Checking Blood Glucose In Newborn Babies
Healthy full-term babies do not need blood glucose checks. Blood glucose is checked with just a few drops of blood, usually taken from your baby’s heel. The most natural way to feed your baby and keep a normal blood glucose level is early and frequent breastfeeding. What is blood glucose? Blood glucose is a sugar that moves through the bloodstream and provides energy to all the cells in the body. It is one of your baby’s most important sources of energy. Babies with normal blood glucose levels have all the energy they need for healthy growth and development. However, in rare cases, blood glucose levels can fall too low and cause a baby to become sick. Where do babies get glucose? Babies get glucose through the placenta and umbilical cord while in their mother’s uterus (womb). Some of that glucose is used right away as energy and some is stored for after birth. This stored glucose helps keep your baby’s levels normal for the first few days of life until she is feeding well. Once mom’s breast milk is established (usually by a baby’s third day of life), it becomes the main source of sugar for your baby. The sugar in milk changes to glucose in the body. When this happens, your baby will also start to store glucose for use between feeds. Why do some babies have low blood glucose? In healthy full-term babies (babies born after 37 weeks), blood glucose levels are at their lowest 1 to 2 hours after birth. After this, the levels usually start to rise as your baby’s body starts to use healthy sugar and fat stores. Small and preterm (early) babies may not have enough stores to keep the level up without extra feedings. These babies are most at risk for low blood glucose in the first 36 hours of life. Babies whose mothers have diabetes (especially mothers who need insu Continue reading >>
- Can a Newborn Baby Have Diabetes from Mother?
- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
- Exercise and Glucose Metabolism in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: Perspectives on the Role for Continuous Glucose Monitoring
What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>
Can You Have Low Blood Sugar With Type 2 Diabetes?
back to Overview Know-how Type 2 A tag-team approach on low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes. Markus recently wrote an article on our German language blog talking about low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes. The question (“can I have low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes?”) is very common, and it’s easy to see why it’s of concern. So I’ve helped Markus bring his German post to life here in English. I hope it helps! Here’s Markus: Low blood sugar In 2014, results from the DAWN2 study were announced. It was the largest study of its kind (15,000 participants) on the “fears & needs of people with diabetes and their families.” One result stood out: The gravest fears are related to low blood sugars, especially at night. Up to 69% of the participants share this fear! So! Can you have low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes? Yes! Of course! But let’s think about who exactly is at risk – and why. It’s common to think: Type 1 diabetes = at risk for lows Type 2 diabetes = not at risk for lows But that isn’t correct at all, so we should wipe it from our mind. So… what do I need to know? Maybe it’s more accurate to say that people with type 2 diabetes who take certain types of medication are more at risk for lows. We’re getting closer! But to get to the truth, we should take a look at someone without diabetes. Is it possible for them to have lows, too? Theoretically yes, especially if doing long-lasting physical activities without proper food intake. Additionally, extreme stress and binge drinking are also common causes of low blood sugar for people without diabetes. However, it’s pretty rare because as soon as BG’s drop below 80 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/L), the natural counterregulatory system kicks in, raising blood sugar back to normal levels. I’ve never exp Continue reading >>
When Your “normal” Blood Sugar Isn’t Normal (part 1)
In the next two articles we’re going to discuss the concept of “normal” blood sugar. I say concept and put normal in quotation marks because what passes for normal in mainstream medicine turns out to be anything but normal if optimal health and function are what you’re interested in. Here’s the thing. We’ve confused normal with common. Just because something is common, doesn’t mean it’s normal. It’s now becoming common for kids to be overweight and diabetic because they eat nothing but refined flour, high-fructose corn syrup and industrial seed oils. Yet I don’t think anyone (even the ADA) would argue that being fat and metabolically deranged is even remotely close to normal for kids. Or adults, for that matter. In the same way, the guidelines the so-called authorities like the ADA have set for normal blood ￼sugar may be common, but they’re certainly not normal. Unless you think it’s normal for people to develop diabetic