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Is Diabetes An Inflammatory Disease?

Type 2 Diabetes Is An Inflammatory Disease, Say Researchers

Type 2 Diabetes Is An Inflammatory Disease, Say Researchers

Type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease, say researchers New research from Denmark adds further weight to the idea that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease. The recently published study describes how in mice, during the very early stages of type 2 diabetes , immune cells called macrophages invade pancreatic tissue, releasing large quantities of cytokines - pro-inflammatory proteins - that help destroy insulin-producing beta cells. More than 360 million people around the world have type 2 diabetes, including around 8% of Americans. The disease can lead to more serious conditions like cardiovascular disease, blindness, loss of limbs, and kidney failure. In people who are healthy and do not have diabetes , the beta cells of the pancreas secrete insulin into the bloodstream - this helps to regulate blood sugar levels which rise after eating. One of the researchers, Dr. Alexander Rosendahl, from the Department of Diabetes Complication Biology at Novo Nordisk A/S, in Malov, says: "The study may provide novel insights allowing development of tailor-made anti-inflammatory based therapies reducing the burden of type 2 patients." Such new treatments could be used to complement existing therapies, for example those that use insulin analogues, he adds. For their study, Dr. Rosendahl and colleagues compared obese mice that spontaneously developed diabetes to normal healthy mice. They observed the mice from a young age, when in early stages of obesity , until after their obesity in adulthood had started to affect multiple organs. They monitored presence of macrophages around the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, and also in the spleen. The advanced cytometric technology they used allowed them to take measurements at the level of single cells. Proinflammatory ma Continue reading >>

Inflammatory Regulation In Diabetes And Metabolic Dysfunction

Inflammatory Regulation In Diabetes And Metabolic Dysfunction

Inflammatory Regulation in Diabetes and Metabolic Dysfunction 1Department of Endocrinology, Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China 2Cardiovascular Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA 3Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023, China 4Department of Nephrology, Kindai University Nara Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, Nara 630-0293, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Jixin Zhong Received 5 February 2017; Accepted 8 February 2017; Published 15 March 2017 Copyright 2017 Jixin Zhong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The research in the past decades has revealed a critical link between metabolic disorders and inflammation, which leads to a concept called metaflammation. Metaflammation is a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation related to excess nutrients and energy [ 1 , 2 ]. There has been increasing evidence showing diabetes is an inflammatory disease. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM), characterized by autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic cells and insufficient secretion of insulin, has long been considered as an inflammatory disease. Not until the early 1990s, however, was type 2 diabetes (T2DM) linked to inflammatory response [ 3 ]. T2DM is manifested by peripheral insulin resistance and aberrant production of insulin, accompanied by chronic low grade inflammation in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, and muscle. In the last decades, there has been growing evidence linking obesity and insulin resistance to inflammation [ 2 4 ]. Give Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Inflammation

Diabetes And Inflammation

Inactivity and obesity increase the risk for diabetes, but exactly how is unclear. Recent research suggests that inflammation inside the body plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The good news: An "anti-inflammatory" diet and exercise plan can help prevent and treat type 2 diabetes. The effects of inflammation are familiar to anyone who has experienced a bug bite, rash, skin infection, or ankle sprain. In those situations, you will see swelling in the affected area. With type 2 diabetes, inflammation is internal. People with type 2 diabetes don't produce enough insulin or their bodies can't use the insulin adequately. Insulin is a hormone that is made by cells in the pancreas. It controls the amount of sugar in the blood. Insulin may also have an impact on tissue in the body. Its effects on tissue are influenced by many factors, including obesity and the accumulation of fat around the belly and on major organs in the abdomen. The fat cells can produce chemicals that lead to inflammation. Scientists are only beginning to understand the role this form of internal inflammation may play in the development of chronic diseases like diabetes. Decades ago, researchers identified higher levels of inflammation in the bodies of people with type 2 diabetes. The levels of certain inflammatory chemicals called cytokines are often higher in people with type 2 diabetes compared to people without diabetes. Obesity and inactivity have long been known to be the most important risk factors that drive the development of type 2 diabetes. How could carrying extra weight and sofa-sitting be connected to higher levels of inflammatory chemicals in the body and the development of diabetes? Researchers discovered that in people with type 2 diabetes, cytokine levels are elevated insi Continue reading >>

