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How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Type 1 diabetes used to be called "juvenile diabetes," because it's usually diagnosed in children and teens. But don't let that old-school name fool you. It can start when you're a grownup, too. Many of the symptoms are similar to type 2 diabetes, so it's sometimes tricky to know which kind you've got. But it's important to learn the differences and figure out what's going on so you can get the treatment that's right for you. Causes Doctors aren't sure exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. They believe your genes may play a role. Researchers are also checking to see if there are things that trigger the disease, like your diet or a virus that you caught. What experts do know is that when you have type 1 diabetes, something goes wrong with your immune system -- the body's defense against germs. It destroys beta cells in your pancreas that are responsible for making a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose -- or sugar -- to get into your cells, where it's turned into energy. But if you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't make insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream and, over time, can cause serious health problems. Symptoms If you have type 1 diabetes, you may get similar symptoms as your friends who have type 2. You may notice that you: Get extremely thirsty or hungry Need to pee often Feel unusually tired or weak Lose weight suddenly Get blurred vision or other changes in the way you see Get vaginal yeast infections Have breath that smells fruity Can't breathe well Sometimes, type 1 diabetes could even make you lose consciousness. Who's Most Likely to Get It as an Adult? People of all races and ethnic groups can get type 1 diabetes, but it's most common among those of northern European descent. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Overview, Symptoms, And Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes: Overview, Symptoms, And Treatment

Type 1 diabetes requires lifelong treatment once it develops. The body does not produce enough insulin, and blood glucose levels remain high unless a person takes steps to manage high blood sugar. In the United States, an estimated 0.55 percent of adults have type 1 diabetes . This makes up around 5 percent of people with diabetes . While no full cure for this type is available, the range of management options means that a person with the disorder can lead a full and active life. In this article, we explore what causes type 1 diabetes, how to manage it, and ways to recognize the symptoms. Type 1 diabetes can occur in people of all ages. Diabetes occurs when the glucose, or sugar, in the blood is poorly controlled and consistently high. Type 1 occurs when the body does not produce enough of the hormone that allows cells to absorb and use glucose. This hormone is called insulin . While a person can prevent type 2 by avoiding a sugar-rich diet and inactive lifestyle, preventing type 1 is not possible. The immune system attacks clusters of cells in the pancreas that would normally produce insulin, called islets, stopping or slowing insulin production. Without enough insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells and remains in the bloodstream. A person with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin for the rest of their life. Not doing so can result in ever-increasing blood sugar levels and dangerous complications. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, although it is more common in children and young adults. The physical effects of type 1 diabetes include: weight loss without an apparent trigger or cause Refer any clear signs of diabetes to a primary care physician, who will administer tests to confirm that these are a result of diabetes. After receiving a diagnosis of type 1 dia Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis There are several blood tests for type 1 diabetes in children: Random blood sugar test. This is the primary screening test for type 1 diabetes. A blood sample is taken at a random time. Regardless of when your child last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher suggests diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after your child fasts overnight. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 1 diabetes. Additional tests Your doctor will likely recommend additional tests to confirm the type of diabetes that your child has. It's important to distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes because treatment strategies differ. These additional tests include: Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes Urine tests to check for the presence of ketones, which also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2 After the diagnosis Your child will need regular follow-up appointments to ensure good diabetes management and to check his or her A1C levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of 7.5 or lower for all children. Your doctor also will periodically use blood and urine tests to check your child's: Cholesterol levels Thyroid function Kidney function In addition, your doctor will regularly: Assess your child's blood pressure and growth Check the sites Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

The Complexity Of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

The Complexity Of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

The Complexity of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes A type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosis can happen suddenly and unexpectedly. Many times, the disease is identified throughsymptoms that can appear as a cold or flu. While it represents a big life change, people with T1D can live long, full, happy lives. T1D often initially presents itself as the flu or malaise, but physicians must be quick to spot the telltale signs of a possible T1D diagnosis and order additional tests. Doctors will often recommend a fasting blood-glucose test when they suspect T1D may be present. This is a small sample blood test typically conducted in the morning after fasting overnight. The fasting helps give doctors a clear look at how the body manages blood-sugar levels without the impact of food intake. The oral glucose test takes the fasting test one step further. After fasting and having an initial blood test, people drink a sugary drink and then have their blood sugar tested over the course of approximately two hours. This shows the benchmark sugar without outside influences and later measures how the body responds to carbohydrate (sugar) intake. The quickest option for testing for T1D is a random glucose test. This test simply measures a patients current blood sugar regardless of when and what he or she ate most recently. On occasion, this will be the first test, and then doctors will elevate to tests noted above as needed. The most comprehensive test is the hemoglobin A1c test. This blood test shows the average blood-sugar level for the past two or three months. The onset of symptomatic diabetes doesnt always happen all at once. During what is known as the honeymoon phase, people with T1D can experience a period in which they are asymptomatic. The honeymoon phase typically lasts a few months to a year Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