complications like neuropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease as they age, and spend the last several years of their lives in hospitals or assisted living facilities. Common, but not normal. In this article I’m going to introduce the three markers we use to measure blood sugar, and tell you what the conventional model thinks is normal for those markers. In the next article, I’m going to show you what the research says is normal for healthy people. And I’m also going to show you that so-called normal blood sugar, as dictated by the ADA, can double your risk of heart disease and lead to all kinds of complications down the road. The 3 ways blood sugar is measured Fasting blood glucose This is still the most common marker used in clinical settings, and is often the only one that gets tested. The fasting blood glucose Continue reading >>
Blood Glucose Monitoring
The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance about blood glucose monitoring at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). When performing blood glucose monitoring, staff should be trained in both the theoretical and practical aspects, including the use of the glucose measuring device and instruction of quality control (Campbell 2008)(Rationale 1 and 2). A normal blood glucose level is between approximately 4-7mmol/L (Gilbert 2009, Hanas 2015). Certain conditions/disorders work within different parameters as dictated by local policies and/or condition specific, e.g. congenital hyperinsulinism (Hussain et al 2007) (Rationale 3). Staff should report blood glucose levels in mmol/L rather than describing the level as high or low (Rationale 4). Standard monitoring Blood glucose monitoring should commence within one hour of starting IV glucose of 10 per cent or higher. For neonates, this applies to any concentration of glucose including five per cent and must continue to be measured four hourly if within normal range of 4-7mmol/L and more frequently if outside this range (National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) 2010). Refer to Medicine administration policy [available to GOSH staff internally on the document library]. In exceptional circumstances, the clinician responsible for the child’s care may decide that an individualised clinical management plan is required. The rationale for this, together with the detailed clinical management plan, must be documented in the child’s health care record and reviewed daily. If there is a requirement to reduce or increase the IV glucose concentration or the rate of administration, blood glucose monitoring should also occur within one hour of the changes (NPSA 2010). If a child is symptomatic of hypo or hyperglycaemia and has normal bloo Continue reading >>
Glycohemoglobin (hba1c, A1c)
A A A Test Overview Glycohemoglobin (A1c) is a blood test that checks the amount of sugar (glucose) bound to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells. When hemoglobin and glucose bond, a coat of sugar forms on the hemoglobin. That coat gets thicker when there's more sugar in the blood. A1c tests measure how thick that coat has been over the past 3 months, which is how long a red blood cell lives. People who have diabetes or other conditions that increase their blood glucose levels have more glycohemoglobin than normal. An A1c test can be used to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes. The A1c test checks the long-term control of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Most doctors think checking an A1c level is the best way to check how well a person is controlling his or her diabetes. A home blood glucose test measures the level of blood glucose only at that moment. Blood glucose levels change during the day for many reasons, including medicine, diet, exercise, and the level of insulin in the blood. It is useful for a person who has diabetes to have information about the long-term control of blood sugar levels. The A1c test result does not change with any recent changes in diet, exercise, or medicines. Glucose binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells at a steady rate. Since red blood cells last 3 to 4 months, the A1c test shows how much glucose is in the plasma part of blood. This test shows how well your diabetes has been controlled in the last 2 to 3 months and whether your diabetes treatment plan needs to be changed. The A1c test can also help your doctor see how big your risk is of developing problems from diabetes, such as kidney failure, vision problems, and leg or foot numbness. Keeping your A1c level in your target range can lower your chance for problems. Why It Is Continue reading >>
