 Diabetes: Investigating The Role Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behaviour In Mid-life In The 1958 British Cohort

Highlights • We studied obesity, physical activity and TV-viewing associations with CVD biomarkers. • Obesity and TV-viewing were associated with a poorer CVD profile. • TV-viewing associations with HbA1c were stronger in the obese than non-obese. • Physical activity had a greater protective association with HbA1c in obese men. • Findings suggest that the obese will benefit most from less TV and more activity. Abstract A key public health priority is to minimise obesity-related health consequences. We aim to establish whether physical activity (PA) or less sedentary behaviour ameliorate associations of obesity with biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Data on obesity (33 y), PA (42 y), TV-viewing and health biomarkers (45 y) are from the 1958 British birth cohort (N = 9377). Obesity was associated with an adverse biomarker profile for CVD and type 2 diabetes. For PA, men active ≥1/week had 1.09% (0.28, 1.90) lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than less active men; triglycerides were 2.08% (0.52, 3.64) lower per unit higher PA (on 4-point scale). TV-viewing was independently associated with several biomarkers, e.g. per unit higher TV-viewing (on 4-point scale) DBP was raised by 0.50% (0.09, 0.90) and triglycerides by 3.61% (1.58, 5.64). For both TV-viewing and PA, associations with HbA1c were greatest for the obese (pinteraction ≤ 0.04): compared to a reference value of 5.20 HbA1c% in non-obese men viewing 0–1 h/day, HbA1c% differed little for those viewing >3 h/day; among obese men HbA1c% was 5.36 (5.22, 5.51) and 5.65 (5.53, 5.76), for 0–1 and >3 h/day respectively. For PA in non-obese men, the reduction associated with activity ≥1/week was negligible compared to a reference value of 5.20 HbA1c% for those less active; b Continue reading >>

Obesity And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease In Children And Adolescents

Obesity And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease In Children And Adolescents

Obesity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Children and Adolescents Departments of Preventive Medicine and Physiology & Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033 Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Michael I. Goran, Ph.D., Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, 1540 Alcazar Street, Room 208-D, Los Angeles, California 90033. Search for other works by this author on: Departments of Preventive Medicine and Physiology & Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033 Search for other works by this author on: Departments of Preventive Medicine and Physiology & Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033 Search for other works by this author on: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 88, Issue 4, 1 April 2003, Pages 14171427, Michael I. Goran, Geoff D. C. Ball, Martha L. Cruz; Obesity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Children and Adolescents, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 88, Issue 4, 1 April 2003, Pages 14171427, Overweight/obesity continues to increase in children and adolescents, and annual obesity-related hospital costs in 617 yr olds have reached $127 million per year. Overweight children and adolescents are now being diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, and they show early signs of the insulin resistance syndrome and cardiovascular risk. Several risk factors have been identified as contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk in youth. These factors include increased body fat and abdominal fat, insu Continue reading >>

Obesity Information

Obesity Information

People with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher are considered obese. The term “obesity” is used to describe the health condition of anyone significantly above his or her ideal healthy weight. Don’t be discouraged by the term. It simply means you are 20% or more above your ideal weight, and you are not alone. Nearly 70% of American adults are either overweight or obese. Being obese puts you at a higher risk for health problems such as heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and more. Obesity statistics Almost 13 million (16.9%) of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 are obese. Nearly one in three (31.8%) U.S. children (23.9 million) ages 2 to 19 are overweight or obese. More than one-third (about 35%) of U.S. adults are obese (more than 78 million adults). Your healthiest weight Everyone needs a goal and positive reasons to achieve that goal. Even losing a few pounds can provide you with cardiovascular benefits, so every step in the right direction is a step toward healthier living. Consider these reasons to work toward maintaining a healthy weight. When your weight is in a healthy range: Your body more efficiently circulates blood. Your fluid levels are more easily managed. You are less likely to develop diabetes, heart disease, certain cancers and sleep apnea. Obesity is defined simply as too much body fat. Your body is made up of water, fat, protein, carbohydrate and various vitamins and minerals. If you have too much fat — especially around your waist — you're at higher risk for health problems, including high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. Being obese can: raise blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. lower "good" HDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is linked with lower heart disease and stroke risk, so low LDL tends to raise Continue reading >>

Obesity And Diabetes By Middle Age Tied To Heart Failure Later On

Obesity And Diabetes By Middle Age Tied To Heart Failure Later On

Obesity and diabetes by middle age tied to heart failure later on Facebook 0 Twitter 0 livefyre Email Print People who reach middle age without developing high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity may have a lower risk of heart failure later in life, a recent study suggests. Obesity, diabetes and hypertension can lead to structural changes in the heart that increase the stiffness of the muscle and reduce its ability to contract forcefully. These structural and functional changes in the muscle reduce the ability to circulate blood, which can lead to heart failure. Compared to people with all three risk factors - high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity - adults who had none of these health problems by age 45 were 73 percent less likely to develop heart failure over the rest of their lifetime, the study found. And when people reached 55 without any of these three risk factors, they were 83 percent less likely to develop heart failure than adults who did have these problems. "Preventing the onset of obesity, hypertension and diabetes will substantially lower a person's risk for heart failure and substantially increase the average number of years they will live healthy," said senior study author Dr. John Wilkins of Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. "The benefits of preventing the onset of the risk factors themselves often far exceeds the benefits experienced through treatment of the risk factors after they've developed," Wilkins added by email. Approximately 5.7 million adults in the United States currently suffer from heart failure, researchers note in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Heart Failure. This population faces a significantly reduced quality of life and higher mortality rates. Hypertension, obesity and diabetes ar Continue reading >>

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