On this page: Every day, two more Australian children and as many as six Australians of all ages develop type 1 diabetes, which makes it one of the most common serious diseases among children. Diabetes is a condition of the endocrine system (the system of glands that delivers hormones). To use glucose (blood sugar) for energy, the hormone insulin needs to be secreted by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. A person with type 1 diabetes is unable to produce insulin. Treatment involves closely monitoring blood sugar levels, modifying diet and taking daily injections of insulin. Type 1 diabetes can affect anyone, but is more common in people under 30 years and tends to begin in childhood. Other names for type 1 diabetes have included juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Approximately one in every ten Australians with diabetes has type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is much more common in Australia than in other countries. The pancreas and type 1 diabetes The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. This simple sugar is then transported to each cell via the bloodstream. The pancreas secretes the hormone insulin, which allows the glucose to migrate from the blood into the cells. Once inside a cell, the glucose is ‘burned’, along with oxygen, to produce energy. The pancreas of a person with type 1 diabetes doesn’t make enough insulin to keep blood glucose normal. Without insulin, the glucose remains in the bloodstream at high levels. The body recognises the problem and tries to provide the cells with other sources of fuel, such as stored fats. Extensive fat burning can release by-products called ketones, which are dangerous in high amounts. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes The symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: excessive t Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

With more than a third of diabetes cases in the United States occurring in people over the age of 65, diabetes is often referred to as an age-related condition. But around 208,000 children and adolescents are estimated to have diabetes, and this number is increasing. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of the condition among children and adolescents. A 2009 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that type 1 diabetes prevalence stands at 1.93 in every 1,000 children and adolescents, while type 2 diabetes affects 0.24 in every 1,000. In 2014, Medical News Today reported that, based on a study published in JAMA, rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have increased significantly among American children and teenagers. The study found that incidence of type 1 diabetes in children aged up to 9 years increased by 21 percent between 2001 and 2009, while incidence of type 2 diabetes among youths aged 10-19 years rose by 30.5 percent. The researchers note: "The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation." Contents of this article: Here are some key points about diabetes in children. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are both increasing in the youth of America Often, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop over just a few weeks If type 1 diabetes is not spotted, the child can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) What is diabetes in children? Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juve Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease marked by high blood glucose (sugar) levels, called hyperglycemia. It’s considered an autoimmune disease, resulting from an immune system attack on the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin — a hormone that helps certain cells in the body absorb glucose. And without enough insulin, your blood glucose levels can rise to unhealthy levels, causing a range of health problems. Type 1 diabetes makes up only about 5 percent of all diabetes cases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). By comparison, type 2 diabetes — which develops when cells cannot use insulin properly — makes up 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases. However, type 1 and 2 diabetes often share the same symptoms associated with hyperglycemia. Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms Possible symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: Excessive thirst or hunger Increased urination Unexplained weight loss Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, or loss of feeling in the feet Fatigue Dry, itchy skin Vision changes, including blurry eyesight Slow-healing sores and increased rate of infections Nausea, vomiting, and stomach pains (in cases where the disease develops quickly) Without insulin and the ability to use sugar for energy, the body may start breaking down fat as an alternate source of energy, resulting in high levels of ketones (toxic acids) in the blood. This condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, may cause: Dry skin and mouth Inability to keep fluids down Stomach pain Shortness of breath Flushed face "Fruity" smell to breath Diabetes and Hypoglycemia People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin — usually by injection, or by using an insulin pump — to provide their cells with the necessary hormone. However, too much insulin can cause cells t Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

Top Ten Tips For People Newly Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

Top Ten Tips For People Newly Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