This information describes diabetes, the complications related to the disease, and how you can prevent these complications. Blood Sugar Control Diabetes is a disease where the blood sugar runs too high, usually due to not enough insulin. It can cause terrible long-term complications if it is not treated properly. The most common serious complications are blindness ("retinopathy"), kidney failure requiring dependence on a dialysis machine to stay alive ("nephropathy"), and foot and leg amputations. The good news is that these complications can almost always be prevented if you keep your blood sugar near the normal range. The best way to keep blood sugar low is to eat a healthy diet and do regular exercise. Just 20 minutes of walking 4 or 5 times a week can do wonders for lowering blood sugar. Eating a healthy diet is also very important. Do your best to limit the number of calories you eat each day. Put smaller portions of food on your plate and eat more slowly so that your body has a chance to let you know when it's had enough to eat. It is also very important to limit saturated fats in your diet. Read food labels carefully to see which foods are high in saturated fats. Particular foods to cut down on are: whole milk and 2% milk, cheese, ice cream, fast foods, butter, bacon, sausage, beef, chicken with the skin on (skinless chicken is fine), doughnuts, cookies, chocolate, and nuts. Often, diet and exercise alone are not enough to control blood sugar. In this case, medicine is needed to bring the blood sugar down further. Often pills are enough, but sometimes insulin injections are needed. If medicines to lower blood sugar are started, it is still very important to keep doing regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. Keeping Track of Blood Sugar Checking blood sugar wi Continue reading >>
Blood Glucose Levels And Targets
Home blood glucose monitoring The aim of treatment is to try to maintain their glucose level to as near a” non -diabetic” range as possible. In general terms this means to aim towards 4 -7 mmol/l before meals, and around 8 mmol/l if testing 2 hours after meals. This can be difficult at times as you are trying to mimic what the body had previously done of its own accord, and readings may vary depending their carbohydrate intake, exercise and many other daily factors. This management takes time and practice and requires that you work closely with your doctor, diabetes nurse specialist and other members of your diabetes care team. They’ll guide you to maintain the best possible blood glucose control. It is also important that you monitor your child’s food intake, exercise and any other factors that could affect their blood glucose level. Talk to your child and make sure they know how important it is to tell you if they have had extra carbohydrates or exercise and to let you know about any thing that could affect their blood glucose levels. HbA1c This is known as the “long term test” and is performed by a medical professional. This is a measure of blood glucose control over a period of the previous approx 3 months. It is a very good indicator of overall control of their condition. Hyperglycaemia or Hypoglycaemia This can be caused by high or low glucose levels. High blood glucose levels, also know as Hyperglycaemia or Hyper You will notice that your child’s blood glucose level may be higher if they: Are not taking enough insulin Miss or forget to take insulin ( or take a lower amount in error) Eat more carbohydrate foods than usual Are less active than usual Are under stress Have an illness eg cold flu, infection (see further info re illness below) Sometimes i Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Basics
What should your blood sugar levels be? Once diagnosed with diabetes, your health care team will review your "target" blood sugar levels with you. You will likely be told to start checking your blood sugars at home using a meter. Normal blood sugar levels (i.e., people who have not been diagnosed with diabetes) are usually between 4.0 mmol/L and 8.0 mmol/L. If your blood sugars are at levels recommended by your physician or primary health care provider, then it is said that your blood sugars are "in control." For people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the recommended target blood glucose levels are: 4.0 mmol/L to 7.0 mmol/L when measuring blood glucose fasting or before eating 5.0 mmol/L to 10.0 mmol/L when measuring blood glucose 2 hours after eating (your physician or primary health care provider may recommend a range of 5.0 mmol/L to 8.0 mmol/L if you are not at your A1C target - see below) These are general recommendations - your health care provider may suggest different targets for you. In addition, pregnant women, the elderly, and children 12 years old and younger may have different targets. What is urine testing? Before the advent of home blood glucose monitors, the only way to monitor or check for high sugar levels was by urine testing. When blood sugar levels get high enough, the kidneys excrete the excess glucose into the urine. This is important, because if your blood sugar levels are high enough that the sugar "spills" into the urine, they are very high. While urine testing is no longer used to monitor blood sugar levels, it is still used to measure ketone levels (high levels are a sign of poor diabetes control) and albumin levels (a protein that, if found to be at high levels in the urine, could be a sign of kidney damage). What is an A1c test? The Continue reading >>
