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Is Glucose A Carbohydrate That Stores Chemical Energy

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways.[1] Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis, allowing them to store energy absorbed from sunlight internally.[2] When animals and fungi consume plants, they use cellular respiration to break down these stored carbohydrates to make energy available to cells.[2] Both animals and plants temporarily store the released energy in the form of high energy molecules, such as ATP, for use in various cellular processes.[3] Although humans consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few simple monomers for metabolism: glucose, fructose, and galactose.[4] Glucose constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored as glycogen.[3][4] In aerobic respiration, the main form of cellular respiration used by humans, glucose and oxygen are metabolized to release energy, with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.[2] Most of the fructose and galactose travel to the liver, where they can be converted to glucose.[4] Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components, glucose and galactose.[5] Metabolic pathways[edit] Overview of connections between metabolic processes. Glycolysis[edit] Glycolysis is the process of breaking down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, while storing energy released Continue reading >>

Science Quiz

Science Quiz "4.1" Flashcards | Quizlet

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O is the chemical reaction of photosynthesis. Glucose is a carbohydrate that stores chemical energy in a concentrated and stable form. Many scientists consider photosynthesis to be the most important life process on earth. Only autotrophs can perform photosynthesis. Only four types of organisms- plants, algae, fungi, and some bacteria - can make food through photosynthesis. ATP is the "energy currency" of the cell, so it makes sense that a molecule of ATP contains much more chemical energy than a molecule of glucose. Whereas photosynthesis occurs in only some organisms, cellular respiration occurs in the cells of all living things. Like matter, energy is also recycled by living organisms. Because you are able to cook your own food in the microwave oven, you are a producer. As mushrooms are fungi, they are heterotrophs. A food chain shows how energy and matter flow from consumers to producers. Energy is required to break down and build up molecules and transport molecules across plasma membrane. Why are autotrophs considered the basis of food chains? They produce food not only for themselves but for all other living things as well. Which of the following autotrophs is also a producer? all of the above (maple tree, blue-green bacteria, laurencia) In the food chain grass -> grasshopper -> snake -> hawk m which organisms are heterotrophs? Which of the following statements is true ab glucose and ATP? Photosynthesis can be described as the process that uses carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of sunlight, to produce food and oxygen Which statement best describes the relationship between a consumer and a producer? Which of the following statements is true? Both (ab products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration) The correct Continue reading >>

Energy For Life: An Overview Of Photosynthesis

Energy For Life: An Overview Of Photosynthesis

To identify the kind of energy which powers life. To contrast the behavior of energy to that of materials in living systems. To analyze the way in which autotrophs obtain energy and evaluate the importance of autotrophs to energy for all life. To explain the relationship between autotrophs and heterotrophs. To discuss the importance of glucose to all life on earth. To compare the energy-carrying role of ATP to that of glucose. To explain the roles of chlorophyll and NADPH as sources of energy for life. To summarize the process of photosynthesis and write out the overall chemical equation for photosynthesis. To identify reactants, necessary conditions, and products in the chemical equation for photosynthesis. To describe the roles of chlorophyll and chloroplasts in photosynthesis. To identify the groups of organisms which are capable of photosynthesis. To discuss the many reasons photosynthesis is important to humans. All living things require an ongoing source of energy to do the work of life. You often see energy in action on a large scale: a whale breaches, apple blossoms swell and burst, a firefly glows, or an inky cap mushrooms overnight. However, energy works constantly to maintain life on a very small scale as well. Inside each cell of every organism, energy assembles chains of information and constructs cellular architecture. It moves tiny charged particles and giant protein molecules. Moreover, it builds and powers cell systems for awareness, response, and reproduction. All lifes work requires energy. Physics tells us that organized systems, such as living organisms, tend to disorder without a constant input of energy. You have direct, everyday experience with this law of nature: after a week of living in your room, you must spend energy in order to return it t Continue reading >>

