diabetestalk.net

How Much Blood Sugar Is Normal During Pregnancy

Glucose Screening Tests During Pregnancy

Glucose Screening Tests During Pregnancy

TWO-STEP TESTING During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change your diet in any way. You will be asked to drink a liquid that contains glucose. Your blood will be drawn 1 hour after you drink the glucose solution to check your blood glucose level. If your blood glucose from the first step is too high, you will need to come back for a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. For this test: DO NOT eat or drink anything (other than sips of water) for 8 to 14 hours before your test. (You also cannot eat during the test.) You will be asked to drink a liquid that contains glucose, 100 grams (g) . You will have blood drawn before you drink the liquid, and again 3 more times every 60 minutes after you drink it. Each time, your blood glucose level will be checked. Allow at least 3 hours for this test. ONE-STEP TESTING You need to go to the lab one time for a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. For this test: DO NOT eat or drink anything (other than sips of water) for 8 to 14 hours before your test. (You also cannot eat during the test.) You will be asked to drink a liquid that contains glucose (75 g). You will have blood drawn before you drink the liquid, and again 2 more times every 60 minutes after you drink it. Each time, your blood glucose level will be checked. Allow at least 2 hours for this test. Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

What Is Gestational Diabetes? Gestational diabetes sometimes develops when a woman is pregnant. It’s when the blood glucose level (blood sugar level) of the mother goes too high during pregnancy. Having an elevated blood glucose level during pregnancy can cause problems for your baby—if it’s left untreated. Fortunately, doctors are vigilant about checking for gestational diabetes so that it can be identified and effectively managed. A pro-active treatment plan helps you have a good pregnancy and protects the health of your baby. Gestational Diabetes Symptoms Gestational diabetes doesn’t often cause noticeable symptoms for the mother. Other types of diabetes (eg, type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes) do cause symptoms such as increased thirst, but that is hardly ever noticed in gestational diabetes. Because there aren’t often symptoms, it’s very important to be tested for a high blood glucose level when you’re pregnant. (Your doctor will most likely test you for gestational diabetes sometime between the 24th and 28th week. You can learn more about the diagnostic process here.) Then your doctor will know if you need to be treated for gestational diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Causes and Risk Factors Gestational diabetes develops when your body isn’t able to produce enough of the hormone insulin during pregnancy. Insulin is necessary to transport glucose—what your body uses for energy—into the cells. Without enough insulin, you can build up too much glucose in your blood, leading to a higher-than-normal blood glucose level and perhaps gestational diabetes. The elevated blood glucose level in gestational diabetes is caused by hormones released by the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta produces a hormone called the human placental lactogen (HPL), also Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

High Blood Sugar in Pregnancy Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. The term 'gestational' refers to pregnancy. When a woman develops high blood glucose (sugar) during pregnancy but has never had elevated blood glucose in the past, she is diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects how the cells use glucose, the body's main fuel source. Gestational diabetes causes high blood glucose levels that can adversely affect pregnancy and the baby's health. The good news is that expectant mothers can help control gestational diabetes by exercising and eating healthy foods ensuring a healthy pregnancy and baby. Gestational diabetes mellitus and type II diabetes mellitus are different problems but have some key similarities. In either case, your insulin is not working well or it is not being produced in sufficient supply to keep blood glucose levels normal. In pregnancy, some insulin resistance is expected, as the placenta makes hormones that work against insulin. But as long as the pancreas can keep up with the demand to counteract the pregnancy hormones from the placenta, blood glucose levels can remain normal. If the pancreas cannot keep up, then gestational diabetes is the result. Risks Factors for Gestational Diabetes Pregnant women with any of the following appear to be at an increased risk for developing gestational diabetes; the risk increases when multiple risk factors are present. They include: Obesity Glycosuria - sugar in your urine Family history of diabetes You have a prior history of gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies If you are of Black, Hispanic, Asian or American Indian descent Over the age of 25 What are the Risks to Babies Born to Mothers with Gestational Diabetes? Gestational Diabetes affects yo Continue reading >>

