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Is Glucose Normally Found In The Urine?

Urinary System Lab#2

Urinary System Lab#2

Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any good physical examination. Finding abnormal constituents in the urine may indicate pathology. What substance is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine? Normal urine is usually pale yellow to amber in color because of the presense of? T/F - Glucose can usually be found in all normal urine? Which has a greater specific gradient: 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water? why urine - it contains dissolved solutes which are not found in water. Explain the relationship between the color, specific gravity, and volume of urine. The smaller the volume the greater the specific gravity and deeper the color. Name 3 constituents that might be present if a urinary tract infection exists? How does a urinary tract infection influence urine PH? All urine specimens become alkaline and cloudy on standing at room temp. Explain presence of white blood cells in the urine What are renal calculi, and what conditions favor their formation? Glucose and protein are both normally absent in the urine, but the reason for their exclusion differs. Explain the absence of glucose. Glucose is completely reabsorbed unless present in the blood in extensive levels. Glucose and protein are both normally absent in the urine, but the reason for their exclusion differs. Protein is to large to pass through filtrate membrane retained in blood. Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize Science - The Urinary System : Revision, Page 3

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize Science - The Urinary System : Revision, Page 3

Urine is produced in microscopic structures in the kidney called nephrons. There are approximately 1 million nephrons in each kidney. The glomerulus filters blood and produces glomerular filtrate. This filtrate contains water, glucose [glucose: A simple sugar made by the body from food, which is used by cells to make energy in respiration.], salts and urea [urea: A nitrogenous waste product resulting from the breakdown of proteins. It is excreted in urine.]. Large molecules such as protein [protein: Organic compound made up of amino acid molecules. One of the three main food groups, proteins are needed by the body for cell growth and repair.] are too large to fit through the blood capillary [capillaries: Extremely narrow tubes, which carry blood around a body's tissues.] walls. The Bowman's capsule collects the filtrate and it enters the tubules. All glucose is reabsorbed immediately into the blood capillaries. As the rest of the filtrate travels through the tubules, water and salts needed by the body are reabsorbed into the blood capillaries. The loop of Henl helps maintain the correct water balance in the body by filtering out salts. The waste, consisting of excess water, excess salts and urea, is urine. The collecting duct collects the urine, which is then transported in the ureter to the bladder. The bladder stores urine until the body is ready to expel it through the urethra. This process can be summarised in three important steps: Filtration - where lots of water, ions [ion: The charged particle formed when an atom, or a group of atoms, lose or gain electrons. Ion charge helps determine a substance's acidity or alkalinity.], urea [urea: A nitrogenous waste product resulting from the breakdown of proteins. It is excreted in urine.] and sugar are squeezed from the Continue reading >>

Why Is Glucose Absent In The Urine Of A Healthy Person?

Why Is Glucose Absent In The Urine Of A Healthy Person?

Why is glucose absent in the urine of a healthy person? Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment within an organism, and maintaining a stable internal environment in a human means having to carefully regulate many parameters including glucose levels in the blood. There are two major ways homeostasis is done. One way is that signals can be sent throughout the body is through the circulatory system. These signals are transmitted by specific molecules called hormones, which are signalling molecules that travel through the circulatory system. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the cells in our bodies, but it's too big to simply diffuse into the cells by itself. Instead, it needs to be transported into the cells. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that facilitates glucose transport into cells. By facilitating glucose transport into cells from the bloodstream, insulin lowers blood glucose levels. It also inhibits glucose production from amino acids, fatty acids and glycogen. Insulin actually stimulates glycogen formation from glucose. All of these functions of insulin help to lower glucose levels in the blood in a healthy human being. Diabetes is a disease where people have trouble regulating their blood glucose. Diabetes is of two types. In type I diabetes (also known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), the immune system suddenly attacks and irreversibly destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes has several causes like genetics and lifestyle. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn't use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes. This can be hereditary. Also when your body has too many cells i.e., when y Continue reading >>

Glucose — Urine

Glucose — Urine

Definition The glucose urine test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in a urine sample. The presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria. See also: Alternative Names Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test How the test is performed A urine sample is needed. For information on collecting a urine sample, see clean catch urine specimen. Usually, the health care provider checks for glucose in the urine sample using a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The pad contains chemicals that react with glucose. What color the dipstick changes tells the provider how much glucose is in your urine. How to prepare for the test Different drugs can change the result of this test. Make sure your health care provider knows what medications you are taking. How the test will feel The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort. Why the test is performed This test is most commonly used to test for diabetes. Normal Values Glucose is not usually found in urine. If it is, further testing is needed. Normal glucose range in urine: 0 - 0.8 mmol/l (0 - 15 mg/dL) The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. What abnormal results mean Greater than normal levels of glucose may occur with: Diabetes, although blood glucose tests are needed to diagnose diabetes. Small increases in urine glucose levels after a large meal are not always a cause for concern. A rare condition in which glucose is released from the kidneys into the urine, even when blood glucose levels are normal (renal glycosuria) Pregnan Continue reading >>