Bbc - Standard Grade Bitesize Biology - Making Food : Revision, Page 4

Bbc - Standard Grade Bitesize Biology - Making Food : Revision, Page 4

Green plants make food in the form of carbohydrates by combining carbon dioxide and water using energy from sunlight. Carbohydrates are chemicals containing only the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The simplest useful form of carbohydrate produced by photosynthesis is glucose sugar. Glucose may be used as an energy source. Glucose may be converted into other carbohydrates such as starch (a storage carbohydrate), cellulose or lignin (structural carbohydrates). We can summarise the process of photosynthesis as follows - Green leaves use light energy to combine carbon dioxide and water together to make glucose and oxygen. This process is called photosynthesis and takes place in the leaves of green plants. Chlorophyll [chlorophyll: The green chemical inside the chloroplasts of plant cells. It enables photosynthesis to take place.] is a green chemical found in plant cells which is essential for photosynthesis because it captures light energy from the sun and converts it into chemical energy. In order to see this content you need to have both Javascript enabled and Flash installed. A limiting factor is a factor which slows down a process because it is in short supply. You need to know that photosynthesis can sometimes be limited because certain factors are in short supply. The most common limiting factors in photosynthesis are: Continue reading >>

Bio Flashcards | Quizlet

Bio Flashcards | Quizlet

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O is the chemical reaction of photosynthesis. Glucose is a carbohydrate that stores chemical energy in a concentrated and stable form. Many scientists consider photosynthesis to be the most important life process on Earth Only four types of organisms plants, algae, fungi and some bacteria can make food through photosynthesis. ATP is the "energy currency" of the cell, so it makes sense that a molecule of ATP contains much more chemical energy than a molecule of glucose Whereas photosynthesis occurs in only some organisms, cellular respiration occurs in the cells of all living things Like matter, energy is also recycled by living organisms. Because you are able to cook your own food in the microwave oven, you are a producer As mushrooms are fungi, they are heterotrophs. A food chain shows how energy and matter ow from consumers to producers. (a) uses the energy in sunlight to make food. (b) uses the glucose in sunlight to make foo (c) uses the energy in sunlight to make ATP. Which of the following autotrophs is also a producer? (b) the blue-green bacteria known as cyanobacteria (c) Laurencia, a marine genus of Red Algae from Hawaii. In the food chain grass grasshopper snake hawk, which organism(s) are the heterotrophs? Which of the following statements is true about glucose and ATP? (1) Glucose is made during photosynthesis. (2) The energy in sunlight is temporarily stored in glucose before it is transferred to ATP. (3) ATP is the energy-carrying molecule that cells use for energy. (4) The processes that make ATP and glucose also recycle oxygen in Earth's atmosphere. Photosynthesis can be described as the process that ? (a) uses carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of sunlight, to produce food (glucose) and oxygen. (b) uses glucose and oxygen Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis Notes - Rjbio1ntbk

Photosynthesis Notes - Rjbio1ntbk

Thisequation of numbers and letters represent the molecular changes that molecules undergo during photosynthesis. The picture above, the reactants, are the molecules that begin photosynthesis. To begin photosynthesis, a plant starts out with 6 carbon dioxide molecules and 6 water molecules. During photosynthesis, the molecules are rearranged to form a molecule consisting of 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms otherwise known as glucose. It also creates 6 oxygen molecules. nside every cell of all living things, energy is needed to carry out life processes. Energy is required to break down and build up molecules and to transport molecules across plasma membranes. how autotrophs and heterotrophs obtain energy Most autotrophs use the energy in sunlight to make food in a process called photosynthesis. Only three types of organismsplants, algae, and some bacteriacan make food through photosynthesis.They produce food not only for themselves but for all other living things as well (which are known as consumers). This is why autotrophs form the basis of food chains Organisms mainly use two types of molecules for chemical energy: glucose and ATP. Both molecules are used as fuels throughout the living world. Both molecules are also key players in the process of photosynthesis. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate with the chemical formula C6H12O6. It stores chemical energy in a concentrated, stable form. In your body, glucose is the form of energy that is carried in your blood and taken up by each of your trillions of cells. Glucose is the end product of photosynthesis, and it is the nearly universal food for life. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the energy-carrying molecule that cells use for energy. ATP is made during the first half of photosynthesis and then used

