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Is Allose An Epimer Of Glucose?

Structural Biochemistry/carbohydrates/monosaccharides

Structural Biochemistry/carbohydrates/monosaccharides

Structural Biochemistry/Carbohydrates/Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and may be subcategorized as aldoses or ketoses . The sugar is an aldose if it contains an aldehyde functional group. A ketose signifies that the sugar contains a ketone functional group. Monosaccharides may be further classified based on the number of carbon atoms in the backbone, which can be designated with the prefixes tri-(3), tetr-(4), pent-(5), hex-(6), hept-(7), etc. in the name of the sugar. Monosaccharides are often represented by a Fischer Projection, a shorthand notation particularly useful for showing stereochemistry in straight chained organic compounds. The L and D confirmations represent the absolute configuration of the asymmetric carbon farthest away from the ketone or aldehyde group on the monosaccharide. On the Fischer projection, if the farthest hydroxyl(-OH) group is on the right, then it is classified as D sugar, if the hydroxyl group is on the left, then it is a L sugar. Enantiomers, Diastereoisomers(anomerism), and Epimers[ edit ] Example of Diastereomers. The areas marked blue indicate the differing stereogenic centers. Example of an Enantiomer. The blue indicates the D-isomer and the red indicates the L-isomer Due to the fact that carbohydrates contain multiple stereocenters, many isomers are possible including enantiomers, diastereoisomers, and epimers. Two carbohydrates are said to be enantiomers if they are nonsuperimposable mirror images of one another. An example of an enantiomer is the D and L isomers of glucose, as shown by the figure to the right. A second type of isomer seen in carbohydrates are diastereoisomers. Carbohydrates are classified as diastereomers if their chiral carbons are connected to the exactly the same substra Continue reading >>

Epimers And Epimerization (molecular Biology)

Epimers And Epimerization (molecular Biology)

Epimers and Epimerization (Molecular Biology) Epimers are diastereomers that are related by the inversion of configuration at a single chiral center (1). This definition extends the original meaning of epimer, which was used to identify sugars that differed in configuration at C2 (2). This definition intentionally excludes enantiomers, such as D- and L-alanine, since they are not diastereomers. It also excludes diastereomers that are related by the inversion of more than a single chiral center. Thus, D-glucose and D-mannose are epimers, as are D-glucose and D-galactose. D-mannose and D-galactose are not epimers, however, because they are related by inversion at two chiral centers, C2 and C4 (Fig. 1) Figure 1. Stereochemical drawings of glucose, mannose, and galactose, with their four chiral carbons. The configurations at C2 and C4 are labeled and distinguish these three sugars. Glucose is an epimer of both mannose and galactose because they differ by the configuration of a single chiral center. Mannose and galactose have different configurations at both C2 and C4 and are not epimers. The chemical conversion of one epimer to another is called epimerization. If this interconversion is catalyzed by an enzyme, the enzyme is an epimerase. As an example, UDP-glucose-4-epimerase catalyzes the epimerization of the C4 carbon of glucose. In the reaction, UDP-glucose is epimerized to UDP-galactose. When the inversion of configuration occurs to interconvert enantiomers instead of diastereomers, the reaction is a racemization. Continue reading >>

3-epimer Of D-glucose ?

3-epimer Of D-glucose ?

I know the 2-Epimer is Mannose, and the 4-Epimer is Galactose. What's the 3-Epimer of D-Glucose? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: 3-Epimer of glucose is D-allose. the position of OH differs at the 3rd carbon I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this comment violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this comment violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy Upload failed. Please upload a file larger than 100x100 pixels We are experiencing some problems, please try again. You can only upload files of type PNG, JPG, or JPEG. You can only upload files of type 3GP, 3GPP, MP4, MOV, AVI, MPG, MPEG, Continue reading >>