Profile Of The Immune And Inflammatory Response In Individuals With Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes

Profile Of The Immune And Inflammatory Response In Individuals With Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE The inflammatory and immune systems are altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the aim was to profile the immune and inflammatory response in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes in a large population-representative sample. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In total, 15,010 individuals were analyzed from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Glucose status was classified according to HbA1c concentration and history of diagnosis. All samples were analyzed for white blood cells (WBCs), granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, fibrinogen, and hematocrit. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and neopterin concentrations were determined in a subcohort. RESULTS In total, 7,584 men and 7,426 women were analyzed (range 35–74 years), with 1,425 and 1,299 having prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. Biomarkers showed varying dynamics from normoglycemic via subjects with prediabetes to subjects with diabetes: 1) gradual increase (WBCs, granulocytes, monocytes, IL-1RA, IL-18, and fibrinogen), 2) increase with subclinical disease only (lymphocytes and CRP), 3) increase from prediabetes to diabetes only (neopterin), and 4) no variation with glucose status (hematocrit). The strongest relative differences were found for CRP, IL-1RA, and fibrinogen concentrations. Several inflammatory and immune markers were associated with the glucose status independent from cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities, varied with disease severity and the presence of disease-specific complications in the diabetes subcohort. CONCLUSIONS The inflammatory and immune biomarker profile varies with the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Markers of inflammation and immunity enable differentiation between the early prec Continue reading >>

Inflammation And Diabetes

Inflammation And Diabetes

Inflammation is a general term for the immune system's response to something, such as an infection or injury, and chronic means the response persists over time. At the cellular level, inflammation involves the release and increased activity of various immune system cells. The inflammatory reaction in type 1 diabetes where the beta cells are attacked is called "insulitis." The immune system cells involved in the attack include various types of white blood cells (T-cells and macrophages), and/or the substances they secrete, including cytokines, nitric oxide, and free radicals (Cnop et al. 2005). (See the oxidative stress page for more on free radicals). Certain cytokines and other markers of inflammation may be associated with development of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Goldberg 2009). People with type 1 diabetes have higher levels of inflammatory markers than those without diabetes; even patients with good blood sugar control (Snell-Bergeon et al. 2010). A lot of researchers are trying to identify how exactly this inflammatory process works in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes: what cells are involved, and what their roles are (e.g., Cnop et al. 2005). As for why it happens in the first place, we don't know. Cytokines are essentially messenger proteins that affect the behavior of other cells. There are various types of cytokines. Some cytokines can reduce inflammation, while other contribute to it: it is the pattern of cytokines that is critical in perpetrating autoimmune disease. Cytokines are secreted by immune system cells, and control the duration and strength of the immune response (Duramad et al. 2007). In type 1 diabetes, various cytokines act together in complex ways to induce beta cell death (apoptosis) (Gysemans et al. 2008). Cytokines can affec Continue reading >>

Anti-inflammatory Agents In The Treatment Of Diabetes And Its Vascular Complications

Anti-inflammatory Agents In The Treatment Of Diabetes And Its Vascular Complications

The association between hyperglycemia and inflammation and vascular complications in diabetes is now well established. Antidiabetes drugs may alleviate inflammation by reducing hyperglycemia; however, the anti-inflammatory effects of these medications are inconsistent and it is unknown whether their beneficial metabolic effects are mediated via modulation of chronic inflammation. Recent data suggest that immunomodulatory treatments may have beneficial effects on glycemia, β-cell function, and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial metabolic effects are not always clear, and there are concerns regarding the specificity, safety, and efficacy of immune-based therapies. Herein, we review the anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of current antidiabetes drugs and of anti-inflammatory therapies that were studied in patients with type 2 diabetes. We discuss the potential benefit of using anti-inflammatory treatments in diabetes and important issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of such therapeutic approaches. The prevalence of diabetes is on the rise, with 415 million people affected worldwide according to recent data from the International Diabetes Federation (1). This number is predicted to increase further, with 642 million people expected to develop diabetes by 2040. While many factors are known to contribute to the development of diabetes and its complications, the involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases has been gaining interest. It has long been appreciated that inflammation is central to the pathology of the pancreatic islet in type 1 diabetes. However, growing evidence suggests that inflammation also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, including obesit Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes As An Inflammatory Disease.