Twitter summary: Top 10 tips for the newly diagnosed with t1 #diabetes – know that it will NOT hold you back Know that type 1 diabetes will NOT hold you back. Type 1 patients have climbed Mount Everest, completed Ironman Triathlons, and competed at the highest levels of professional sports. These include Charlie Kimball – the first driver with diabetes to win a race in the IZOD IndyCar Series, Missy Foy, the only runner with diabetes ever to qualify for Olympic Marathon Trials, Olympic cross-country skier Kris Freeman, ballerina Zippora Karz of the New York City Ballet, NFL quarterback Jay Cutler, NBA small forward Adam Morrison, PGA tour golfer Scott Verplank, LPGA golfers Michelle McGann and Kelli Kuehne, Olympic gold medalist Gary Hall, Jr, tennis legend Arthur Ashe, and many more! Think of glucose readings as information and every day as an experiment - A reading of 210 mg/dl or 45 mg/dl should never be thought of as a grade that reflects the quality of your diabetes management. Your glucose meter is your compass and is one of the best tools at your disposal to help manage the disease. Studies show that testing more often is associated with better diabetes control. Exercise is a critical tool at your disposal! It's important to find forms of exercise you enjoy, whether individually or in a group. Remember that people with diabetes tend to be at higher risk for heart disease and depression, and exercise can help with both (see studies that show how exercise has benefits for both heart disease and depression). Exercise also benefits your diabetes control immediately - even something as simple as five minutes of walking can lower your blood glucose quite dramatically. Many patients are fans of activity trackers (e.g., Fitbit, UP by Jawbone, Nike Fuelband, the Moves Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes

Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes

By Gary Gilles | Reviewed by Joel Forman, MD The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes can be problematic. Unless there is a known history of diabetes in the family, most people do not recognize the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes when they first appear. These symptoms can easily be mistaken for a stomach virus because vomiting is frequently present. As symptoms persist and worsen, most people seek medical attention and only then discover they have type 1 diabetes. Because symptoms begin to appear quickly once the pancreas shuts down its production of insulin ,most people are diagnosed within a short period of time from when the symptoms begin. In some cases, it may take longer. Diagnosing diabetes requires a blood sample to measure glucose levels in the blood. There are three standard tests used for diagnosing type 1 diabetes. The type of test used for any particular person depends on the situation and the doctors preference. These tests are: In an FBG test, a blood sample is obtained after a period of fasting for at least eight hours. This usually means no food or drink (except water) is taken after midnight on the night before the test. A blood sample is usually drawn early the next day before any food is eaten or beverages consumed. If the results of this test revealed a glucose reading of 126 mg/dl or higher it indicates diabetes. To confirm the diagnosis, it is usually necessary to repeat the test a second time on a different day. Fasting glucose levels are normally between 70 to 110 mg/dl in a person without diabetes. The FBG test is the most commonly used test for diagnosing diabetes. In a random blood glucose test, a blood sample is also tested to measure your glucose but there is no consideration given to when you ate your last meal. A glucose level of more than Continue reading >>

Newly Diagnosed

Newly Diagnosed

If you are here at “First 30 Days” it most likely means you or someone your know and probably love, have been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Let us be the first to say, “We’re sorry,” but we are glad you have found your way here. On this page you’ll find the following: The Basic Basics – what you need to know now The Next Layer – information for beyond the initial diagnosis Teaching Type 1 to others – guides for anyone who needs to be in the know Personal stories – written about diagnosis plus additional support for parents The “Type1Day1” film project – what others wish they had known on their Day 1 Online community + support systems in the Beyond Type 1 community The Basic Basics A Type 1 diagnosis is overwhelming – some say like swimming with sharks. These Basic Basics are just that – the basics you need in the first few days of adjusting Type 1. There’s always more in depth information available, but for now, here are our selections for getting out of the hospital or doctor’s office. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 diabetes develops gradually, but the symptoms may seem to come on suddenly. If you notice that you or your child have several of the symptoms listed below, make an appointment to see the doctor. Here’s why symptoms seem to develop suddenly: something triggers the development of type 1 diabetes (researchers think it’s a viral infection—read this article on what causes type 1 diabetes, and the body loses its ability to make insulin. However, at that point, there’s still insulin in the body so glucose levels are still normal. Over time, a decreasing amount of insulin is made in the body, but that can take years. When there’s no more insulin in the body, blood glucose levels rise quickly, and these symptoms can rapidly develop: Extreme weakness and/or tiredness Extreme thirst—dehydration Increased urination Abdominal pain Nausea and/or vomiting Blurry vision Wounds that don’t heal well Irritability or quick mood changes Changes to (or loss of) menstruation There are also signs of type 1 diabetes. Signs are different from symptoms in that they can be measured objectively; symptoms are experienced and reported by the patient. Signs of type 1 diabetes include: Weight loss—despite eating more Rapid heart rate Reduced blood pressure (falling below 90/60) Low body temperature (below 97º F) There is an overall lack of public awareness of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Making yourself aware of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes is a great way to be proactive about your health and the health of your family members. If you notice any of these signs or symptoms, it’s possible that you have (or your child has) type 1 diabetes. A doctor can make that diagnosis by checking blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

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