Diabetes During Pregnancy

Diabetes During Pregnancy

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body. It can damage blood vessels and nerves. It can harm the eyes, kidneys, and heart. In early pregnancy, high blood sugar can lead to birth defects in a growing baby. There are 3 types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Type 2 diabetes. This is when the body can’t make enough insulin or use it normally. It’s not an autoimmune disease. Gestational diabetes. This is a condition in which the blood glucose level goes up and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy in a woman who has not been diagnosed with diabetes before. It happens in about 3 in 100 to 9 in 100 pregnant women. What causes diabetes during pregnancy? Some women have diabetes before they get pregnant. This is called pregestational diabetes. Other women may get a type of diabetes that only happens in pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes. Pregnancy can change how a woman's body uses glucose. This can make diabetes worse, or lead to gestational diabetes. During pregnancy, an organ called the placenta gives a growing baby nutrients and oxygen. The placenta also makes hormones. In late pregnancy, the hormones estrogen, cortisol, and human placental lactogen can block insulin. When insulin is blocked, it’s called insulin resistance. Glucose can't go into the body’s cells. The glucose stays in Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Has your doctor diagnosed you with gestational diabetes (GD or GDM), a form of diabetes that appears only during pregnancy? While it might feel overwhelming at first, it turns out that this pregnancy complication is much more common than you might think. In fact, up to 9.2 percent of pregnant women have GD, according to a 2014 analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Know that with careful monitoring and treatment, it can be managed, and you can have a safe and healthy pregnancy. READ MORE: What causes gestational diabetes? Who's most at risk? What are the symptoms? How is it diagnosed? What are the complications? How can you prevent gestational diabetes? How is it treated? What happens to mom and baby after birth? What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes usually starts between week 24 and week 28 of pregnancy when hormones from the placenta block insulin — a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the body's metabolism of fats and carbs and helps the body turn sugar into energy — from doing its job and prevent the body from regulating the increased blood sugar of pregnancy effectively. This causes hyperglycemia (or high levels of sugar in the blood), which can damage the nerves, blood vessels and organs in your body. Who’s most at risk for gestational diabetes? While researchers aren't certain why some women get gestational diabetes while others don’t, they do know that you may be at an increased risk if: You are overweight. Having a BMI of 30 or more going into pregnancy is one of the most common risk factors for gestational diabetes because the extra weight affects insulin's ability to properly keep blood sugar levels in check. You have a higher level of abdominal fat. Recent research published in the American Di Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

Tweet Blood glucose control is one of the most important factors during pregnancy. Tight blood glucose control, helps to ensure the best chance of a successful pregnancy. Diabetes control is important for people who have diabetes going into their pregnancy as well as people who develop diabetes during their pregnancy (gestational diabetes). What is gestational diabetes? It has been reported that on average 2% to 4% of women develop temporary diabetes also known as gestational diabetes. This happens because they are unable to produce an increased amount of insulin to overcome the resistance levels. In gestational diabetes there is not normally any show of external symptoms normally recognised as characteristic of the disease for example excessive thirst, tiredness and increased urination. Blood sugar control during pregnancy Good blood glucose control reduces the risks of complications developing for the mother and baby. The target HbA1c for mothers before and during pregnancy is 6.1% (or 43 mmol/mol). [91] People with diabetes before their pregnancy will be advised to keep excellent control of their blood sugar before and throughout the pregnancy. The first eight weeks of the pregnancy are a critical period and so it is highly recommended that strong control is achieved prior to becoming pregnant wherever possible. Mothers who develop gestational diabetes will be treated initially with diet and exercise but may be put onto oral hypoglycaemics (tablets) or insulin injections if blood sugar levels remain high. Diabetes management To help you to meet the challenging blood glucose targets, you will be expected to test your blood glucose before each meal and 1 hour after eating. People taking insulin for their diabetes will also need to test before bed each night. You will h Continue reading >>