Sugar In Urine

Sugar In Urine

What is sugar in urine? Sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. Normally, when blood is filtered in the kidneys, some sugar remains in the fluid that will later become urine. If the level of blood sugar is low, as is normally the case, the body can reabsorb the sugar from this fluid before it leaves the kidney to be excreted as urine. When the blood sugar is high, there is too much sugar in the fluid leaving the kidney to be reabsorbed, so some sugar passes into the urine. Sugar in the urine can be detected in the laboratory or is easy to detect at home with a urine dipstick test. Because sugar in the urine is associated with high blood sugar and diabetes, it is important to consult a physician if you suspect you have sugar in your urine. Sugar in the urine is often accompanied by other symptoms of diabetes, including fatigue, unexplained weight loss, excessive thirst or hunger, and frequent urination. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you have sugar in the urine along with more serious symptoms, including the inability to think clearly. Seek prompt medical care if your sugar in the urine is persistent or causes you concern. Continue reading >>

Glycosuria

Glycosuria

Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine. Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose from the tubular fluid back into the bloodstream. Glycosuria is nearly always caused by elevated blood glucose levels, most commonly due to untreated diabetes mellitus. Rarely, glycosuria is due to an intrinsic problem with glucose reabsorption within the kidneys (such as Fanconi syndrome), producing a condition termed renal glycosuria.[1] Glycosuria leads to excessive water loss into the urine with resultant dehydration, a process called osmotic diuresis. Alimentary glycosuria is a temporary condition, when a high amount of carbohydrate is taken, it is rapidly absorbed in some cases where a part of the stomach is surgically removed, the excessive glucose appears in urine producing glucosuria. Pathophysiology[edit] Blood is filtered by millions of nephrons, the functional units that comprise the kidneys. In each nephron, blood flows from the arteriole into the glomerulus, a tuft of leaky capillaries. The Bowman's capsule surrounds each glomerulus, and collects the filtrate that the glomerulus forms. The filtrate contains waste products (e.g. urea), electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium, chloride), amino acids, and glucose. The filtrate passes into the renal tubules of the kidney. In the first part of the renal tubule, the proximal tubule, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate, across the tubular epithelium and into the bloodstream. The proximal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose. When the blood glucose level exceeds about 160 – 180 mg/dl, the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed and begins to excrete glucose in the urine. Approximate correlation between dipstick designation and Continue reading >>

Glucose Urine Test

Glucose Urine Test

After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours. Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. Continue reading >>

Glucose In The Urine In Cats

Glucose In The Urine In Cats

Glucosuria in Cats Normally, the kidneys are able to reclaim all of the filtered glucose from the urine into the bloodstream. Glucosuria (or glycosuria) is characterized by the presence of glucose into the urine. It is nearly always due to kidney disorders, such as diabetes mellitus. Symptoms and Types Glucosuria is categorized as hyperglycemic (260–310 mg/dL ) or normoglycemic, and subcategorized as transient or persistent. Symptoms will depend on the underlying disease, but some possible signs include: Causes Hyperglycemic glucosuria Persistent Systemic disease Diabetes mellitus Lesions in the central nervous system (brain, spine, etc.) Progesterone-associated hyperglycemia Glucagonoma (tumor in the pancreas which secretes glucagon, a hormone which increases blood sugar) Chronic liver failure Etiologic agents such as heavy metal poisons, drugs, and chemicals Normoglycemic glucosuria Congenital normoglycemic glucosuria Primary renal glucosuria Congenital diseases associated with kidney dysfunction Acquired normoglycemic Glucosuria Acute kidney failure Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health to your veterinarian, including the onset and nature of the symptoms. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination as well as a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, electrolyte panel, and urinalysis to detect any underlying systemic diseases causing the glucosuria -- though often there is too little glucose present in the cat's urine to be detected. Hexokinase- or glucose dehydrogenase-based techniques are recommended for quantification of urinary glucose. Urinary Tract Stones (Struvite) in Cats Urolithiasis is a medical term referring to the presence of stones, a type of which includes struvite, in the urinary tract. While s Continue reading >>

Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?

Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?

