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How Is Blood Sugar Regulated

High And Low Blood Sugar Issues

High And Low Blood Sugar Issues

Blood sugar concentrations or blood glucose levels are the amount of sugar or glucose present in your blood stream. Your body naturally regulates blood sugar (glucose) levels as a part your body”s metabolic processes. Glucose or sugar is the primary energy mechanism for cells and blood lipids. Glucose or blood sugar is transported from your intestines or liver to the cells in your body via the bloodstream. The absorption of glucose is promoted by insulin or the hormone produced in the pancreas. If your sugar levels are not balanced you may have high or low blood sugar issues. Low sugar issues are hypoglycemia and high blood sugar indicates that you have hyperglycemia or hyperglycemia symptoms. High or low blood sugar levels cause different problems. Low blood sugar levels can cause dementia, comas or death. High blood sugar is a major cause of damage to your body”s internal organs. Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar or hypoglycemia indicates the level of glucose in your blood has dramatically dropped below what your body need to function. When your blood sugar drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter symptom will develop. You may feel tired and anxious or weak and shaky. Your heart rate may be rapid and you feel as if you are having a heart attack. Eating something sugary will bring your sugar levels back to normal almost immediately and symptoms will subside. Sugar levels that are below 40 mg/dL cause you to have behavior changes. You may feel very irritable and become weak and confused. You may not realize you need to eat to raise your blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels below 20 mg/dL will most certainly cause a loss of consciousness or perhaps you will experience seizures. You will need medical care immediately. Hypoglycemia symptoms happen very quickly. If you a Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar & Other Hormones

Blood Sugar & Other Hormones

Other hormones also affect blood sugar. Glucagon, amylin, GIP, GLP-1, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone also affect blood sugar levels. Glucagon: Made by islet cells (alpha cells) in the pancreas, controls the production of glucose and another fuel, ketones, in the liver. Glucagon is released overnight and between meals and is important in maintaining the body’s sugar and fuel balance. It signals the liver to break down its starch or glycogen stores and helps to form new glucose units and ketone units from other substances. It also promotes the breakdown of fat in fat cells. In contrast, after a meal, when sugar from the ingested food rushes into your bloodstream, your liver doesn’t need to make sugar. The consequence? Glucagon levels fall. Unfortunately, in individuals with diabetes, the opposite occurs. While eating, their glucagon levels rise, which causes blood sugar levels to rise after the meal. WITH DIABETES, GLUCAGON LEVELS ARE TOO HIGH AT MEALTIMES GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and amylin: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and amylin are other hormones that also regulate mealtime insulin. GLP-1 and GIP are incretin hormones. When released from your gut, they signal the beta cells to increase their insulin secretion and, at the same time, decrease the alpha cells’ release of glucagon. GLP-1 also slows down the rate at which food empties from your stomach, and it acts on the brain to make you feel full and satisfied. People with type 1 diabetes have absent or malfunctioning beta cells so the hormones insulin and amylin are missing and the hormone GLP1 cannot work properly. This may explain, in part, why individuals with diabetes do not suppress gl Continue reading >>