Lipids Vs. Carbohydrates For Energy Storage

Lipids Vs. Carbohydrates For Energy Storage

Your body requires energy to function: each cell relies on a source of energy to drive the chemical reactions required for digestion and metabolism, cellular communication, cell division and growth, hormone synthesis and several other physiological processes. Your body can use both carbohydrates and lipids, or fats, to store energy. Video of the Day Both carbohydrates and lipids serve as sources of energy, but these compounds contain different capacities for energy storage. Each gram of carbohydrates stores 4 calories of energy, whereas each gram of lipid stores 9 calories. As a result, lipids serve as a more compact way to store energy, since it contains more energy per gram than carbohydrates. As a result, your body tends to use fat to store energy over long periods of time and uses carbohydrates to store energy short-term. Forms of Storage In general, your body stores lipids in the form of triglycerides. Each triglyceride contains three fatty acid compounds, all bound to a glycerol chemical backbone. Most trigylcerides are stored within adipose tissue, made up of fat cells distributed throughout your body, though your blood also contains small amounts of tryiglycerides. Carbohydrates in your body are stored as glycogen, a large carbohydrate molecule made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units of glucose, a simple sugar. Your body can also convert carbohydrates into fat for long-term energy storage. Glycogen in your system serves as a source of glucose for your cells. A number of your tissues, including your brain and muscles, utilize glucose as a source of energy to support metabolic functioning. When your body requires glucose, your liver and muscles begin to break down their glycogen stores, releasing glucose. Some of this glucose may be used directly in your Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates | Basic Biology

Carbohydrates | Basic Biology

Thedifferences between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides Carbohydrates are one of the four main categories of molecules found in living things the other three being proteins , lipids and nucleic acids . They are vital for life on Earth and perform a range of functions such as providing energy, structural support and cellular communication. A carbohydrate is either a sugar or a polymer of sugars. A polymer is two or more simple sugars joined together. Carbohydratesare carbon based molecules with hydrogen and oxygen bonded to a chain of carbon atoms. A simple sugar is known as a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides can bond together to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. These are the three different types of carbohydrates and all three are important for different purposes in the natural world. All life on Earth requires carbohydrates. They have found their way into the lives of not only animals and plants but also fungi , bacteria , archaea and protists . The most important role of carbohydrates is as a source of energy. The chemical energy in sugars is the main source of energy for most living things. Plants use the suns energy and CO to create carbohydrates. These carbohydratesform the foundations of almost all ecosystems on Earth. Using carbohydrates for energy prevents proteins being used for energy. This is important because it allows proteins to be used for other purposes such as metabolism and muscle contraction. Some of the more complex carbohydrates provide structural support and protection. Plant and fungal cells have cell walls made from carbohydrates. These cell walls provide protection and support for the cell and the whole organism. Carbohydrates are also involved in cell-cell recognition. Cells have carbohydrates on the external surface of Continue reading >>

