Respiration Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose, for our cells to use to keep us functioning. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing (which is properly called ventilation). Aerobic respiration The glucose and oxygen react together in the cells to produce carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed for it to work. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) (Energy is released in the reaction. We show it in brackets in the equation because energy is not a substance.) Now we will look at how glucose and oxygen get to the cells so that respiration can take place and how we get rid of the carbon dioxide. Glucose from food to cells Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, obtained through digestion of the food we eat. Digestion breaks food down into small molecules. These can be absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Glucose is carried round the body dissolved in blood plasma, the pale yellow liquid part of our blood. The dissolved glucose can diffuse into the cells of the body from the capillaries. Once in the cell glucose can be used in respiration. Oxygen from the air to cells When we breathe in oxygen enters the small air sacs, called alveoli, in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses from there into the bloodstream. Oxygen is not carried in the plasma, but is carried by the red blood cells. These contain a red substance called haemoglobin, which joins onto oxygen and carries it around the body in the blood, then lets it go when necessary. Like glucose, oxygen can diffuse into cells from the capillaries. Red blood cells carry oxygen arou Continue reading >>
How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?
How are respiration and photosynthesis related? Question Date: 2002-09-07 Answer 1: During photosynthesis, a plant is able to convert solar energy into a chemical form. It does this by capturing light coming from the sun and, through a series of reactions, using its energy to help build a sugar molecule called glucose. Glucose is made of six carbon atoms, six oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms. When the plant makes the glucose molecule, it gets the carbon and oxygen atoms it needs from carbon dioxide, which it takes from the air. Carbon dioxide doesn't have any hydrogen in it, though, so the plant must use another source for hydrogen. The source that it uses is water. There is a lot of water on the earth, and every water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In order to take the hydrogen it needs to build glucose molecules, the plant uses the energy from the sun to break the water molecule apart, taking electrons and hydrogen from it and releasing the oxygen into the air. The electrons it takes are put into an electron transport system, where they are used to produce energy molecules called ATP that are used to build the glucose molecule-- all made possible by the sun's energy. Thus, during photosynthesis a plant consumes water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, and produces glucose and oxygen. The sugar glucose is important because it is necessary for cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, the chemical energy in the glucose molecule is converted into a form that the plant can use for growth and reproduction. In the first step of respiration, called glycolysis, the glucose molecule is broken down into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and a little energy is released in the form of ATP. This step in respiration does not req Continue reading >>
Or, How one good meal provides energy for the work of 75 trillion cells February 16-18, 2004 Every living thing is a sort of imperialist, seeking to transform as much as possible of its environment into itself... -- Bertrand Russell I. Cellular Respiration: breaking down sugar in the presence of oxygen (aerobic). Photosynthesis (you recall...) is the process by which CO2 and H2O are used to make sugars and starches. During Cellular Respiration, sugar is broken down to CO2 and H2O, and in the process, ATP is made that can then be used for cellular work. The overall reaction for cellular respiration: (does this reaction look familiar? Overall, it is the reverse reaction of photosynthesis, but chemically, the steps involved are very different.) C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------------------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP Whereas only photosynthetic cells can make sugar using photosynthesis, ALL cells need to be able to break down sugars they take in from their environment and turn it into energy to be used in cellular work.... II. Cellular respiration can be broken down into 4 stages: Essentially, sugar (C6H12O6) is burned, or oxidized, down to CO2 and H2O, releasing energy (ATP) in the process. Why do cells need ATP? ALL cellular work -all the activities of life - requires energy, either from ATP or from related molecules. A lot of oxygen is required for this process! The sugar AND the oxygen are delivered to your cells via your bloodstream. This process occurs partially in the cytoplasm, and partially in the mitochondria. The mitochondria is another organelle in eukaryotic cells. like the chloroplast, the mitochondria has two lipid bilayers around it, and its own genome (indicating that it may be the result of endosymbiosis long ago). In some ways similar to the chloroplast, the mitochondria Continue reading >>
Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration
This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>
Process Of Cellular Respiration
Of course if you didn't breathe, you couldn't survive. Why do you need air to live? You need the gas oxygen to perform cellular respiration to get energy from your food. The Process of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of extracting energy in the form of ATP from the glucose in the food you eat. How does cellular respiration happen inside of the cell? Cellular respiration is a three step process. Briefly: In stage one, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell in a process called glycolysis. In stage two, the pyruvate molecules are transported into the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the organelles known as the energy "powerhouses" of the cells (Figure below). In the mitochondria, the pyruvate, which have been converted into a 2-carbon molecule, enter the Krebs cycle. Notice that mitochondria have an inner membrane with many folds, called cristae. These cristae greatly increase the membrane surface area where many of the cellular respiration reactions take place. In stage three, the energy in the energy carriers enters an electron transport chain. During this step, this energy is used to produce ATP. Oxygen is needed to help the process of turning glucose into ATP. The initial step releases just two molecules of ATP for each glucose. The later steps release much more ATP. What goes into the cell? Oxygen and glucose are both reactants of cellular respiration. Oxygen enters the body when an organism breathes. Glucose enters the body when an organism eats. What does the cell produce? The products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide is transported from your mitochondria out of your cell, to your red blood cells, and back to your lungs to be exhaled. ATP is generated in the process. When one molecule of glu Continue reading >>
Why Is Glucose Important To Both Cellular Respiration And Fermentation?
Why is glucose important to both cellular respiration and fermentation? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: It is important in cellular respiration because it is needed for the production of pyruvate during glycolysis which is later needed in the link reactions for the production of acetyl coenzyme A which is produced via decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to give off Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen to form reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide which is needed in the respiratory chain later on. This Acetly Coenzyme A is then used via several reactions to finally form oxaloaceteate a 4 carbon compound. The purpose of these reactions is to produced reduced NAD and FAD to be used later on in the respiratory chain where ATP is produced . It is the primary item that is broken down to create the molecule ATP as a product. The energy in glucose is manipulated in many to create ATP. ATP is a molecule that can fuel many types of cellular and molecular work in your body, essential to life. I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellect Continue reading >>
Cellular Respiration is a complicated process that involves many step to convert nutrients, such as glucose, into ATP. Remember that ATP is the energy storage molecule that the cell can use. In order to give you a good understanding of cellular respiration I have compiled a few textbook chapters and articles that you should look through on your own time. You will not need to know the in-depth analysis of what happens where there isn't enough oxygen so don't worry that we haven't covered anaerobic respiration or fermentation. You will have to know that some portions of the process are limited by oxygen. The notes that we took in class are available here. You will need to know the different steps and what is created at each step of the process. You will be responsible for knowing the names of the molecules if we put the names on this diagram. Any other molecule names will not be required. You should be able to walk me through the steps of cellular respiration without these notes. Cellular respiration includes all metabolic pathways where carbohydrates and other metabolites are broken down to build up ATP. Aerobic cellular respiration includes pathways that require oxygen. Breaking glucose (a high-energy molecule) into CO2 and H2O (low-energy molecules) is an exergonic process. Upon breakdown, electrons are removed from glucose and eventually received by O2. Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced; glucose breakdown is therefore an oxidation-reduction reaction. The buildup of ATP is an endergonic reaction, it requires energy. The breakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP molecules being formed a. Aerobic cellular respiration is a gradual process that prevents energy loss as heat. b. Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate; occurs outside t Continue reading >>
Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria can trap the energy in sunlight through the process of photosynthesis and store it in the chemical bonds of carbohydrate molecules. The principal carbohydrate formed in photosynthesis is glucose. Other types of microorganisms such as nonphotosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are unable to perform this process. Therefore, these organisms must rely upon preformed carbohydrates in the environment to obtain the energy necessary for their metabolic processes. Cellular respirationis the process by which microorganisms obtain the energy available in carbohydrates. They take the carbohydrates into their cytoplasm, and through a complex series of metabolic processes, they break down the carbohydrate and release the energy. The energy is generally not needed immediately, so it is used to combine ADP with phosphate ions to form ATP molecules. During the process of cellular respiration,carbon dioxideis given off as a waste product. This carbon dioxide can be used by photosynthesizing cells to form new carbohydrates. Also in the process of cellular respiration, oxygen gas is required to serve as an acceptor of electrons. This oxygen gas is identical to the oxygen gas given off in photosynthesis. The overall mechanism of cellular respiration involves four subdivisions:glycolysis, in which glucose molecules are broken down to form pyruvic acid molecules; theKrebs cycle, in which pyruvic acid is further broken down and the energy in its molecule is used to form high-energy compounds such as NADH; theelectron transport system, in which electrons are transported along a series of coenzymes and cytochromes and the energy in the electrons is released; andchemiosmosis, in which the energy given off by electrons is used to pump protons across a mem Continue reading >>
Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (red arrows) is the main means by which both fungi and animals utilize chemical energy in the form of organic compounds that were previously created through photosynthesis (green arrow). Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to Continue reading >>
What Is The Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration?