Type 2 Diabetes As An Inflammatory Disease.

Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland. [email protected] Nat Rev Immunol. 2011 Feb;11(2):98-107. doi: 10.1038/nri2925. Epub 2011 Jan 14. Components of the immune system are altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the most apparent changes occurring in adipose tissue, the liver, pancreatic islets, the vasculature and circulating leukocytes. These immunological changes include altered levels of specific cytokines and chemokines, changes in the number and activation state of various leukocyte populations and increased apoptosis and tissue fibrosis. Together, these changes suggest that inflammation participates in the pathogenesis of T2D. Preliminary results from clinical trials with salicylates and interleukin-1 antagonists support this notion and have opened the door for immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of T2D that simultaneously lower blood glucose levels and potentially reduce the severity and prevalence of the associated complications of this disease. Continue reading >>

Sp0160is Diabetes An Inflammatory Disease And Should Be Treated Like That? | Annals Of The Rheumatic Diseases

Sp0160is Diabetes An Inflammatory Disease And Should Be Treated Like That? | Annals Of The Rheumatic Diseases

SP0160 Is diabetes an inflammatory disease and should be treated like that? SP0160 Is diabetes an inflammatory disease and should be treated like that? Department of Internal Medicine-III, Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Giessen, Germany, Giessen, Germany It is a well-known clinical observation that inflammatory diseases are accompanied by metabolic implications such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and increased fatty acids. On the other hand, metabolic diseases have inflammatory implications. There is a chronic and low-grade state of inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physiological insulin resistance during infection or inflammation re-distributes glucose and fatty acids to immune cells. On the basis of systemic and adipose tissue inflammation such as MCP-1/TLR-4-driven macrophage infiltration and pro-inflammatory polarization of these cells, this lecture will give a summary of anti-diabetic effects of anti-inflammatory drugs used in rheumatology. What is the evidence from clinical studies using anti-inflammatory approaches to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Basically, TNF plays an important role in insulin resistance in rodents. Blocking TNF in rodents reverses obesity-related diabetes. There are no state of the art clinical studies showing convincing evidence of an anti-diabetic potential due to underpowered cohorts and short duration of the studies. Only one single study over 6 months showed a 10% improvement of fasting glucose levels in 40 prediabetic obese patients. Diacerein belongs to the chemical group of anthranoids. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, diacerein decreases the levels of TNF and of IL1b and has therefore been used in rheumatic diseases. Diacerein has potent effects on insulin secretion and glycemi Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes As An Inflammatory Disease

Type 2 Diabetes As An Inflammatory Disease

Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease Marc Y. Donath is internationally recognized for his contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. He is Head of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Clinic at the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland. His research focuses on the mechanisms and therapy of decreased insulin production in type 2 diabetes. He has published several studies supporting the concept that an inflammatory process underlies -cell failure and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of this condition. In particular he uncovered the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in type 2 diabetes. He then initiated and conducted clinical studies aiming at direct modulation of the immune system using IL-1 antagonism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Steven E. Shoelson is an international leader in diabetes research. He is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, and the Helen and Morton Adler Chair, Head of Pathology and Molecular Pharmacology, and Associate Director of Research at the Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston. He received a Ph.D. in chemistry and an M.D. from the University of Chicago, Illinois, USA, and conducted internship and residency training in internal medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston. He is well known for studies relating inflammation and the immune system to the pathophysiology of obesity-induced insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. He is pioneering new approaches for targeting inflammation in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews Immunology volume 11, pages 98107 (2011) Components of the immune system are altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the most apparent changes occurring in adipose tiss Continue reading >>