Energy And Atp

Energy And Atp

Energy is the ability to do work or cause change. In Science, when we use the word work, we're talking about moving something against a force. The key word here is moving--going from one place or position to another--and having to overcome a force to get there. The distance of the movement can be quite large (moving a rocket from the face of the earth to the moon or beyond...say, across the universe) or the distance can be very, very small (the space between a couple of molecules or from one cell to another). Whatever the distance, if we have to act against a force in order to move something from one place to another, work is being done. A person dragging a heavy load from one spot to another location is work. The body absorbing tiny nutrients (moving extremely small particles from one place to another) is also an example of work. This content requires Flash Player 10 or higher. Most of us don't speak chemicalese, so the above chemical equation translates as: produce one molecule of sugar (called glucose The foods made by AUTOTROPHS are stored in various organic compounds, primarily CARBOHYDRATES. One of the most important carbohydrates is a six carbon sugar called GLUCOSE Plants, algae, and some prokaryotes (Bacteria) are examples ofAutotrophs. Without Autotrophs, all other living things would DIE.Without PRODUCERS you cannot have CONSUMERS. Autotrophs not only make food for their own use, but store a great deal of food for use by other organisms (CONSUMERS). Most autotrophs use ENERGY from the SUN to make their food, but there are a few organisms deep in the ocean that obtain energy from INORGANIC COMPOUNDS. ( CHEMOSYNTHESIS Organisms that CANNOT make their own food are called HETEROTROPHS OR CONSUMERS. Heterotrophs include animals, fungi, and many unicellular organi Continue reading >>

Energy In Living Systems

Energy In Living Systems

Cellular respiration is the process of transforming chemical energy into forms usable by the cell or organism. Discuss the importance of cellular respiration Organisms ingest organic molecules like the carbohydrate glucose to obtain the energy needed for cellular functions. The energy in glucose can be extracted in a series of chemical reactions known as cellular respiration. Cellular respiration produces energy in the form of ATP, which is the universal energy currency for cells. aerobic respiration: the process of converting the biochemical energy in nutrients to ATP in the presence of oxygen adenosine triphosphate: a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme, often called the molecular unit of energy currency in intracellular energy transfer cellular respiration: the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) catabolism: the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones usually accompanied by the release of energy An electrical energy plant converts energy from one form to another form that can be more easily used. For example, geothermal energy plants start with underground thermal energy (heat) and transform it into electrical energy that will be transported to homes and factories. Energy Plant: This geothermal energy plant transforms thermal energy from deep in the ground into electrical energy, which can be easily used. Like a generating plant, living organisms must take in energy from their environment and convert it into to a form their cells can use. Organisms ingest large molecules, like carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and convert them into smaller molecules like carbon dioxide and water. This process is cal Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates Vs Fats

Carbohydrates Vs Fats

Now let's make a brief comparison of carbohydrates and their use in energy generationversus fats for energy generation. Let's superimpose the diagrams for both the oxidation of glucose and the oxidation of fats. Most of the process is the same, but notice that glucose gets into the process more quickly than do the fats. The fats go through several more steps than do carbohydrates to become acetyl CoA and enter the citric acid cycle. Consequently, one of the advantages of glucose and other carbohydratesis that they can enter into the oxidation process much more quickly and provideenergy more rapidly. Polysaccharides, also known as complex carbohydrates, are one step further removed fromthe citric acid cycle than is glucose. As a result, polysaccharides or complexcarbohydrates provide glucose more steadily and more slowly (kind of a time-releasedglucose) than simpler sugars such as glucose and fructose. If we eat sugar directly,either in the form of glucose or the disaccharide sucrose, it's available almostimmediately. Fats make energy available at a slower pace than carbohydrates. On the other hand, gram for gram, fats provide more energy thancarbohydrates. The reason for this is the amount of oxidation that takes place as these compounds areconverted to carbon dioxide and water. Carbon for carbon, fats require more oxidation tobecome CO2 and H2O than do carbohydrates. Roughly speaking,carbohydrates already have one oxygen for every carbon atom, thus, each carbon atom needsonly one more oxygen and each pair of hydrogen atoms needs one moreoxygen. However, almost every carbon atom in a fat molecule needs twooxygens instead of just one additional one, and each pair of hydrogen atoms still needsone more oxygen. So, just from counting the number of oxygens needed to be adde Continue reading >>