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Diabetes in pregnancy There are two types of diabetes that occur in pregnancy: Gestational diabetes. This term refers to a mother who does not have diabetes before becoming pregnant but develops a resistance to insulin because of the hormones of pregnancy. Pregestational diabetes. This term describes women who already have insulin-dependent diabetes and become pregnant. With both types of diabetes, there can be complications for the baby. It is very important to keep tight control of blood sugar during pregnancy. What causes diabetes in pregnancy? The placenta supplies a growing fetus with nutrients and water. It also produces a variety of hormones to maintain the pregnancy. Some of these hormones (estrogen, cortisol, and human placental lactogen) can block insulin. This usually begins about 20 to 24 weeks into the pregnancy. As the placenta grows, more of these hormones are produced, and insulin resistance becomes greater. Normally, the pancreas is able to make additional insulin to overcome insulin resistance, but when the production of insulin is not enough to overcome the effect of the placental hormones, gestational diabetes results. Pregnancy also may change the insulin needs of a woman with preexisting diabetes. Insulin-dependent mothers may require more insulin as pregnancy progresses. Who is affected by diabetes in pregnancy? About 5 percent of all pregnant women in the U.S. are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetics make up the vast majority of pregnancies with diabetes. Some pregnant women require insulin to treat their diabetes. Why is diabetes in pregnancy a concern? The mother's excess amounts of blood glucose are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. This causes the baby's body to secrete increased amounts of insulin, which result Continue reading >>

Pre-existing Diabetes And Pregnancy

Pre-existing Diabetes And Pregnancy

If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and are planning a family, you should plan your pregnancy as much as possible. Controlling your blood sugars before conception and throughout pregnancy gives you the best chance of having a trouble-free pregnancy and birth and a healthy baby. If you have diabetes and your pregnancy is unplanned, there’s still plenty you can do to give your baby the best start in life. The information on this page is for women who have diabetes before becoming pregnant. If you develop diabetes during pregnancy, it is called gestational diabetes. Planned pregnancy Visit your doctor or diabetes educator at least 6 months before you start trying to fall pregnant, if you can. You will be given advice and guidance on controlling your blood sugars as tightly as possible, and taking necessary supplements like folate. You may also be advised to change medications. If you are healthy and your diabetes is well controlled when you become pregnant, you have a good a chance of having a normal pregnancy and birth. Diabetes that is not well controlled during pregnancy can affect your health long-term and can also be risky for your baby. Unplanned pregnancy Not everybody can plan their pregnancy. If you have diabetes and think you might be pregnant, see your doctor as soon as you can. Your healthcare team You may be cared for by a team of health professionals including: an obstetrician who can handle high risk pregnancies a specialist experienced in diabetes care during pregnancy, who may be an endocrinologist or who may be a general physician a diabetes educator to help you manage your diabetes a dietician who can provide dietary advice at all the different stages - before conception, while pregnant and after the birth a midwife who is experienced in all aspects Continue reading >>

Check Your Knowledge: Diabetes And Pregnancy

Check Your Knowledge: Diabetes And Pregnancy

November is Diabetes Awareness Month. How much do you know about diabetes during pregnancy? Check your knowledge below! Diabetes can affect women during their childbearing years. Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose (blood sugar) levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. Having diabetes during pregnancy can impact the health of both the mother and her unborn baby. If a woman has poor control of her diabetes during pregnancy, which means that her blood sugar levels are often above normal, this increases the chances for problems for her baby, such as a baby growing too large, which may lead to complications during delivery. It also can cause serious complications for the woman. Working to keep blood sugar in control (in the normal range) before and during pregnancy can help prevent these problems. What are the 3 common types of diabetes? Type 1: The pancreas makes little or no insulin (a hormone in the body to help get glucose (sugar) into the cells of the body) so the body can't use blood sugar for energy. Type 2: The body either makes too little insulin or the insulin that is made is unable to help cells use blood sugar for energy. Gestational: This is a type of diabetes that is first seen or diagnosed in a pregnant woman. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is similar to type 2 but it is first seen or diagnosed when a woman is pregnant. What are possible problems for the baby from blood sugar that is not well controlled in a pre Continue reading >>