Question: I went to my Doctor for general check up, and mentioned frequent urination, and a feeling that my bladder was full. I thought I may have urinary tract infection. Urine sample revealed sugar in urine although my blood was only 7.5 mmo/L nearly two hours after a breakfast of Special K. I am scheduled for a fasting blood sugar. I would be very grateful if you could advise me whether sugar can be present in urine for reasons other than diabetes and also if there is a link between having underactive thyroid and developing diabetes? Thank you, Answer: Hello Kate! You ask good questions and have astute observation! The most common cause of sugar in the urine, by far, is the presence of diabetes mellitus. There is other potential cause for sugar in the urine which includes the use of certain drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements; and renal glycosuria which is a rare condition in which glucose is excreted in the urine, even when blood glucose levels are normal or low, due to improper functioning of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Fasting blood glucose levels in the 5.5 to 7 mmol/L range (100 to126 mg/dl), and blood glucose levels two hours following an oral glucose tolerance test in the 7.7 to 11.11 mmol/L range (140 to 200 mg/dl) are considered Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and are indicative of Pre-Diabetes. Your blood glucose reading of 7.5 mmol/L two hours following a light meal of Special-K (most likely a lesser glucose load than a glucose tolerance test involves) would therefore raise concern that you may have Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes. And sugar in the urine is not indicative of the actual blood glucose level at time of a urine test, but rather of blood glucose levels prior to the time of sampling . . . perhaps in the early AM hours when blood g Continue reading >>

Glycosuria (glucose In Urine) Symptoms, Causes, And Potential Complications

Glycosuria (glucose In Urine) Symptoms, Causes, And Potential Complications

Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher than normal levels of sugar in the urine and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. To learn more about this condition, including symptoms, causes, and prevention strategies, as well as what normal and abnormal levels of glucose in the urine are, continue reading. Glycosuria symptoms Glycosuria may occur with a host of other symptoms, including excessive hunger, fatigue, infections, frequent urination, irritability, increased thirst, issues with vision, slower healing of wounds, tingling sensation in hands and feet, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, and in some cases, high blood sugar levels. Difference between blood glucose and glucose in urine Blood glucose is regulated by insulin produced by the pancreas, though in patients with diabetes, the insulin is not produced or processed properly meaning they may need insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar. If left unmanaged, diabetes can cause blood glucose levels to rise and some may enter into the urine. Urine glucose may not always be due to diabetes, and can be a benign symptom that sometimes accompanies pregnancy. Glucose in urine causes Some of the most common causes of glucose in the urine include: Diabetes mellitus: The excess blood glucose levels of people with unmanaged diabetes make it difficult for your kidneys to properly reabsorb the glucose and can cause it to leak into the urine. Hyperthyroidism: Excessive thyroid hormones can cause decreased absorption of glucose that is then passed out of the body through the urine. High sugar diet: Consuming excessive sugar can raise your blood glucose past the level that your kidneys can properly reabsorb, which causes some glucose to be passed into the urine. Benign glycos Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Urine Test For Sugar - Topic Overview

Diabetes: Urine Test For Sugar - Topic Overview

Sugar (glucose) normally is not found in urine. But when blood sugar levels rise well above a target range-which can occur in type 1 and type 2 diabetes-the kidneys often release some of the excess sugar from the blood into the urine. In pregnant women, the kidneys sometimes release sugar into the urine even when blood sugar levels are within a safe range. You can test urine for sugar by using plastic strips you can buy at a pharmacy. You dip a strip into a urine sample. The strip changes color to show how much sugar is in the sample. You compare the resulting color to a chart of colors. Each color indicates a level of glucose. Urine testing for sugar is not an accurate way to measure how much sugar is in your blood. So most doctors no longer recommend it for people who have diabetes. A sample of urine often is stored in your bladder for several hours before you test it. Also, because sugar does not show up in urine until it is much higher than normal in the bloodstream (180 mg/dL), urine cannot be used to check for slightly high or low blood sugar levels. Continue reading >>