What Is the Role of Glucose in Cellular Respiration? Cellular respiration is the process that animals use to disseminate energy. Animals are consumers, meaning that they do not create their own energy. Instead, animals get their energy from eating producers that create energy or from eating other consumers. The purpose of all this activity is to digest and break down the molecule known as glucose. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate and the primary molecular input that initially enters the process of cellular respiration. Its purpose, in this respect, is to produce the molecule ATP, the main energy storage and transfer unit of a cell. Cells need a constant flow of glucose in order to remain healthy and active. Most glucose is apprehended by the body through the digestion of complex carbohydrates. It is carried through the body by blood (which is the origin of the term "blood sugar level") and arrives at the cell so that it can enter the process of cellular respiration. In order to galvanize the production of ATP, glucose must be constantly rearranged or augmented with different atoms. The goal is to turn the glucose molecule into an appropriate package that can eventually donate atoms and particles later in the process. The constant influx of glucose creates a condition in which the process can be sustained for the life of the organism. The first major step of cellular respiration is the anaerobic (meaning that it doesn't require oxygen) process of glycolysis. Here the glucose is modified into a molecule of pyruvate, which after further modification ends up donating particles in order to fuel the production of ATP out of ADP and phosphate. At the end of the process oxygen accepts any loose particles and becomes water. The main purpose of ATP is to facilitate processes suc Continue reading >>
This "organelle" is where Glycolysis (1st Stage) takes place 6 molecules of this "waste" product are produced during the Kreb's Cycle (Stage #2) 6 molecules of this "waste" product are produced during the Electron Transport Chain (Stage #3) 6 molecules of this Reactant are brought into the body through the Respiratory System 1 molecule of this Reactant is brought into the body through the Digestive System This 1st stage of Cellular Respiration takes place in the Cytosol, does not require Oxygen and produces 2 ATP This 2nd Stage of Cellular Respiration is also known as the Citric Acid Cycle. It takes place in the Mitochondria, produces 2 ATP and 6CO2 This 3rd Stage of Cellular Respiration takes place in the Mitochondria, produces 34 ATP and 6H2O This type of energy production takes place in the Cytosol and does not require Oxygen This type of energy production takes place in the Mitochondria and requires Oxygen This "backup" plan is a type of anaerobic respiration that is used by your body when you are not taking in enough Oxygen to go through Stage 2 and 3. It only produces 2 ATP and produces Lactic Acid The substances that react to form a chemical reaction. Anything to the left of the "=" in the Chemical Equation The substances that are formed during a chemical reaction. Anything to the right side of the "=" in the Chemical Equation This body system transports Glucose and Oxygen to cells throughout your body and transports Carbon Dioxide and Water to the lungs This body system brings Oxygen to your bloodstream and Removes Carbon Dioxide and Water from your bloodstream Continue reading >>
Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis
Big Ideas Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved. In glycolysis, the 6-carbon sugar, glucose, is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules. The Krebs (or Citric Acid) cycle occurs in the mitochondria matrix and generates a pool of chemical energy (ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 ) from the oxidation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, a 2-carbon molecule. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is released and captured in the form of NADH, FADH 2 , and ATP. The electron transport chain allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD + (NADH) and reduced FAD (FADH 2 ). The energy released is captured in the form of ATP (3 ATP per NADH and 2 ATP per FADH 2 ). The electron transport chain (ETC) consists of a series of molecules, mostly proteins, embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The glucose required for cellular respiration is produced by plants. Plants go through a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis can be thought of as the opposite process of cellular respiration. Through two processes known as the light reactions and the dark reactions, plants have the ability to absorb and utilize the energy in sunlight. This energy is then converted along with water and carbon d Continue reading >>
