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Normal Sugar Levels For Diabetics

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Diabetes is an ancient disease, but the first effective drug therapy was not available until 1922, when insulin revolutionized the management of the disorder. Insulin is administered by injection, but treatment took another great leap forward in 1956, when the first oral diabetic drug was introduced. Since then, dozens of new medications have been developed, but scientists are still learning how best to use them. And new studies are prompting doctors to re-examine a fundamental therapeutic question: what level of blood sugar is best? Normal metabolism To understand diabetes, you should first understand how your body handles glucose, the sugar that fuels your metabolism. After you eat, your digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars that are small enough to be absorbed into your bloodstream. Glucose is far and away the most important of these sugars, and it's an indispensable source of energy for your body's cells. But to provide that energy, it must travel from your blood into your cells. Insulin is the hormone that unlocks the door to your cells. When your blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the beta cells of your pancreas spring into action, pouring insulin into your blood. If you produce enough insulin and your cells respond normally, your blood sugar level drops as glucose enters the cells, where it is burned for energy or stored for future use in your liver as glycogen. Insulin also helps your body turn amino acids into proteins and fatty acids into body fat. The net effect is to allow your body to turn food into energy and to store excess energy to keep your engine running if fuel becomes scarce in the future. A diabetes primer Diabetes is a single name for a group of disorders. All forms of the disease develop when the pancreas is unable to Continue reading >>

Pregnancy And Diabetes: When And Why Your Blood Sugar Levels Matter Most

Pregnancy And Diabetes: When And Why Your Blood Sugar Levels Matter Most

The following is an excerpt from the book Pregnancy with Type 1 Diabetes by Ginger Vieira and Jennifer Smith, CDE & RD There are two things you can definitely expect will be said to you by total strangers, friends, and several family members because you have diabetes: “Doesn’t that mean your baby will be huge?” “So, is your baby probably going to get diabetes, too?” Both questions are rather rude–sure–but both implications are also very far from accurate. Yes: persistent high blood sugars during pregnancy can lead to a larger baby…but people without diabetes have very large babies, too. And people with diabetes have good ol’ fashioned regularly sized babies, too. There is no way to assure the size of a baby at birth. Skinny women can have huge babies just like an overweight woman can give birth to a very small baby. Women who eat a lot during pregnancy can have small babies! Very little of this is in our control. In the end, you can manage your diabetes extremely tightly and still have a larger than average baby because blood sugar control is not the only thing that impacts the size of your baby at birth, and more importantly, a larger baby is not the only or even most important complication a baby can experience due to mom’s elevated blood sugar levels. No: just because you have diabetes definitely does not mean your baby will have diabetes! And guess what, there’s nothing you can do during pregnancy to prevent or reduce your baby’s risk of developing diabetes…at least not that science and research is aware of at this time. So take a very deep breath, mama, because that is not something you can control, and your baby’s risk of developing type 1 diabetes is actually only about 2 percent higher than the risk of a non-diabetic woman’s baby de Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetes: Blood Sugar Levels

Topic Overview Keeping your blood sugar in a target range reduces your risk of problems such as diabetic eye disease (retinopathy), kidney disease (nephropathy), and nerve disease (neuropathy). Some people can work toward lower numbers, and some people may need higher goals. For example, some children and adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, people who have severe complications from diabetes, people who may not live much longer, or people who have trouble recognizing the symptoms of low blood sugar may have a higher target range. And some people, such as those who are newly diagnosed with diabetes or who don't have any complications from diabetes, may do better with a lower target range. Work with your doctor to set your own target blood sugar range. This will help you achieve the best control possible without having a high risk of hypoglycemia. Diabetes Canada (formerly the Canadian Diabetes Association) suggests the following A1c and blood glucose ranges as a general guide. Women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who become pregnant 2 A1c: 7.0% or less (or as close to 7.0% as possible) Blood glucose: Fasting and before meals: Less than 5.3 mmol/L 1 hour after meals: Less than 7.8 mmol/L 2 hours after meals: Less than 6.7 mmol/L Continue reading >>

How Do Blood Glucose Levels Relate To Diabetes?

How Do Blood Glucose Levels Relate To Diabetes?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV Research has shown that maintaining blood glucose levels within an acceptable range can lower and delay your risk for complications. You and your physician must decide together what blood glucose levels are achievable for you, based upon your age, abilities, medical status, personal needs, and any other special circumstances. The current acceptable blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) are as follows: Fasting/pre-meal: between 80 and 130 mg/dL One to two hours after meal: below 180 mg/dL It is important to remember that the purpose of your blood glucose readings is to let you know how close you are to your target range. Try not to label your readings as either "bad" or "good"; instead, think of them as indicators that describe (a) which aspects of your treatment are working for you and (b) which aspects need to be changed. Personal Stories Vivian: Living with Diabetes and Visual Impairment Vivian was diagnosed with diabetes twenty years ago, at age 58. Ten years later, she was diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy and spinal stenosis. She talks about how she is living and coping with her diabetes and some of the tools and techniques she uses. Continue reading >>

* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?

* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?

Normal blood sugars after a high carbohydrate breakfast eaten at 7:30 AM. The blue line is the average for the group. The brown lines show the range within which most readings fell (2 standard deviations). Bottom lines show Insulin and C-peptide levels at the same time. Click HERE if you don't see the graph. Graph is a screen shot from Dr. Christiansen's presentation cited below. The term "blood sugar" refers to the concentration of glucose, a simple, sugar, that is found in a set volume of blood. In the U.S. it is measured in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dl. In most of the rest of the world it is measured in millimoles per liter, abbreviated as mmol/L. The concentration of glucose in our blood changes continually throughout the day. It can even vary significantly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can rise dramatically. When you exercise it will often drop. The blood sugar measures that doctors are most interested in is the A1c, discussed below. When you are given a routine blood test doctors usually order a fasting glucose test. The most informative blood sugar reading is the post-meal blood sugar measured one and two hours after eating. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement as it is time consuming and hence expensive. Rarely doctors will order a Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, which tests your response to a huge dose of pure glucose, which hits your blood stream within minutes and produces results quite different from the blood sugars you will experience after each meal. Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Fasting blood sugar is usually measured first thing in the morning before you have eaten any food. A truly normal fasting blood sugar (which is also the blood sugar a norm Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hyperglycemia in Dogs A dog with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood is said to have hyperglycemia. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a key role in maintaining normal sugar levels. Low levels or absolute deficiency of insulin results in abnormally high blood sugar levels. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female dogs; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older dogs are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, and it is more common in female dogs than in males. Any breed can be affected, but some smaller breeds appear to be more disposed, including beagles, cairn terriers, dachshunds, miniature poodles and schnauzers. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your dog may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-healing wounds;infection is increased as the excess sugar feeds fungal and bacterial invaders Tissue damage (due to oxidizing [burning] effect of the excess sugar in the tissue) Causes Other than high stress situations, harmful drug interactions (such as with he Continue reading >>

What To Expect With Gestational Diabetes

What To Expect With Gestational Diabetes

Blood glucose control is key to having a healthy baby A diagnosis of gestational diabetes can cast a shadow over the joys of pregnancy. While the vast majority of these cases end with a healthy baby and mom, gestational diabetes (high blood glucose during pregnancy in a woman who has never had type 1 or type 2 diabetes) does increase risks to the health of both baby and mother. Keeping blood glucose under control is crucial for women with gestational diabetes to help safeguard their babies and themselves. Gestational diabetes is caused by issues that arise as part of a normal pregnancy: hormonal changes and weight gain. Women whose bodies can't compensate for these changes by producing enough of the hormone insulin, which ushers glucose from the blood into cells to produce energy, develop high blood glucose and gestational diabetes. Overweight mothers are at a greater risk for the condition. In the United States, gestational diabetes is reported in somewhere between 2 and 10 percent of pregnancies, but it is now believed that the condition affects 18 percent of women in pregnancy. The larger number is the result of new criteria for diagnosis, not just skyrocketing rates. The American Diabetes Association began recommending this year that gestational diabetes be diagnosed with only one abnormal test result rather than two, the previous method, and this is causing more cases to be detected. Gestational diabetes usually appears roughly halfway through pregnancy, as the placenta puts out large amounts of "anti-insulin" hormones. Women without known diabetes should be screened for gestational diabetes 24 to 28 weeks into their pregnancies. (If high blood glucose levels are detected earlier in pregnancy, the mother-to-be may actually have type 2 diabetes, rather than gestati Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Do Blood Sugar Levels Need To Be Lowered To Near-normal Levels?

Type 2 Diabetes: Do Blood Sugar Levels Need To Be Lowered To Near-normal Levels?