Glucose In Urine

Glucose In Urine

The medical term for glucose in urine is glycosuria or glucosuria, which can be an indicator of several health conditions, including diabetes. Find out what are the factors that can cause glycosuria by going through this Buzzle write-up. Urine usually contains a very small amount of glucose. The urine of a healthy individual contains less than 0.1% glucose, which cannot be detected by the regular urine tests. Urine usually does not contain a significant amount of sugar or glucose, as the kidneys reabsorb the filtered glucose and return it to the bloodstream. Glucose can be found in urine only when the level of blood sugar rises to such an extent that it exceeds the capacity of the kidneys to reabsorb glucose. There is a renal threshold for glucose, and it is approximately 160 to 190 mg/dL. If the level of blood sugar exceeds this threshold limit, the kidneys get overwhelmed and they fail to reabsorb glucose efficiently. As a result, a significant amount of glucose can pass into the urine. This condition is medically known as glycosuria or glucosuria. The glucose present in the bloodstream is filtered by the glomeruli of the kidneys. The filtered glucose is then reabsorbed by the proximal renal tubules of the kidneys, and returned to the bloodstream. This normal process can get disrupted, when the level glucose in the bloodstream increases to such an extent that the kidneys fail to reabsorb it completely. So, they begin to spill the excess glucose into the urine. So, conditions that can cause the blood glucose level to increase significantly can lead to glycosuria. Another possible cause is an inability of the renal tubules to reabsorb glucose efficiently even when the level of blood sugar is normal. Elevated blood sugar or hyperglycemia can be caused by conditions like Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus - The Work Pays Off

Diabetes Mellitus - The Work Pays Off

DOCTOR'S VIEW ARCHIVE Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, means sweet urine. It is a chronic medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition, meaning it can last a life time. Over time, diabetes mellitus can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage. Diabetes mellitus is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart diseases, and other blood vessel diseases in the body. Diabetes mellitus affects 12 million people (6% of the population) in the United States. The direct and indirect cost of diabetes mellitus is $40 billion per year. It is the third leading cause of death in the United States after heart disease and cancer. Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication In the United States, diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of new blindness in adults, kidney failure, and amputations (not caused by injury). The lack of insulin, insufficient production of insulin, production of defective insulin, or the inability of cells to use insulin leads to elevated blood glucose (sugar) levels, referred to as hyperglycemia, and diabetes mellitus. Glucose is a simple sugar f Continue reading >>

Physiology Of The Kidneys

Physiology Of The Kidneys

Urine is formed in three steps: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Filtration involves the transfer of soluble components, such as water and waste, from the blood into the glomerulus. Reabsorption involves the absorption of molecules, ions, and water that are necessary for the body to maintain homeostasis from the glomerular filtrate back into the blood. Secretion involves the transfer of hydrogen ions, creatinine, drugs, and urea from the blood into the collecting duct, and is primarily made of water. Blood and glucose are not normally found in urine. urine: A liquid excrement consisting of water, salts, and urea, which is made in the kidneys then released through the urethra. glomerulus: A small, intertwined group of capillaries within nephrons of the kidney that filter the blood to make urine. Urine is a waste byproduct formed from excess water and metabolic waste molecules during the process of renal system filtration. The primary function of the renal system is to regulate blood volume and plasma osmolarity, and waste removal via urine is essentially a convenient way that the body performs many functions using one process. Urine formation occurs during three processes: During filtration, blood enters the afferent arteriole and flows into the glomerulus where filterable blood components, such as water and nitrogenous waste, will move towards the inside of the glomerulus, and nonfilterable components, such as cells and serum albumins, will exit via the efferent arteriole. These filterable components accumulate in the glomerulus to form the glomerular filtrate. Normally, about 20% of the total blood pumped by the heart each minute will enter the kidneys to undergo filtration; this is called the filtration fraction. The remaining 80% of the blood flows through t Continue reading >>

Urinalysis

Urinalysis

Objectives: 1) Know the normal constituents of uring (and the processes by which they become part of urine) 2) Identify and understand the significance of abnorma urine components. 3) Define specific gravity and understand the meaning of too high or too low urine specific gravity. Introduction Approximately 150 L of plasma are purified each day by glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption to produce 0.6 to 2.5 L of urine. The amount of urine produced is influenced by environmental temperature, fluid intake, time of day, emotional state, and many other factors. The composition of urine reveals much about body function. Metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide, urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium chloride, and ammonia are normally present and have no particular pathological significance. The presence of albumin (a protein), glucose, ketones, and various other substances, however, may indicate malfunction of the kidneys or some other organ of the body. In this exercise, you will have an opportunity to do some of the more routine tests that are performed in the analysis of a urine sample. For many of the tests, a Test Strip Method will be employed which utilizes specially prepared reagent test strips. These convenient test strips are designed primarily for patient use and physician office laboratories. The larger clinical laboratories generally use other methods for reasons of economy. Following a discussion of the normal constituents of urine will be a series of tests to detect the presence of abnormal substances. Students will perform the tests on their own urine sample. Normal constituents of urine Normal urine is actually a highly complex aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances. The majority of the constituents are either was Continue reading >>

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