2017 The Nemours Foundation. All Rights Reserved.
No matter what we're doing, even during sleep, our brains depend on glucose to function. Glucose is a sugar that comes from food, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to them through the bloodstream. When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) drop too low, it's called hypoglycemia. Very low blood sugar levels can cause severe symptoms that need immediate medical treatment. Blood sugar levels in someone with diabetes are considered low when they fall below the target range. A blood sugar level slightly lower than the target range might not cause symptoms, but repeated low levels could require a change in the treatment plan to help avoid problems. The diabetes health care team will find a child's target blood sugar levels based on things like the child's age, ability to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, and the goals of the diabetes treatment plan. Low blood sugar levels are fairly common in people with diabetes. A major goal of diabetes care is to keep blood sugar levels from getting or staying too high to prevent both short- and long-term health problems. To do this, people with diabetes may use insulin and/or pills, depending on the type of diabetes they have. These medicines usually help keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range, but in certain situations, might make them drop too low. Hypoglycemia can happen at any time in people taking blood sugar-lowering medicines, but is more likely if someone: skips or delays meals or snacks or doesn't eat as much carbohydrate-containing food as expected when taking the diabetes medicine. This is common in kids who develop an illness (such as a stomach virus) that causes loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting. takes too much insulin, ta Continue reading >>
What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level For A 2-year-old Child?
Blood sugar levels are affected by various factors, including the amount of activity, the content of food consumed and how long it's been since eating or being active. A lot of activity can bring glucose levels down and eating foods that contain a high number of carbohydrates can raise blood sugar levels. For most people, the pancreas will produce the insulin hormone to balance out blood sugar levels. For a child with Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce insulin. Without insulin, blood sugar levels will continue to rise. If a person's blood sugar level is too high, he or she is at risk for ketoacidosis, which could result in coma. Glucose levels that drop below 60 mg/dL may cause fainting, disorientation and death. Learn more about Medical Ranges & Levels Continue reading >>
7 Signs You Have Low Blood Sugar
“Low blood sugar” is one of those terms we’ve all heard thrown around a bunch but probably don’t know much about. It’s understandable that you’d feel a little cranky when a last-minute work meeting or general busyness forces you to push back a meal. But how do you know if you're annoyed due to low blood sugar or if your irritability is due to regular old hanger? “This is a topic that actually comes up quite a bit for me with patients and clients,” Jessica Cording, a New York-based R.D., tells SELF. Low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia, happens when levels of your blood glucose—an important energy source for your body—drop below normal, according to the National Institutes of Health. “Because our bodies require glucose for fuel, maintaining a steady stream of blood glucose is critical to keep your body functioning,” Karen Ansel, R.D.N., co-author of The Calendar Diet: A Month by Month Guide to Losing Weight While Living Your Life, tells SELF. We get our glucose from food, which explains why someone may complain that they have low blood sugar when they haven’t eaten recently. But along with not having enough to eat, certain medications or overdoing it with alcohol can cause low blood sugar in otherwise healthy people, Ansel says. Those people may experience symptoms like feeling shaky, irritable, or weak, says Cording, who notes that people can also feel anxious, start sweating, or become confused. And people with medical conditions like diabetes or hepatitis are more likely to experience complications from low blood sugar, which can be dangerous for them, Ansel says. “If it gets really severe, you pass out because your body has no energy to do what it needs to do,” says Cording. But chances are that you don't have to worry about low b Continue reading >>
What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level
The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or an animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels (with the help of insulin that is secreted by pancreas) as a part of metabolic homeostasis. If blood sugar levels are either increased or decreased by a greater margin than expected this might indicate a medical condition. Diabetic patients must monitor their blood sugar levels as body’s inability to properly utilize and / or produce insulin can pose a serious threat to their health. Navigation: Definition: What is blood sugar? What is diabetes? Diagnosis: Diabetes symptoms Levels and indication Normal blood sugar levels Low blood sugar levels High blood sugar levels Managing: How to lower blood sugar level? Children blood sugar levels Blood sugar levels chart Checking for BS: How to check blood sugar? Treatment: How to lower blood sugar level? Can diabetes be cured? Accessories Diabetic Socks Diabetic Shoes What is blood sugar? What does it mean when someone refers to blood sugar level in your body? Blood sugar level (or blood sugar concentration) is the amount of glucose (a source of energy) present in your blood at any given time. A normal blood glucose level for a healthy person is somewhere between 72 mg/dL (3.8 to 4 mmol/L) and 108 mg/dL (5.8 to 6 mmol/L). It, of course, depends on every individual alone. Blood sugar levels might fluctuate due to other reasons (such as exercise, stress and infection). Typically blood sugar level in humans is around 72 mg/dL (or 4 mmol/L). After a meal the blood sugar level may increase temporarily up to 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L). This is normal. A blood sugar level between 72 mg/dL (4 mmol/L) and 108 mg/dL (6 mmol/L) is considered normal for a h Continue reading >>
Normal Blood Sugar Level-dilemma Of Every Diabetic
When you got diagnosed with diabetes, you may have never heard about normal blood sugar level The Blood Sugar Dilemma She was a housewife and I remember her often talking about her blood sugar. She didn’t have glucometer with her but I remember paying a visit to doctor with her every month or two. But that time, the number made no sense to me; I was very young and the boring medical terminologies were the last thing I wanted to know about. When I got diagnosed and got my numbers, I didn’t know what to interpret from it. I got my report late in the evening from the lab and it was around 300mg/dl (fasting) and with that numbers I was praying to be nondiabetic!! Most of us have still had a dilemma about normal blood sugar levels. At what time should I prick to check my sugar level? I keep my blood sugar under normal range, still, I face new complications? These questions haunt every diabetic around. And the questions get more troublesome for a parent whose child got diagnosed with diabetes recently. Imagine the difficulty of a parent whose 3-year-old child got diagnosed with type 1 diabetes; Imagine the fear of mother every time she goes for night sleep and waking up with the thought of her child low blood sugar; Imagine the plight of a child who had no choice but to be careful about everything he eats, every time he runs and every time he travels. Salute to the diabetics around who are fighting this forced condition and giving every effort to maintain normal blood sugar level Share your diagnosis story by clicking this link and I will publish on the website so that our diabetic community can benefit from it. When should I test my Blood sugar? To get more understanding about your body responds to various food, it’s advisable to test blood as follows: a. Fasting Blood Continue reading >>
Testing And Your Child
An essential part of managing your child’s diabetes is frequently testing their blood sugar levels (also known as blood glucose levels) to help avoid highs and lows – and knowing when to test for ketones. At times, this testing may be difficult – both for you and your child, especially if they’re very young. Good diabetes management is important both for your child’s day-to-day health and to help prevent any diabetes-related problems in later life. Regular testing of your child’s blood sugar level is a key part of this. Your paediatric diabetes team will give you a blood glucose meter, used to check your child’s blood sugar levels. Normally, there are a few to choose from and your diabetes team will help you and your child make the right choice. Your meter comes with a finger-pricking device and an initial supply of lancets (to take a drop of blood from the finger) and testing strips (to apply a drop of blood to, in order to get the result). Your diabetes team will also explain to you how to get further free supplies of these on prescription from your GP. Many parents worry or are anxious about testing their child’s blood sugar levels. Pricking their fingers can be painful, especially at first, and no parent wants to hurt their child. Then there’s the anxiety about what the levels will be. You’ll be told your child’s target levels to aim for, and it can be frustrating and even scary if you’re not meeting these. Wash your child’s hands. Prick the side of your child’s finger rather than the tip, as this keeps pain to a minimum. Don’t prick too near the nail and don’t prick the index finger or thumb. Devices are now available that allow you to take blood from different parts of the body, such as the base of the thumb or the arm. Talk to your Continue reading >>