Sharp Spike In Diabetes During Pregnancy

Sharp Spike In Diabetes During Pregnancy

For the past decade, the rate of gestational diabetes as previously measured has soared as much as 50 percent. “We shouldn’t be surprised,” Boyd Metzger says. “The fact that we have a lot of gestational diabetes to deal with is consistent with the major impact that diabetes and obesity are having in our population at large. How could we expect pregnancy to escape that?” NORTHWESTERN (US)—Two to three times more pregnant women may soon be diagnosed and treated for gestational diabetes due to new guidelines for assessing risky blood sugar levels. “As a result of this study, more than 16 percent of the entire population of pregnant women qualified as having gestational diabetes,” says lead author Boyd Metzger, the Tom D. Spies Professor of Metabolism and Nutrition at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. “Before, between 5 to 8 percent of pregnant women were diagnosed with this.” Blood sugar levels that were once considered in the normal range are now seen as causing a sharp increase in the occurrence of overweight babies with high insulin levels, early deliveries, cesarean section deliveries, and potentially life-threatening preeclampsia, a condition in which the mother has high blood pressure that affects her and the baby. Large babies, the result of fat accumulation, are defined as weighing in the upper 10 percent of babies in a particular ethnic group. Because large babies increase the risk of injury during vaginal delivery, many of the women in the study were more likely to have a cesarean section. Previous guidelines to diagnose gestational diabetes were based on blood sugar levels that identified women at high risk for developing diabetes in the future. The guidelines weren’t related to risks to the baby or other risks to the Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Pregnancy: Low Blood Sugar

Diabetes In Pregnancy: Low Blood Sugar

How Can I Get Low Blood Sugar? You can get a low blood sugar (blood glucose) if you... Delay a meal Skip a meal or snack Eat too little Take too much insulin Exercise more than usual Drink alcohol without eating (drinking is not advised during pregnancy How will I Feel if My Blood Sugar is Low? Symptoms of low blood glucose are... Headache Dizziness Drowsiness Cold sweat Difficulty concentrating Pounding heart Difficulty talking Tingling of mouth Irritability Extreme hunger What Should I Do if My Blood Glucose Might Be Low? Sit down - Get help if available. Test your blood sugar - If your blood glucose is less than 70, eat or drink 15gms of carbohydrate (see below) or take 3 glucose tabs. Retest your blood sugar in 15 minutes - If your blood glucose has not increased at least 20 points, consume another 15 grams of carbohydrate. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until blood sugar is 70 or more (x2). Continue to monitor how you feel and retest your blood sugar as indicated. The Following Foods Have About 15 Grams of Fast-Acting Carbohydrates: 3-4 glucose tablets (with water) 1 tube glucose gel 1/2 cup fruit juice 1/3 cup regular JELL-O® (not diet) 1 tablespoon honey or sugar 1 tablespoon jam or jelly (not diet) 1/2 cup regular soda (not diet) 6 Life Savers® 4 Starbursts® 1 cup fat-free milk Continue reading >>

Understanding Gestational Diabetes

Understanding Gestational Diabetes

Introduction Approximately 3 to 5 percent of all pregnant women in the United States are diagnosed as having gestational diabetes. These women and their families have many questions about this disorder. Some of the most frequently asked questions are: What is gestational diabetes and how did I get it? How does it differ from other kinds of diabetes? Will it hurt my baby? Will my baby have diabetes? What can I do to control gestational diabetes? Will I need a special diet? Will gestational diabetes change the way or the time my baby is delivered? Will I have diabetes in the future? This brochure will address these and many other questions about diet, exercise, measurement of blood sugar levels, and general medical and obstetric care of women with gestational diabetes. It must be emphasized that these are general guidelines and only your health care professional(s) can tailor a program specific to your needs. You should feel free to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor or other health care provider, as no one knows more about you and the condition of your pregnancy. What is gestational diabetes and what causes it? Diabetes (actual name is diabetes mellitus) of any kind is a disorder that prevents the body from using food properly. Normally, the body gets its major source of energy from glucose, a simple sugar that comes from foods high in simple carbohydrates (e.g., table sugar or other sweeteners such as honey, molasses, jams, and jellies, soft drinks, and cookies), or from the breakdown of complex carbohydrates such as starches (e.g., bread, potatoes, and pasta). After sugars and starches are digested in the stomach, they enter the blood stream in the form of glucose. The glucose in the blood stream becomes a potential source of energy for the entire body, sim Continue reading >>