Biology

Biology

SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. Describe, compare, contrast and explain the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Predict the results if either process where curtailed of stopped. Demonstrate the dependence of photosynthesis upon waste products of cellular respiration and vice-versa. Click here to download a list of key terms for this module. Pre-Assessment Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration This activity is not for a grade and will not be considered as part of your course requirement. However, it will give you an idea of what you already know and topics where you need additional instruction. Please choose true or false for the following statements. Go to the navigation bar for the course and click on QUIZZES. Choose the quiz titled Pre-Assessment Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Cellular respiration is the process of using oxygen in the mitochondria to chemically break down organic molecules such as glucose to release the energy stored in its bonds. In the process molecules of water and carbon dioxide are released as waste products. Some of the energy is used to make Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, from Adenosine diphosphate and phosphate. ATP is the main energy currency of cells. Below is the structural Formula for ATP (from Wikipedia). Notice the three phosphate molecules on the left. To release energy, one phosphate is removed leaving ADP. To store energy, the phosphate is replaced and ADP is restored to ATP. Heterotrophs as well as autotrophs utilize cellular respiration to supply the energy to power cellular activities. To understand cellular respiration, one must understand the principles of photosynthesis. Why do you think that Continue reading >>

Biology Quiz - Section 4.1

Biology Quiz - Section 4.1

organic molecules that store energy in chemical bonds C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O is the chemical equation of photosynthesis Glucose is a carbohydrate that stores chemical energy in a concentrated and stable form Many scientists consider photosynthesis to be the most important process on Earth. Only autotrophs can perform photosynthesis. ATP is the energy source of the cell so it makes sense that a molecule of ATP contains more energy than a molecule of glucose. Cellular respiration occurs in the cells of all heterotrophs. Because you can cook your own food in the microwave you are a producer. As mushrooms are Fungi, they are heterotrophs. A food chain shows how energy and matter flow from consumers to producers. Which of the following autotrophs is also a producer a maple tree, blue-green bacteria that contains chlorophyll, Red algae in the food chain grass --> grasshopper--> snake --> hawk which organism(s) are the heterotrophs? The energy in sunlight is temporarily stored in glucose before it is transferred to ATP ATP is the energy molecule that cells use for energy The processes that make glucose and ATP also recycle oxygen in the atmosphere. Photosynthesis can be described as the process that ____ uses carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of sunlight, to produce glucose and oxygen Which statement best describes the relationship between a consumer and a producer the products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration the products of cellular respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis process in which cells break down glucose and make ATP for energy organism that consumes other organisms for food Continue reading >>

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>

What Gives The Most Energy Per Gram: Fat, Protein Or Carbohydrates?

What Gives The Most Energy Per Gram: Fat, Protein Or Carbohydrates?

The amount of energy you'll get from carbohydrate, protein and fat is measured in calories per gram. Fats have the most energy and proteins have the same amount as carbohydrates, but their value as a source of energy is determined by more than the calories gained from one gram. Other factors, such as your activity level and diet, impact which macronutrient is used for energy. Carbohydrates have four calories per gram. Sugars and starches get digested to produce glucose, which is the form of energy preferred by every cell in your body. They also have the advantage of being converted into energy faster than fats and protein. Inside your cells, special structures convert glucose into the chemical that stores and carries energy: ATP. Each molecule of glucose produces 36 to 38 molecules of ATP. If you eat more carbohydrates than you need for energy, the excess glucose is stored in fatty tissue as triglycerides or in the muscles and liver as glycogen. Fiber Even though fiber is a carbohydrate, it passes through your system mostly intact and doesn't get absorbed into the bloodstream, so it provides very little energy for the body. However, some types of fiber are fermented in your large intestine, producing short-chain fatty acids that are metabolized for energy. This energy may be used throughout your body, but it also helps support the growth of healthy bacteria in the intestine. It's estimated that each gram of fermentable fiber has 1.5 to 2.5 calories. Fat When your body runs out of glucose, it turns to fat for energy, which has 9 calories in every gram. This is a little more than double the amount in carbohydrates. Converting fat into energy takes longer than it does to convert glucose into energy, because fat must be first be broken down into its two component parts: fat Continue reading >>

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