-d-allose Inhibits Fruiting Body Formation And Sporulation In Myxococcus Xanthus

-d-allose Inhibits Fruiting Body Formation And Sporulation In Myxococcus Xanthus

1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics 2School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California Myxococcus xanthus, a gram-negative soil bacterium, responds to amino acid starvation by entering a process of multicellular development which culminates in the assembly of spore-filled fruiting bodies. Previous studies utilizing developmental inhibitors (such as methionine, lysine, or threonine) have revealed important clues about the mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation. We used Biolog phenotype microarrays to screen 384 chemicals for complete inhibition of fruiting body development in M. xanthus. Here, we report the identification of a novel inhibitor of fruiting body formation and sporulation, -d-allose. -d-Allose, a rare sugar, is a member of the aldohexose family and a C3 epimer of glucose. Our studies show that -d-allose does not affect cell growth, viability, agglutination, or motility. However, -galactosidase reporters demonstrate that genes activated between 4 and 14 h of development show significantly lower expression levels in the presence of -d-allose. Furthermore, inhibition of fruiting body formation occurs only when -d-allose is added to submerged cultures before 12 h of development. In competition studies, high concentrations of galactose and xylose antagonize the nonfruiting response to -d-allose, while glucose is capable of partial antagonism. Finally, a magellan-4 transposon mutagenesis screen identified glcK, a putative glucokinase gene, required for -d-allose-mediated inhibition of fruiting body formation. Subsequent glucokinase activity assays of the glcK mutant further supported the role of this protein in glucose phosphorylation. *Corresponding author. Mailing address: UCLA School of Dentistry, CHS 20- Continue reading >>

Publication : Usda Ars

Publication : Usda Ars

Citation: Schnupf, U., Willett, J.L., Momany, F.A. 2006. DFT study of carbohydrates: A comparison between the epimers of glucose [abstract]. Midwest Chemistry Conference. n.10. Technical Abstract: DFT calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory on the low energy structures of glucose and its epimers allose, mannose, galactose, altrose, gulose, talose and idose. The full geometry optimizations were performed on different ring geometries (chairs, boat and skew-boat) and different hydroymethyl rotamers (gg/gt/tg). Furthermore, the exocyclic hydroxyl groups were considered in either the all clockwise or "c" form, or the all reverse-clockwise or "r" form. Analytical Hessians were used to calculate zero point energy, enthalpy, entropy, and relative Gibbs Free energies are reported at the harmonic level of theory. Surprisingly, it was found for the first time at the given level of theory, that two of the epimers of glucose, galactose and talose, are energetically lower than glucose. For all the epimers the preferred low energy conformation is the 4C1 chair with the lowest belonging to alpha-D-talose (2,4 axial hydroxyl groups) because of favorable hydrogen-bonding interactions. The in vacuo calculations showed energetic preference for the alpha-anomer over the Beta-anomer for most of the epimers in their 4C1 conformation. In contrast, for the 1C4 conformation half the epimers prefer the Beta-anomer. Boat and skew-boat conformations have been found of modestly higher energy (Delta-E less than 5 kcal/mol and higher) relative to the lowest energy structures. A comparison of the relative energies clearly indicates that the orientation of the hydroxyl groups make the most significant contributions to the conformation-energy relationship in vacuo. In Continue reading >>

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Metabocard For Allose (hmdb0001151)

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Metabocard For Allose (hmdb0001151)

Showing metabocard for Allose (HMDB0001151) D-allose is a rare sugar found in nature and, because of its very limited amount and of the high cost associated with its synthesis, its physiological functions remain virtually unknown (PMID 16080505 ). It is believed to have inhibitory effect on cancer cell proliferation (PMID 16142305 ), protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury (PMID 14605979 , 16716947 ), immunosuppressant on allogenic orthotopic liver transplantation (PMID 11120048 ), neuroprotective effects against retinal ischemia (PMID 16565406 ), suppress development of salt-induced hypertension (PMID 16148613 ) and an inhibitory effect on human ovarian carcinoma cells (PMID 16080505 ). Allose is an aldohexose sugar. It is a rare monosaccharide that has been isolated from the leaves of the African shrub Protea rubropilosa. It is soluble in water and practically insoluble in methanol. Allose is a C-3 epimer of glucose. [edit]. References. * Merck Index, 11th Edition, 279. [wikipedia]. [H][[email protected]@]1(CO)OC(O)[[email protected]@]([H])(O)[[email protected]@]([H])(O)[[email protected]@]1([H])O This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. Menavuvu Buetusiwa Thomas; Poonperm Wayoon; Leang Khim; Noguchi Naoki; Okada Hiromi; Morimoto Kenji; Granstrom Tom Birger; Takada Goro; Izumori Ken Efficient biosynthesis of D-allose from D-psicose by cross-linked recombinant L-rhamnose isomerase: separation of product by ethanol crystallization. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering (2006), 101(4), 340-5. Sui L, Dong Y, Watanabe Y, Yamaguchi F, Hatano N, Izumori K, Tokuda M: Growth inhibitory effect of D-allose on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2005 Jul-Aug;25(4):2639-44. [ PubM Continue reading >>

Allose - Wikivividly

Allose - Wikivividly

Wiki as never seen before with video and photo OCC(O)[ [emailprotected] @H](O)[ [emailprotected] @H](O)[ [emailprotected] @H](O)C=O Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25C [77F], 100kPa). Allose is an aldohexose sugar. It is a rare monosaccharide that occurs as a 6-O-cinnamyl glycoside in the leaves of the African shrub Protea rubropilosa. Extracts from the fresh-water alga Ochromas malhamensis contain this sugar but of unknown absolute configuration, it is soluble in water and practically insoluble in methanol . 1. Jmol Jmol is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions. Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool and it is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.0, a standalone application and a software development kit exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways, for example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models, space-filling models, ribbon diagrams, etc. Jmol supports a range of chemical file formats, including Protein Data Bank, Crystallographic Information File, MDL Molfile. There is also a JavaScript-only version, JSmol, that can be used on computers with no Java, the Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, which is no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime fun Continue reading >>

Allose - Wikivisually

Allose - Wikivisually

the entire wiki with video and photo galleries find something interesting to watch in seconds Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25C [77F], 100kPa). Allose is an aldohexose sugar. It is a rare monosaccharide that occurs as a 6-O-cinnamyl glycoside in the leaves of the African shrub Protea rubropilosa. Extracts from the fresh-water alga Ochromas malhamensis contain this sugar but of unknown absolute configuration, it is soluble in water and practically insoluble in methanol . 1. Jmol Jmol is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions. Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool and it is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.0, a standalone application and a software development kit exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways, for example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models, space-filling models, ribbon diagrams, etc. Jmol supports a range of chemical file formats, including Protein Data Bank, Crystallographic Information File, MDL Molfile. There is also a JavaScript-only version, JSmol, that can be used on computers with no Java, the Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, which is no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, Chime requires p Continue reading >>

Rare Sugar D-allose Induces Programmed Cell Death In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells.

Rare Sugar D-allose Induces Programmed Cell Death In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells.

1. Apoptosis. 2008 Sep;13(9):1121-34. doi: 10.1007/s10495-008-0232-7. Rare sugar D-allose induces programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer cells. Naha N(1), Lee HY, Jo MJ, Chung BC, Kim SH, Kim MO. (1)Division of Life Science, Applied Life Science (Brain Korea 21 and EB-NCRC), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, South Korea. Erratum in Apoptosis. 2009 Jul;14(7):926-7. Development of effective agents for treatment of hormone-refractory prostatecancer (HRPC) has become a national medical priority. D-Allose is amonosaccharide (C-3 epimer of glucose) distributed rarely in nature; because ofits scarcity and cost, the biological effect has hardly been studied. In thepresent study, we demonstrated the inhibitory action of D-allose on proliferationof human HRPC cell lines, DU145 and PC-3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner,while human normal prostate epithelial (NPE) cell line, PrEC showed no remarkableeffect. In vitro treatment of D-allose resulted in the alteration of Bcl-2/Baxratio in favor of apoptosis (programmed cell death, PCD) in both the HRPC celllines, which was associated with the lowering of mitochondrial transmembranepotential (Deltapsi(m)) and the release of cytochrome C (cyt C), the cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the elevation of calciumconcentration in cytosol ([Ca(2+)](c)). D-Allose also induced G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in DU145 cell line. This study for the first time suggested theantiproliferative effect of D-allose through induction of PCD in HRPC cell lines,which could be due to the modulation of mitochondria mediated intrinsic apoptoticpathway. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects Continue reading >>

D-allose Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth By Reducing Glut1 Expression

D-allose Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth By Reducing Glut1 Expression

D-Allose Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth by Reducing GLUT1 Expression Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Volume 238 (2016) Issue 2 Pages 131-141 Published online: January 30, 2016 [Advance Publication] Released: - Received: October 27, 2015 corrected: - Accepted: January 07, 2016 Glucose is a major energy source for mammalian cells and is transported into cells via cell-specific expression of various glucose transporters (GLUTs). Especially, cancer cells require massive amounts of glucose as an energy source for their dysregulated growth and thus over-express GLUTs. d-allose, a C-3 epimer of d-glucose, is one of rare sugars that exist in small quantities in nature. We have shown that d-allose induces the tumor suppressor gene coding for thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and inhibits cancer cell growth by G1 cell cycle arrest. It has also been reported that GLUTs including GLUT1 are over-expressed in many cancer cell lines, which may contribute to larger glucose utilization. Since d-allose suppresses the growth of cancer cells through the upregulation of TXNIP expression, our present study focused on whether d-allose down-regulates GLUT1 expression via TXNIP expression and thus suppresses cancer cell growth. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses r Continue reading >>

Epimer, Epimers Of Glucose | Chemistry@tutorvista.com

Epimer, Epimers Of Glucose | [email protected]

Carbohydrates act as the most important source of energy for our body and one of the main types of nutrients. In living systems carbohydrates mainly convert to glucose which is also called as blood sugar and uses this sugar as energy source. The excess of glucose stores in the form of starch (in plants) and glycogen (in animal) for when it is needed. Depending on their chemical structures, carbohydrates can be simple or complex compounds. Simple carbohydrates include sugars found naturally in foods like dairy products, vegetables and fruits. While the complex carbohydrates include starchy vegetables, cereals, legumes and whole grain breads. They are organic molecules with the general formula of CH2O and constitute only 1 - 2 percent of cell mass as they provide the raw fuel for cellular energy production. They mainly classified according to molecular size and solubility. In general, the smaller carbohydrates are more soluble than the larger ones. For example, monosaccharides like glucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose, and ribose are soluble in water as they contain a single unit of sugar. Out of these carbohydrates, glucose is a hexose sugar in our blood, and fructose is mainly present in sweetens fruits, however galactose is found in milk and it is a isomer of glucose. Sugar with five carbon atoms are called as pentose sugar like deoxyribose and ribose present in nucleic acids. Monosaccharides are bonded together through glycosidic linkage to form disaccharides like sucrose, maltose and lactose. Sucrose composed of glucose and fructose unit while Lactose formed by the combination of glucose and galactose units. Similarly two units of glucose bonded together to form maltose sugar. Polysaccharides are composed of 10-1000 units of monosaccharides bonded through glyco Continue reading >>

Glucose Epimers & Carb Info: Biochemistry

Glucose Epimers & Carb Info: Biochemistry

how to tell from a fischer projection if D or L? if second to last carbon has OH group to the Right then "Derecha" D if second to last carbon has OH group to the Left then Left L source: fruit juices; hydrolysis of starch, cane sugar, maltose, and lactose the "sugar" of the body. the sugar carried by blood, the principal one used by tissues urine present in diabetes mellitus owing to raised blood glucose (hyperglycemia) source: fruit juices. honey. hydrolysis of cane sugar and inulin - can be changed to glucose in liver and used in body -hereditary fructose intolerance leads to fructose accumulation and hypoglycemia (not enough sugar) can be changed to glucose in liver and metabolized. synthesized in mammary gland to make the lactose of milk. a constituent of glycolipids and glycoproteins failure to metabolize leads to galactosemia (Galactosemia is a condition in which the body is unable to use (metabolize) the simple sugar galactose) and cataracts. lactose intolerance caused by lactase deficiency. source: hydrolysis of plant mannana and gums is caused by lack of MANNOSE-6-phosphate on lysosomal enzyme proteins Continue reading >>