Glucose Test During Pregnancy For Gestational Diabetes

Glucose Test During Pregnancy For Gestational Diabetes

Congratulations! A baby is on the way. Your nine months will be filled with preparations, from decorating the nursery to stocking up on bibs and booties to going for regular checkups to ensure that you and your baby are as healthy as possible. One of the tests that you’ll have during this time is to check for gestational diabetes. A few weeks ago, we looked at Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes, which is growing more common among pregnant women, will be our focus this week. What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes, or GDM for short, is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. In fact, it only occurs during pregnancy. (Gestational diabetes is not the same as diabetes in women who have existing diabetes and become pregnant). Diabetes, as most of you know, is a condition in which blood glucose levels go too high. High blood glucose levels can be harmful to you and, in the case of pregnancy, to your unborn child. Fortunately, blood glucose, or sugar, levels can be controlled during pregnancy, and in most instances, high blood sugar levels return to normal after the baby is delivered. According to the National Institutes of Health, up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States have gestational diabetes. What causes gestational diabetes? A lot of changes occur in the body during pregnancy, many of them occurring due to widely fluctuating hormone levels. The placenta, which is what connects the baby to the mother’s uterine lining, makes various hormones, and while this is a good thing, these hormones can sometimes make it hard for the body’s insulin to work properly (a condition called insulin resistance). As a result, blood sugar levels can start to climb in women who cannot produce enough insulin to deal with the insulin resistance. How do you Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Sugars In Pregnancy

Normal Blood Sugars In Pregnancy

I have until now avoided discussing the issue of what normal blood sugars should be in pregnancy because it looked like gynecologists were being more aggressive with blood sugar control during pregnancy then other doctors. Blood sugar control is particularly important in pregnancy because a fetus that is exposed to continually high blood sugars will experience significant changes in the way that its genes express which will affect its blood sugar metabolism for the rest of its life. High blood sugar will also make babies very large, which poses problems when it is time for delivery, some life-threatening. Blood sugars are lower in pregnant women because there is a higher blood volume during pregnancy, but it is starting to look like the targets gynecologists have been recommending, which would have been excellent for non-diabetic women are considerably higher than normal. This was made clear by a new meta-study that analyzed a series of studies of the blood sugars of a wide range of normal pregnant women using Continuous Glucose Monitoring, home testing, and hospital lab results. It makes it clear that the current targets for pregnancy are probably too high. Here is the full text version of the meta-study: Patterns of Glycemia in Normal Pregnancy: Should the current therapeutic targets be challenged? Teri L. Hernandez, et al. Diabetes Care July 2011 vol. 34 no. 7 1660-1668. It concludes that the following appear to be truly normal blood sugars for pregnant women: AVERAGE BLOOD SUGARS IN NORMAL PREGNANT WOMEN Fasting: 70.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl (3.94 mmol/L ± .43) One Hour Post Meal: 108.9 ± 12.9 mg/dl (6.05 ± .72 mmol/L) Two Hours Post Meal: 99.3 ±10.2 mg/dl (5.52 ± .57 mmol/L ) A commentary published in this month's Diabetes Care gives more insight into the importance of t Continue reading >>

Pregnancy If You Have Diabetes

Pregnancy If You Have Diabetes

If you have diabetes and plan to have a baby, you should try to get your blood glucose levels close to your target range before you get pregnant. Staying in your target range during pregnancy, which may be different than when you aren’t pregnant, is also important. High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can harm your baby during the first weeks of pregnancy, even before you know you are pregnant. If you have diabetes and are already pregnant, see your doctor as soon as possible to make a plan to manage your diabetes. Working with your health care team and following your diabetes management plan can help you have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. If you develop diabetes for the first time while you are pregnant, you have gestational diabetes. How can diabetes affect my baby? A baby’s organs, such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs, start forming during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. High blood glucose levels can be harmful during this early stage and can increase the chance that your baby will have birth defects, such as heart defects or defects of the brain or spine. High blood glucose levels during pregnancy can also increase the chance that your baby will be born too early, weigh too much, or have breathing problems or low blood glucose right after birth. High blood glucose also can increase the chance that you will have a miscarriage or a stillborn baby.1 Stillborn means the baby dies in the womb during the second half of pregnancy. How can my diabetes affect me during pregnancy? Hormonal and other changes in your body during pregnancy affect your blood glucose levels, so you might need to change how you manage your diabetes. Even if you’ve had diabetes for years, you may need to change your meal plan, physical activity routine, and medicines. Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar