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Importance Of Glucose

The Importance Of Glucose To The Brain

The Importance Of Glucose To The Brain

Glucose, at its very core, is a carbohydrate. It is also the most important sugar in human metabolism, the reaction and breakdown of chemicals to maintain our living state. And within the brain itself, it is also the primary source of energy (along with glycogen) used to function. The brain needs glucose in order to perform its basic functions, as well as higher order executive functions, such as making decisions, focusing, or doing mental calculations. Although the brain weighs just a few pounds, it accounts for about 20 percent of the calories burned in the human body. Brain cells (or neurons) need twice as much energy than any other cells in the human body. This is because neurons in the brain are always active, thereby always expending energy. Even during sleep, the brain is still active, regulating the sleep cycle and other vital functions necessary for the body to survive. A lot has already been said about the importance of carbohydrates during periods of strenuous physical activity. But not many know of the importance of glucose during strenuous mental activity. You may remember a time in which you felt mentally and physically drained after long day mentally. This is because glucose levels drain in the brain rapidly, especially parts of the brain responsible for higher order executive functions. Previously, scientists thought that the brain always had an excess amount of glucose. But recent research tells a different story. One such research discovered that glucose levels in the hippocampus portion of the brain fell 30 percent when mental tasks use that portion of the brain, such as acquisition of new memory or spatial navigation. Generally, the more developed portions of the brain will use more glucose whereas areas of the brain regulating our vitals can do with Continue reading >>

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About Glucose

Everything You Need To Know About Glucose

You may know glucose by another name: blood sugar. Glucose is key to keeping the mechanisms of the body in top working order. When our glucose levels are optimal, it often goes unnoticed. But when they stray from recommended boundaries, you’ll notice the unhealthy effect it has on normal functioning. So what is glucose, exactly? It’s the simplest of the carbohydrates, making it a monosaccharide. This means it has one sugar. It’s not alone. Other monosaccharides include fructose, galactose, and ribose. Along with fat, glucose is one of the body’s preferred sources of fuel in the form of carbohydrates. People get glucose from bread, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. You need food to create the energy that helps keep you alive. While glucose is important, like with so many things, it’s best in moderation. Glucose levels that are unhealthy or out of control can have permanent and serious effects. Our body processes glucose multiple times a day, ideally. When we eat, our body immediately starts working to process glucose. Enzymes start the breakdown process with help from the pancreas. The pancreas, which produces hormones including insulin, is an integral part of how our body deals with glucose. When we eat, our body tips the pancreas off that it needs to release insulin to deal with the rising blood sugar level. Some people, however, can’t rely on their pancreas to jump in and do the work it’s supposed to do. One way diabetes occurs is when the pancreas doesn’t produce insulin in the way it should. In this case, people need outside help (insulin injections) to process and regulate glucose in the body. Another cause of diabetes is insulin resistance, where the liver doesn’t recognize insulin that’s in the body and continues to make inappropriate am Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose (sugar In The Blood) And What Purpose Does It Serve?

What Is Glucose (sugar In The Blood) And What Purpose Does It Serve?

Question: What is glucose (sugar in the blood) and what purpose does it serve? Answer: Glucose, or commonly called sugar, is an important energy source that is needed by all the cells and organs of our bodies. Some examples are our muscles and our brain. Glucose or sugar comes from the food we eat. Carbohydrates such as fruit, bread pasta and cereals are common sources of glucose. These foods are broken down into sugar in our stomachs, and then absorbed into the bloodstream. Normal glucose levels are typically less than 100 milligrams per deciliter, in the morning, when you first wake up, or before eating. We call this the fasting blood glucose or the sugar level. Normal glucose levels 1 to 2 hours after eating are typically less than 140. Next: What Causes High Blood Sugar And What Harm Can It Do To My Body? Continue reading >>