Put Out The Fire Of Diabetes Inflammation

Put Out The Fire Of Diabetes Inflammation

Inflammation is a vital body function. It fights infection and repairs injury. But inflammation can also cause insulin resistance and diabetes complications. What is inflammation exactly? And how can we make it help us, not hurt us? Inflammation is a miraculous system for fighting invaders: germs, toxic chemicals, anything unwanted. Monica Smith reported here in 2009, that “Inflammation is the body’s natural response to injury and the first step in healing. In its acute form, it can be quite dramatic. Whether you have a virus or a cut, the body sends white blood cells to the site of infection or injury, where they release chemicals to protect you. The most obvious sign of acute inflammation is pain, such as when you have a sore throat; you may also experience fever in the case of an infection, or swelling as your body deals with a traumatic injury.” The immune system brings more red and white blood cells to the area. It opens blood vessel walls so more fluid can come out into the infected or injured parts. It brings healing substances like cholesterol to the area to make patches for damaged areas and help new cells grow. That’s fine for an infected finger, but imagine that process going on day after day in your kidneys, your eyes, or your coronary arteries! Once the invader is defeated, the system should cool down. The active immune cells should go home, leaving a few guardians to watch for the next attack. But that doesn’t always happen. When there’s no cool-down, the tissues stay hot and swollen. When that happens in blood vessels, they can break down or become blocked. Sometimes the inflammation becomes chronic. Chronic inflammation is like having a fire burning in your body. It causes all kinds of damage. “[Chronic low-grade inflammation] seems to play Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Inflammatory Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Inflammatory Disease?

Macrophages, a type of immune cell, were found invading pancreatic tissue during the early stages of the disease… Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the loss of beta cells, reduced insulin production and low-grade systemic inflammation. A new study compared healthy mice to obese mice that developed diabetes. The mice were followed at a young age. The obese mice showed early signs of diabetes where they displayed systemic complications in multiple organs. The authors found macrophages, a type of immune cell, invading the pancreatic tissue and in the spleen during the early stages of type 2 diabetes. The inflammatory cells then produce a large amount of cytokines, pro-inflammatory proteins that directly contribute to the elimination of insulin being produced in the beta cells of the pancreas leading to diabetes. At eight weeks, 12 macrophages were observed in diabetic mice and only two in the nondiabetic mice. The systemic immunity in diabetic mice was characterized “by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages.” In late-stage diabetes, a significant increase of galectin-3 positive macrophages was seen in the spleen. Results indicate that “pro-inflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86 low macrophages invade diabetic islets.” The study provided important information on how inflammatory cells might be associated with type 2 diabetes. New immune-based therapies could be developed to diminish the severity of the disease. Practice Pearls: Greater cytokine production was found in diabetic mice. Cytokines contribute to the elimination of the insulin produced in the beta cells of the pancreas. New immune-based therapies could help reduce the inflammatory cells in patients with diabetes and d Continue reading >>

Cause Of Inflammation In Diabetes Identified

Cause Of Inflammation In Diabetes Identified

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Cause of inflammation in diabetes identified Inflammation is one of the main reasons why people with diabetes experience heart attacks, strokes, kidney problems and other, related complications. Now, in a surprise finding, researchers have discovered, in mice, that when certain immune cells cant manufacture fat, the mice dont develop diabetes and inflammation, even when consuming a high-fat diet. Too much fat in the diet promotes insulin resistance by spurring chronic inflammation. In the image above, immune cells (shown in green) produce fatty acids that contribute to diabetes-related inflammation. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine have developed a way to block production of fatty acids in these immune cells in mice and protect them from diet-induced diabetes. Credit: Semenkovich lab/ Washington University Too much fat in the diet promotes insulin resistance by spurring chronic inflammation. In the image above, immune cells (shown in green) produce fatty acids that contribute to diabetes-related inflammation. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine have developed a way to block production of fatty acids in these immune cells in mice and protect them from diet-induced diabetes. Credit: Semenkovich lab/ Washington University Inflammation is one of the main reasons why people with diabetes experience heart attacks, strokes, kidney problems and other, related complications. Now, in a surprise finding, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a possible trigger of chronic inflammation. Too much fat in the diet promotes insulin resistance by spurring chronic inflammation. But the researchers discovered, in mice, that Continue reading >>