Chapter 14 Practice

Chapter 14 Practice

D-Allose is the C-3 epimer of D-glucose. Write its structure in anopen-chain form, in a Haworth projection (a beta-pyranose), and in a chairform. Draw D-ribose in its pyranose form, in both a Haworth projection andin a chair form. Draw the disaccharide that would result from linking D-glucose fromits alpha-1 position to the C-4 position of D-galactose (which is the C-4epimer of D-glucose). Identify the sugars above as reducing or non-reducing sugars. Write the steps involved in converting open-chain D-ribose into methylbeta-D-ribofuranoside. Use methanol with acid catalysis. * Emil Fischer identifies the configuration of glucose * This sequence of experiments illustrates the logic behind "howdo we know" the structures of compounds. In the last 95 years, ourexperiments have become more complex and sophisticated but the art of creatinginformative experiments and the logic applied in their interpretation remainas valid as ever. Try to follow the award-winning logic. a) Glucose was known to be an aldohexose. b) All stereochemistry was related to the configuration at C-5 (Fischer assumed the C-5 OH was to the right - D - which was correct) The Kiliani-Fischer synthesis was developed to convert an aldose toa mixture of the two epimers that have one more carbon: 1) Arabinose, an aldopentose, leads to glucose and mannose. (Conclusion: glucose and mannose are C-2 epimers, with their C-3,4,5 likearabinose) 2) Arabinose is oxidized by HNO3 to give an optically active aldaricacid. (Conclusion: if C-5 is right, C-3 must be left - both right would have givenan optically inactive (meso) aldaric acid) 3) The aldaric acids from glucose and mannose are both optically active. (Conclusion: C-4 must be right - if C-4 were left, one of the two epimerswould have given an optically inactive ( Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. They originate as products of photosynthesis, an endothermic reductive condensation of carbon dioxide requiring light energy and the pigment chlorophyll. As noted here, the formulas of many carbohydrates can be written as carbon hydrates, Cn(H2O)n, hence their name. The carbohydrates are a major source of metabolic energy, both for plants and for animals that depend on plants for food. Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role, carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose), a component of the energy transport compound ATP , recognition sites on cell surfaces, and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA. Carbohydrates are called saccharides or, if they are relatively small, sugars. Several classifications of carbohydrates have proven useful, and are outlined in the following table. sugars having an aldehyde function or an acetal equivalent. sugars having a ketone function or an acetal equivalent. sugars oxidized by Tollens' reagent (or Benedict's or Fehling's reagents). sugars not oxidized by Tollens' or other reagents. Carbohydrates have been given non-systematic names, although the suffix ose is generally used. The most common carbohydrate is glucose (C6H12O6). Applying the terms defined above, glucose is a monosaccharide, an aldohexose (note that the function and size classifications are combined in one word) and a reducing sugar. The general structure of glucose and many other aldohexoses was established by simple chemical reactions. The following diagram illustrates the kind of evidence considered, although some of the reagents shown here are different from those used by the original scientists. Hot hydriodic acid (HI) wa Continue reading >>

Wo2009131291a1 - (d)-allose Inducing Programmed Cell Death In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Lines - Google Patents

Wo2009131291a1 - (d)-allose Inducing Programmed Cell Death In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Lines - Google Patents

WO2009131291A1 - (d)-allose inducing programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer lines - Google Patents (d)-allose inducing programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer lines WO2009131291A1 PCT/KR2008/007320 KR2008007320W WO2009131291A1 WO 2009131291 A1 WO2009131291 A1 WO 2009131291A1 KR 2008007320 W KR2008007320 W KR 2008007320W WO 2009131291 A1 WO2009131291 A1 WO 2009131291A1 Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation Gyeongsang National University Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients A61K31/70Carbohydrates; Sugars; Derivatives thereof The present invention relates allose by inducing programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer cell lines. More particularly, the present invention relates to a D-allose inducing programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer cell line of DU 145 in dose-dependent manner by repressing cell growth and inhibiting cell cycle as well as by reducing expression of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). (D)-ALLOSE INDUCING PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN HORMONE REFRACTORY PROSTATE CANCER LINES The present invention relates allose by inducing programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer cell lines. More particularly, the present invention relates to a D-allose inducing programmed cell death in hormone refractory prostate cancer cell line of DU 145 in dose-dependent manner by repressing cell growth and inhibiting cell cycle as well as by reducing expres

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