The Importance Of Glucose

The Importance Of Glucose

Dr. Jo, PhD Nutritionist and Registered Dietitian Hey all you early morning exercisers! Have you heard about the research that states that youll burn MORE fat if you exercise first thing in the morning on an empty stomach? Is there any truth to it? Actually there is. BUT, dont get excited.because do you know what else youre losing? BTW, its not good. Let me explain. To understand the rest of the story, you need to understand THREE facts about how the human body works. Most of the calories we burn are NOT from exercise. We burn calories 24/7 even when were sleeping. In fact, about of all the calories we burn are just to keep us alive. Just like cars need fuel to run, so do we. Humans require a blend of fat and a carbohydrate called glucose about a 50/50 mix. While most of the body is flexible (can run on either fat or glucose), the brain and red blood cells (the cells that carry oxygen throughout our body) MUST have glucose. These organs alone require about 800 calories of glucose every day. Plus, exercising muscles burn even more! I bet youre thinkingcant I turn some of this body fat into glucose? Dont we wish! If we could wed all be lean. If you exercise on an empty stomach, yes, your body burns a bit more than the usual 50% fat, but that just means its burning a bit less glucose. Its not like youre burning any more CALORIES! The act of exercising on an empty stomach just changed WHERE the calories came from. Sorryyoure not going to lose weight any quicker. Where is that glucose coming from? Heres where it gets really interesting That evening meal is long gone even if it was a BIG meal. Excess calories have long been converted into fat they dont just float around the blood stream until you need them. During the night your body maintained your blood glucose by converti Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose, also called dextrose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Glucose (from Greek glykys; “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of energy in cell function, and the regulation of its metabolism is of great importance (see fermentation; gluconeogenesis). Molecules of starch, the major energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants, consist of thousands of linear glucose units. Another major compound composed of glucose is cellulose, which is also linear. Dextrose is the molecule d-glucose. A related molecule in animals is glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate in most vertebrate and invertebrate animal cells, as well as those of numerous fungi and protozoans. See also polysaccharide. Continue reading >>

Sugar For The Brain: The Role Of Glucose In Physiological And Pathological Brain Function

Sugar For The Brain: The Role Of Glucose In Physiological And Pathological Brain Function

Go to: Glucose metabolism: fueling the brain The mammalian brain depends on glucose as its main source of energy. In the adult brain, neurons have the highest energy demand [1], requiring continuous delivery of glucose from blood. In humans, the brain accounts for ~2% of the body weight, but it consumes ~20% of glucose-derived energy making it the main consumer of glucose (~5.6 mg glucose per 100 g human brain tissue per minute [2]). Glucose metabolism provides the fuel for physiological brain function through the generation of ATP, the foundation for neuronal and non-neuronal cellular maintenance, as well as the generation of neurotransmitters. Therefore, tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology and disturbed glucose metabolism in the brain underlies several diseases affecting both the brain itself as well as the entire organism. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the functional implications and recent advances in understanding the fundamental role of glucose metabolism in physiological and pathological brain function. Although brain energy metabolism has been investigated for decades, certain aspects remain controversial, in particular in the field of energy substrate consumption and utilization. It is beyond the scope of this review to resolve these controversies; rather it is our aim to highlight conflicting concepts and results to stimulate discussion in key areas. To this end, we review the bioenergetics of neurotransmission, the cellular composition of a metabolic network, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), how peripheral glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis are sensed and controlled by the CNS, and the tight regulation of cellular survival through glucose-metabolizing enzymes. Glucose is required to provide Continue reading >>

The Importance Of Glucose

The Importance Of Glucose

Every cell of the human body requires energy to perform the metabolic functions that sustain life. Glucose is a small, simple sugar that serves as a primary fuel for energy production, especially for the brain, muscles and several other body organs and tissues. Glucose also serves as a building block for larger structural molecules of the body, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. The human body tightly regulates glucose levels. Abnormally high or low levels result in serious, potentially life-threatening complications. Video of the Day The brain normally relies almost exclusively on glucose to fuel its energy needs. Because of its high energy demands and inability to store glucose, the brain requires a constant supply of the sugar. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to prevent a significant drop in blood glucose, or hypoglycemia. Should such a drop occur, however, brain functions can begin to fail. Common brain-related symptoms of hypoglycemia include headache, dizziness, confusion, lack of concentration, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, slurred speech and poor coordination. A sudden, severe drop on blood glucose can lead to seizures and coma. The skeletal muscles normally constitute approximately 30 to 40 percent of total body weight, although this varies based on sex, age and fitness level. The skeletal muscles utilize large amounts of glucose during exercise. Unlike the brain, the skeletal muscles store blood sugar in the form of glycogen, which is quickly broken down to supply glucose during physical exertion. Muscle tissue also normally absorbs large amounts of glucose from the bloodstream during exercise. Although skeletal muscles can utilize fat-derived molecules for energy production, depletion of glucose stores during prolonged exercise can lead to s Continue reading >>