More Evidence Suggests Type 2 Diabetes Is An Inflammatory Disease

More Evidence Suggests Type 2 Diabetes Is An Inflammatory Disease

More evidence suggests type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease New research published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggests that macrophages invade the diabetic pancreas, producing large amounts of cytokines that contribute to the elimination of insulin-producing beta cells Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology As people's waistlines increase, so does the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Now scientists have a better understanding of exactly what happens in the body that leads up to type 2 diabetes, and what likely causes some of the complications related to the disease. Specifically, scientists from Denmark have found that in mice, macrophages, a specific type of immune cell, invade the diabetic pancreatic tissue during the early stages of the disease. Then, these inflammatory cells produce a large amount of pro-inflammatory proteins, called cytokines, which directly contribute to the elimination of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in diabetes. This discovery was published in the January 2014 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology . "The study may provide novel insights allowing development of tailor-made anti-inflammatory based therapies reducing the burden of type 2 patients," said Alexander Rosendahl, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the Department of Diabetes Complication Biology at Novo Nordisk A/S, in Malov, Denmark. "These novel treatments may prove to complement existing therapies such as insulin and GLP-1 analogues." To make their discovery scientists compared obese mice that spontaneously developed diabetes to healthy mice. The mice were followed from a young age when the obese mice only showed early diabetes, to an age where they displayed systemic complication in multiple organs. Presence of Continue reading >>

Inflammation And Its Possible Links To Diabetes

Inflammation And Its Possible Links To Diabetes

Inflammation and Its Possible Links to Diabetes The immune system is very good at thwarting bacteria, viruses, and parasites that seek to do us harm, but sometimes it can go too far. The body protects itself from infection and injury with a cascade of biological events known collectively as inflammation. But when inflammation won't go away, there's trouble brewing. Over the past couple of decades, research has suggested that a chronic type of inflammation that affects the whole body is linked to diseases like type 2 diabetes and heart disease . (This is unlike the immune disorder in type 1 , which targets the pancreas.) The details are still a little fuzzy, but here are some inflammation basics. A cut to the finger, an opening to infection, causes an acute response: Infection-fighting cells of the immune system swiftly congregate around the wound. There, they release a bunch of therapeutic chemicals. Some of these increase blood flow to the area, while others cause fluid to flow in from surrounding tissues. The goal of this assault is to bring in a deluge of substances that can repair the wound and kill any invaders. The familiar and painful result, warm red puffiness in the cut's vicinity, is a sign that the immune system is working full force to keep the body safe and initiate healing. Normally, this process is localized to the area immediately surrounding a cut. And it's usually temporary, since most injuries eventually heal. Sometimes, though, the agent that triggers an immune response doesn't go away. That causes inflammation to switch into a chronic mode that's abnormal and harmful. The symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, for example, are caused by chronic inflammation of the joints as the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The immune cells continue to linger Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus As Inflammatory Disease

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus As Inflammatory Disease

Volume 74, Issue 2, Supplement , 30 November 2006, Pages S12-S16 Type 2 diabetes mellitus as inflammatory disease Author links open overlay panel DorotaZozulinska Get rights and content Inflammation is defined as a cascade of phenomena induced in response to different pathological stimuli. This physiological occurrence that allows the restoration of homeostasis may also cause different diseases in various pathological conditions. Inflammatory process seems to play an important role in the development of diabetes and its late complications. Both genetic and environmental factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, smoking and stress are responsible for the activation and intensity of chronic inflammation. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have indicated an association of low-grade inflammation with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the role of inflammation in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and vascular complications was confirmed by intervention studies. It has been shown that loss of weight, increase in physical activity, treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, high doses of aspirin and glitazones reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications partially via anti-inflammatory mechanism. The hypothesis that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease opens new clinical perspectives for diagnosis and treatment, but still needs to be more explored. Continue reading >>

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