What are the products and reactants of cellular respiration? Reactants- glucose and oxygen; products- carbon dioxide, water, and atp What is the formula for cellular respiration How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis interdependent Photosynthesis produces glucose needed for cellular respiration How do mitochondria and chloroplasts of plants cells work together Mitochondria supplies all of ATP in eukaryotic cells; chloroplasts supply glucose Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of cells; splits glucose to form pyruvate which forms acetyl COA; also makes NADPH, ATP; releases CO2 Takes place in the mitochondria; reactant is acetyl COA; goal is NADPH, FADH two; regenerates 4C acid; ATP produced What is formed in oxidative phosphorylation Takes place in the mitochondria; goal is ATP; electron transport chain and ATP synthase; electrons move down the chain as the H plus are pumped What is the purpose of electron donors? Where are most electron donor is produced? What are the electron donors of cellular respiration? Electron donor donates electrons to another compound; while it is oxidized in the process; Calvin cycle; NADH and FADH2 What is split to form pyruvate? Why is pyruvate formed? How many? Glucose; pyruvate is formed to harvest chemical energy in glycolysis; two pyruvate and two atp formed What is the purpose of acetyl COA? What is an enzyme (what is its function)? The purpose of acetyl COA is to transport carbon Atoms in the citric acid cycle; enzymes are proteins that work in a cell, and their function is to speed up the process of a reaction without being consumed in the process Where is the bulk of ATP produced? What types of poisons can hinder cellular respiration? How do they hinder it? Oxidative phosphorylation; poisons: carbon monoxide; cyanide; rat po Continue reading >>
The Basics Of Cellular Respiration
Posted by Leslie Samuel | Cell Biology , Posts Cellular respiration is the set of reactions that produces ATP. ATP, quite possibly the most talked about molecule in biology , is our energy currency. Cellular respiration uses glucose to produce the ATP our body needs to perform essential function s. I am going to treat this as an overview article and I will do separate, more detailed articles on each part. Cellular respiration can be divided into three parts: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. This article will give you the basics in order to better understand the more detailed stuff. And believe me, cellular respiration can get pretty complicated. Before delving into the parts of cellular respiration, it is important to know a little about the key molecules. The first one is glucose, which is a sugar made of a 6 carbon ring. This is the starting molecule for cellular respiration and an important source of energy in cell s. ADP, or adenosine diphosphate is also one of the starting molecules of cellular respiration. It is formed when one of the phosphate groups on ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is lost. ADP is easily converted back into ATP, which happens in cellular respiration. ATP is probably one of the most discussed molecule in biology . It is responsible for energy transfer in our cell s. It is made of ribose (a type of sugar), three phosphate groups and adenine , which is a nucleotide. NAD is a coenzyme used in oxidation -reduction reations, or redox reactions for short. Redox reactions remove or add electrons. Oxidation is the loss of elections while reduction is the gain of electrons. The function of NAD is to transport these electrons. NAD is an oxidizing agent, which means it is reduced. NADH is the oxidized form of NAD and is a redu Continue reading >>
What Is The Role Of Glucose In Aerobic Respiration?
During aerobic respiration, cells obtain energy in the presence of oxygen through a series of reactions known as the citric acid cycle. Glucose provides a key reaction intermediate necessary for these reactions to occur. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar molecule that gets broken down into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. These pyruvate molecules, in the presence of oxygen, can enter the citric acid cycle, producing a significant amount of energy for the cell. Glucose can be obtained directly from the diet or by the breaking down of glycogen, a polymer of glucose molecules. During glycolysis, glucose is metabolized by the cell to produce energy. Glycolysis is not very efficient in terms of energy production, but the process itself generates a series of intermediates that can be used for other processes. One such intermediate is pyruvate. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate can be converted to lactic acid or alcohol through a process known as fermentation. However, in the presence of oxygen, during aerobic respiration, pyruvate can enter the citric acid cycle. The Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that ultimately produce a significant amount of energy for the cell. This cycle can only occur under aerobic conditions -- that is, conditions in which sufficient oxygen is present. In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvate molecules formed at the end of glycolysis can enter the citric acid cycle by reacting with a compound called Acetyl-CoA. During this reaction, carbon dioxide is released. In fact, carbon dioxide is released in a number of steps during the citric acid cycle. This is, in part, an explanation of why aerobic respiration involves breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. Electron Transport Chain By definition, aerobic respi Continue reading >>