Glucose Metabolism

Glucose Metabolism

Energy is required for the normal functioning of the organs in the body. Many tissues can also use fat or protein as an energy source but others, such as the brain and red blood cells, can only use glucose. Glucose is stored in the body as glycogen. The liver is an important storage site for glycogen. Glycogen is mobilized and converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis when the blood glucose concentration is low. Glucose may also be produced from non-carbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol, by gluconeogenesis. It is gluconeogenesis that maintains blood glucose concentrations, for example during starvation and intense exercise. The endocrine pancreas The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions. The endocrine tissue is grouped together in the islets of Langerhans and consists of four different cell types each with its own function. Alpha cells produce glucagon. Beta cells produce proinsulin. Proinsulin is the inactive form of insulin that is converted to insulin in the circulation. Delta cells produce somatostatin. F or PP cells produce pancreatic polypeptide. Regulation of insulin secretion Insulin secretion is increased by elevated blood glucose concentrations, gastrointestinal hormones and Beta adrenergic stimulation. Insulin secretion is inhibited by catecholamines and somatostatin. The role of insulin and glucagon in glucose metabolism Insulin and glucagon work synergistically to keep blood glucose concentrations normal. Insulin: An elevated blood glucose concentration results in the secretion of insulin: glucose is transported into body cells. The uptake of glucose by liver, kidney and brain cells is by diffusion and does not require insulin. Click on the thumbnail for details of the effect of insulin: Glucagon: The effects of glu Continue reading >>

Importance Of Glucose In The Human Body

Importance Of Glucose In The Human Body

by Best Essay Writing Service / Tuesday, 10 November 2015 / Published in Academic Sample Papers , Essay writing help , Homework Writing Help The body needs glucose to carry out important functions. Glucose provides energy required to carry out specialized processes like cellular respiration and absorption. When the body lacks glucose, it can lead to serious complications which include a coma and in some instances death. This is defined as a 6 carbon sugar molecule that is high polar and easy to dissolve. It is found in D and L conformations what is more, it is only recognized by the body as D-glucose. Glucose provides body cells with energy and in essence, it is the only source for this. Once cells absorb glucose, the molecule is broken through glycolysis which converts hexose to pyruvate which is in turn metabolized in the cycle of citric acid. The body uses excess glucose that isnt required for energy to store a compound known as glycogen. This is done through the process known as glycogenesis. The liver, through this process creates hundreds of glycogen chains that get connected by chemical bonds. The body breaks glycogen to single energy units where the primary sources arent available. When the primary energy sources arent available, the body breaks the stored energy into units. Ideally this takes place during meals, workouts or when sleeping in order to ensure the blood sugar does not drop dangerously. Glucose, according to Essentials of glycobiology plays an important structural role because of its carbohydrate inclusion to proteins. The carbohydrate groups have an important role to play in enzyme binding and functioning. While most of the cells in the body can use fats to get energy, red blood cells and brain cells rely on glucose in order to meet their energy n Continue reading >>

The Importance Of Monitoring Blood-glucose Levels

The Importance Of Monitoring Blood-glucose Levels

Since your doctor told you that you have diabetes, you’ve had to make a few changes to your habits. Among other things, you probably now have to use a small device called blood glucose meter. Are you aware of the importance of monitoring your blood-glucose levels regularly? Essential facts about diabetes Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the way the body treats glucose (sugar) in the blood. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin, a hormone that allows the body’s cells to use glucose and produce energy. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is a two-part affliction: first, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, and second, insulin can no longer play its role properly because the body’s cells are unaffected by it (insulin resistance). People suffering from diabetes, no matter what type, have to be followed by a doctor for life. Type 2 diabetes can, in some cases, initially be controlled by healthy eating habits, weight loss and increased physical activity. Many people with type 2 diabetes, however, will eventually have to take medication; it is most often taken orally, but sometimes it is administered by injection, such as insulin. For its part, treating type 1 diabetes is essentially based on daily insulin injections. Oral medication is not effective for this type of diabetes. Why is it important to control blood-glucose levels? Many people who live with diabetes don’t feel any particular symptoms, unless they are experiencing hyperglycemia (glucose level is too high) or hypoglycemia (glucose level is too low). Hyperglycemia can cause significant damage to some organs, which then leads to complications of diabetes. These include: cardiac or vascular event, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or stroke; kidney pr Continue reading >>

Food For Thought: The Importance Of Glucose And Other Energy Substrates For Sustaining Brain Function Under Varying Levels Of Activity.

Food For Thought: The Importance Of Glucose And Other Energy Substrates For Sustaining Brain Function Under Varying Levels Of Activity.

Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Diabetes Metab. 2010 Oct;36 Suppl 3:S59-63. doi: 10.1016/S1262-3636(10)70469-9. Food for thought: the importance of glucose and other energy substrates for sustaining brain function under varying levels of activity. Department of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. [email protected] The brain requires a constant and substantial energy supply to maintain its main functions. For decades, it was assumed that glucose was the major if not the only significant source of energy for neurons. This view was supported by the expression of specific facilitative glucose transporters on cerebral blood vessels, as well as neurons. Despite the fact that glucose remains a key energetic substrate for the brain, growing evidence suggests a different scenario. Thus astrocytes, a major type of glial cells that express their own glucose transporter, play a critical role in coupling synaptic activity with glucose utilization. It was shown that glutamatergic activity triggers an enhancement of aerobic glycolysis in this cell type. As a result, lactate is provided to neurons as an additional energy substrate. Indeed, lactate has proven to be a preferential energy substrate for neurons under various conditions. A family of proton-linked carriers known as monocarboxylate transporters has been described and specific members have been found to be expressed by endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. Moreover, these transporters are subject to fine regulation of their expression levels and localization, notably in neurons, which suggests that lactate supply could be adjusted as a function of their level of activity. Considering the importance of energetics in the aetiology of several neurodegenerative di Continue reading >>

Importance Of Glucose Control.

Importance Of Glucose Control.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, USA. The importance of glycemic control in reducing the microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes has been clearly demonstrated with a long-term prospective, randomized interventional trial. The data are not as strong with regards to type 2 diabetes. The results of several prospective studies and one interventional study, however, all report benefits of improved glycemic indices on reducing microvascular complications. The available literature evaluating the relationship between glycemic control and macrovascular disease in type 1 and type 2 diabetes demonstrates the importance of glucose control. One could make rational scientific arguments or criticize the design and interpretations of any one individual study. Yet collectively the evidence is powerful. Additionally, there have been no negative studies reported. Lowering the glycosylated hemoglobin to less than 2 percentage points above the upper limit of normal should be the first glycemic goal for most patients with diabetes. Obviously, some patients cannot obtain this degree of control for a variety of reasons. Moreover, the intensity of therapy needs to be individualized and tailored to each patient. In addition, intensive glycemic control does not necessarily mean multiple injections or insulin pumps or home glucose monitoring 10 times a day. Intensive glycemic control means that the glycohemoglobin (hemoglobin and A1C and blood glucose values are in a normal or near-normal range, no matter how simple or how complex the treatment regimen. The most controversial issue is with regards to the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and accelerated atherosclerosis. This association is not consistently found in many of the large prospective studies, and Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When And How

Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When And How

Blood sugar testing is an important part of diabetes care. Find out when to test your blood sugar level, how to use a testing meter, and more. If you have diabetes, self-testing your blood sugar (blood glucose) can be an important tool in managing your treatment plan and preventing long-term complications of diabetes. You can test your blood sugar at home with a portable electronic device (glucose meter) that measures sugar level in a small drop of your blood. Why test your blood sugar Blood sugar testing — or self-monitoring blood glucose — provides useful information for diabetes management. It can help you: Judge how well you're reaching overall treatment goals Understand how diet and exercise affect blood sugar levels Understand how other factors, such as illness or stress, affect blood sugar levels Monitor the effect of diabetes medications on blood sugar levels Identify blood sugar levels that are high or low When to test your blood sugar Your doctor will advise you on how often you should check your blood sugar level. In general, the frequency of testing depends on the type of diabetes you have and your treatment plan. Type 1 diabetes. Your doctor may recommend blood sugar testing four to eight times a day if you have type 1 diabetes. You may need to test before meals and snacks, before and after exercise, before bed, and occasionally during the night. You may also need to check your blood sugar level more often if you are ill, change your daily routine or begin a new medication. Type 2 diabetes. If you take insulin to manage type 2 diabetes, your doctor may recommend blood sugar testing two or more times a day, depending on the type and amount of insulin you need. Testing is usually recommended before meals, and sometimes before bedtime. If you manage type 2 Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

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