People with type 2 diabetes can prevent complications by keeping their blood sugar levels permanently low. Lowering them to near-normal levels is often recommended. However, studies show that lowering your blood sugar too much can also have disadvantages. Experts agree that it is generally helpful for people with type 2 diabetes to lower their blood sugar levels. However, there is still debate about how low it should be. On the one hand the aim is to prevent diabetes-related complications, but on the other hand avoid side effects of the treatment. Doctors measure HbA1c values to see how well blood sugar levels are regulated over the longer term. That reading shows the average blood sugar level over the last two to three months. In people who do not have diabetes the HbA1c value is usually below 6%. People with diabetes are often recommended to lower their blood sugar to an HbA1c value of below 6.5%. Other recommendations aim at levels between 6.5 and 7.5% or even higher in some cases. The target level depends on various factors including the age of the people affected and any other illnesses they may have. In older people who do not have any typical diabetes symptoms, a higher value is more tolerable than in younger people with type 2 diabetes. As a side effect of the treatment with medication, blood sugar can drop so low that it leads to hypoglycemia. Episodes of mild hypoglycemia are associated with symptoms like trembling, suddenly feeling very hungry, sweating or a tingling sensation in your fingers and lips. You can usually treat it yourself by eating or drinking something sweet. Severe hypoglycemia is less common, but it can lead to confusion and drowsiness, seizures, breathing and circulation problems, and other complications, some of which are life-threatening. Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Chart

Blood Sugar Chart

This blood sugar chart shows normal blood glucose levels before and after meals and recommended HbA1c levels for people with and without diabetes. BLOOD SUGAR CHART Fasting Normal for person without diabetes 70–99 mg/dl (3.9–5.5 mmol/L) Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes 80–130 mg/dl (4.4–7.2 mmol/L) 2 hours after meals Normal for person without diabetes Less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes Less than 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/L) HbA1c Normal for person without diabetes Less than 5.7% Official ADA recommendation for someone with diabetes 7.0% or less Interested in learning more? Read about normal blood glucose numbers, getting tested for Type 2 diabetes and using blood sugar monitoring to manage diabetes. Disclaimer Statements: Statements and opinions expressed on this Web site are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the publishers or advertisers. The information provided on this Web site should not be construed as medical instruction. Consult appropriate health-care professionals before taking action based on this information. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Levels – Normal Range

Blood Glucose Levels – Normal Range

It is important that those of us with diabetes are able to keep our blood glucose levels within target ranges. Research shows that getting blood glucose under control helps to decrease the likelihood of developing diabetes complications and improve overall quality of life. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy individuals, normal blood sugar levels are as follows: Normal blood glucose level in humans is about 70 to 109 mg/dL (3.9 to 6.0 mmol/L) Shortly after a meal the blood glucose level may rise temporarily up to 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) For non-pregnant adults with diabetes, blood sugar level targets are as follows: Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dL (4.4 to 7.2 mmol/L) After meals: under 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) Target levels The following table details the target blood glucose levels for people with diabetes, as recommended under guidelines set by the American Diabetes Association. Also included are the expected blood glucose values for people without diabetes, drawn from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Test Adults (non-pregnant) Children Blood glucose levels before meals 80 to 130 mg/dL 80 to 130 mg/dL Blood glucose levels after meals Under 180 mg/dL Under 180 mg/dL HbA1c 7.0% 7.5% eAG 154 mg/dL 169 mg/dL Note: Individual targets set by your healthcare team should take precedence over those in the table above. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high levels of glucose in the bloodstream which leads to hyperglycemia if untreated. It is strongly linked to obesity and unhealthy lifestyle habits such as lack of physical activity, poor diet and smoking. How common is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common form of diabetes mellitus, accounting for roughly 90% of all cases of diabetes. It Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

Blood sugar, or glucose, is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to your body's organs, muscles and nervous system. The body gets glucose from the food you eat, and the absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas. Normal blood sugar varies from person to person, but a normal range for fasting blood sugar (the amount of glucose in your blood six to eight hours after a meal) is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter. For most individuals, the level of glucose in the blood rises after meals. A normal blood-sugar range after eating is between 135 and 140 milligrams per deciliter. These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, are normal and reflect the way that glucose is absorbed and stored in the body. After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which can be absorbed by the small intestine. As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis). This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy blood-sugar levels between meals. When glucose levels drop between meals, the body takes some much-needed sugar out of storage. The process is kicked off by the pancreas, which releases a hormone known as glucagon, which promotes the conversion of stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver back to glucose. The glucose is then released into the bloodstream. When there isn't enough glucose stored up to maintain normal blood-sugar levels, the body will even produce its own glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (such as amino acids and glycerol). This pro Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Blood Sugar In People Over 60?

What Is Normal Blood Sugar In People Over 60?

Age isn’t a factor when it comes to determining a safe blood sugar level. However, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes does increase with age. Diabetes is a condition that occurs when blood sugar levels rise because the body can’t use a type of sugar called glucose normally. If you’re overweight and over age 45, the American Diabetes Association recommends being tested for diabetes during your next routine medical exam. If your weight is normal and you're over 45, ask your doctor if testing is appropriate. Video of the Day Glucose is the body’s main source of energy, and glucose levels in the blood are regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes occurs if the pancreas doesn’t make any or enough insulin. In the far more common type 2 diabetes, the body doesn’t respond normally to insulin secretions. Both children and adults can suffer from diabetes. Symptoms include extreme thirst, increased urination and unexplained weight loss. To test if you have high blood sugar or might be at risk of developing diabetes, you can take a fasting glucose test, or FGT, or an oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT. You need to fast overnight before taking either test. With the FGT test, blood glucose is measured first thing in the morning before eating. With the OGTT test, blood glucose is measured after fasting and two hours after drinking a glucose-rich drink. Your fasting blood glucose level is considered normal if it’s below 100 milligrams per deciliter. You’re considered borderline diabetic if your blood sugar is between 100 and 125 mg/dL. If you measure 126 mg/dL or more on two different days, you have diabetes. Without testing, you might not even be aware that your blood sugar is higher than normal, but treatment is important. Continue reading >>

What Are The Expected Glucose Levels In Normal And Stz Induced Diabetic Rats?

What Are The Expected Glucose Levels In Normal And Stz Induced Diabetic Rats?

What are the expected glucose levels in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats?What level should we expect for the rats to be considered diabetic? Continue reading >>

Understanding Blood Glucose (blood Sugar)

Understanding Blood Glucose (blood Sugar)

Print Blood sugar—knowing what affects it, and what to do when it’s too low or too high—is at the heart of diabetes management. What is blood glucose? Glucose is an essential source of energy for the body. Our bodies make it, but mostly it comes from the food we eat (for more information, see Food and type 1 diabetes). Glucose is important because: It can be quickly turned into energy. The brain and nerves need a constant supply. Your blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood at a given point in time. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas that keeps blood glucose levels in a healthy range. Insulin allows the glucose from food to enter the body’s cells, where it can be used for energy. When someone has type 1 diabetes, their pancreas does not produce insulin. Without insulin, blood sugar will eventually rise to dangerously high levels. So people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin several times a day, either by injection or through an insulin pump. The amount of insulin a person needs depends on how much food they eat, their activity levels, their age and size, and other factors. Insulin doses may vary from day to day. For more detail, see Insulin: What school staff need to know. What is a typical blood sugar level? In Canada, blood sugar levels are measured in mmol/L (millimoles per litre). A person who doesn’t have diabetes usually has a blood sugar level somewhere between 3.5 mmol/L and 7.8 mmol/L, depending on when they last ate. Diabetes is diagnosed when someone’s blood sugar is greater than 11 mmol/L. People with type 1 diabetes have a “target range” for their blood sugar level. The range is determined with their health care team. Typically, a target range will be between: 6 to 10 mmol/L for children Continue reading >>

Is My Blood Sugar Normal?

Is My Blood Sugar Normal?

“Is my blood sugar normal?” seems like a simple question – but it’s not! The answer can vary dramatically based on your situation. Let’s look at some of the factors to consider. Please remember: you should figure out your personal goals in consultation with your doctor. Normal Blood Sugar in Diabetic vs. Non-Diabetic First, a quick note on how we measure blood sugar. In the USA, blood sugars are measured by weight in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dL. Most everyone else uses millimole per liter, abbreviated mmol. If you are in the USA, look at the big numbers, most everyone else look at the small numbers. In a person without diabetes, blood sugars tend to stay between 70 and 100 mg/dL (3.8 and 5.5 mmol). After a meal, blood sugars can rise up to 120 mg/dL or 6.7 mmol. It will typically fall back into the normal range within two hours. In a person with diabetes, the story is much more complex: Below 70 mg/dL Below 3.8 mmol Low Blood Sugars (Hypoglycemia). When blood sugars drop below this level, you may start feeling hunger, shakiness, or racing of the heart. Your body is starved for sugar (glucose). Read how to detect and treat low blood sugars. 70 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL 3.8 mmol to 7.7 mmol Normal Blood Sugar. In this range, the body is functioning normally. In someone without diabetes, the vast majority of the time is spent in the lower half of this range. 140 mg/dL to 180 mg/dL 7.7 mmol to 10 mmol Elevated Blood Sugars. In this range, the body can function relatively normally. However, extended periods of time in this zone put you at risk for long-term complications. Above 180 mg/dL Abovoe 10 mmol High Blood Sugars. At this range, the kidney is unable to reabsorb all of the glucose in your blood and you begin to spill glucose in your urine. Your bo Continue reading >>

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