15 Easy Ways To Lower Blood Sugar Levels Naturally

15 Easy Ways To Lower Blood Sugar Levels Naturally

High blood sugar occurs when your body can't effectively transport sugar from blood into cells. When left unchecked, this can lead to diabetes. One study from 2012 reported that 12–14% of US adults had type 2 diabetes, while 37–38% were classified as pre-diabetic (1). This means that 50% of all US adults have diabetes or pre-diabetes. Here are 15 easy ways to lower blood sugar levels naturally: Regular exercise can help you lose weight and increase insulin sensitivity. Increased insulin sensitivity means your cells are better able to use the available sugar in your bloodstream. Exercise also helps your muscles use blood sugar for energy and muscle contraction. If you have problems with blood sugar control, you should routinely check your levels. This will help you learn how you respond to different activities and keep your blood sugar levels from getting either too high or too low (2). Good forms of exercise include weight lifting, brisk walking, running, biking, dancing, hiking, swimming and more. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity and helps your muscles pick up sugars from the blood. This can lead to reduced blood sugar levels. Your body breaks carbs down into sugars (mostly glucose), and then insulin moves the sugars into cells. When you eat too many carbs or have problems with insulin function, this process fails and blood glucose levels rise. However, there are several things you can do about this. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends controlling carb intake by counting carbs or using a food exchange system (3). Some studies find that these methods can also help you plan your meals appropriately, which may further improve blood sugar control (4, 5). Many studies also show that a low-carb diet helps reduce blood sugar levels and prevent blood s Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Ball-and-stick model of a glucose molecule Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This tight regulation is referred to as glucose homeostasis. Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, and glucagon, which raises it, are the most well known of the hormones involved, but more recent discoveries of other glucoregulatory hormones have expanded the understanding of this process.[1] Mechanisms[edit] Blood sugar regulation the flatline is the level needed the sine wave the fluctuations. Blood sugar levels are regulated by negative feedback in order to keep the body in balance. The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. Glucagon[edit] If the blood glucose level falls to dangerous levels (as during very heavy exercise or lack of food for extended periods), the alpha cells of the pancreas release glucagon, a hormone whose effects on liver cells act to increase blood glucose levels. They convert glycogen into glucose (this process is called glycogenolysis). The glucose is released into the bloodstream, increasing blood sugar. Hypoglycemia, the state of having low blood sugar, is treated by restoring the blood glucose level to normal by the ingestion or administration of dextrose or carbohydrate foods. It is often self-diagnosed and self-medicated orally by the ingestion of balanced meals. In more severe circumstances, it is treated by injection or infusion of glucagon. Insulin[edit] When levels of blood sugar rise, whether as a result of glycogen conversion, or from digestion of a meal, a different hormone is released from beta cells found in the Islets of Langerhans in the p Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood glucose or blood sugar, as it is commonly called, is a tightly regulated biochemical parameter in normal humans and animals. The body maintains the blood sugar within a narrow range. There are several interacting systems that regulate blood sugar. Of these, regulation of blood sugar by the hormone insulin is the most important. Hormonal regulation of blood sugar Insulin is synthesized in significant quantities only in beta cells in the pancreas. When the beta cell is appropriately stimulated, insulin is secreted from the cell by exocytosis. The insulin then diffuses into small blood vessels of the pancreas. Insulin is secreted in primarily in response to elevated blood concentrations of glucose. Thus insulin is secreted as the body detects high blood glucose and helps regulate the levels of glucose. There are some other stimuli like sight and taste of food, increased blood levels of amino acids and fatty acids that may also promote the release of insulin. During digestion (around one or two hours following a meal), insulin release is not continuous, but occurs in bursts. Other hormones that regulate blood sugar include glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol and catecholamines. These increase blood glucose by reducing uptake of the sugar by the various organs of the body. These are termed catabolic hormones. Insulin is the anabolic hormone that decreases blood glucose. Uptake of blood sugar As blood glucose rises after a large carbohydrate meal, a glucose transporter GLUT 2 increases its affinity for glucose. These transporters GLUT 1, 2, and 3 are proteins and not enzymes. GLUT 2 and the enzyme glucokinase coordinate glucose control in liver. This converts Glucose to Glucose 6 Phosphate. The reaction utilizes ATP or energy. This conversion causes utilization of the Gl Continue reading >>

Why Balancing Your Blood Sugar Is The Key To A Slimmer Waistline

Why Balancing Your Blood Sugar Is The Key To A Slimmer Waistline

Blood sugar is probably a word you’ve heard thrown around here and there, but do you actually understand what it is, and what effect it has on your body? As it turns out, balancing your blood sugar is the key to maintaining a healthy weight. Keep reading to find out everything you need to know about blood sugar! Blood sugar, or glucose, is our main source of energy. It dictates how hungry and energetic we feel. Blood sugar is produced when we break down any carbohydrate—from quinoa to cake. The key idea with respect to blood sugar is balance. We feel best and lose fat when our blood sugar is balanced: not too high, not too low. Eating the right amount of protein, fat, and fiber at each meal can help you naturally stabilize blood sugar to burn fat and have consistent energy throughout the day. It will also help to keep aggressive insulin spikes at bay. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Brief: Insulin And Blood Sugar Regulation

Nutrition Brief: Insulin And Blood Sugar Regulation

© 2017 CrossFit, Inc. CrossFit, Forging Elite Fitness, 3...2...1...Go!, Fittest on Earth and Sport of Fitness are trademarks of CrossFit, Inc. in the U.S. and/or other countries. All Rights Reserved Continue reading >>

Animation: Blood Sugar Regulation In Diabetics

Animation: Blood Sugar Regulation In Diabetics

(See related pages) View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept. 1 After eating a meal, blood sugar levels 2 Insulin, released after a meal is eaten by a person who does not have diabetes, will cause blood sugar levels to A) increase far above normal. B) return to about normal. C) decrease far below normal. 3 In Type I diabetes blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because A) too much insulin is released. B) protein is converted to glucose. D) muscle and liver cells do not receive a signal. 5 The treatment for Type I diabetes always includes A) oral thiazolidinedione. Continue reading >>

Which Gland Regulates Blood Sugar Level?

Which Gland Regulates Blood Sugar Level?

Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This tight regulation is referred to as glucose homeostasis. The gland” that regulates blood sugar levels the pancreas, including other organs, the liver and the brain. The pancreas produces insulin, which allows cells to remove glucose and fats from the bloodstream. The liver produces glucose when cells need energy and you are not eating. The brain signals the pancreas to release insulin in advance of eating. These are the big three but it is a complicated system. For example, the kidneys excrete sugar into the urine when blood sugar levels get dangerously high. The digestive tract has a large nervous system of its own that regulates, for example, how quickly food is digested and therefore how quickly glucose gets into the bloodstream. Other hormones affect appetite. Exercise modifies insulin activity. Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, and glucagon, which raises it, are the most well known of the hormones involved, but more recent discoveries of other glucoregulatory hormones have expanded the understanding of this process. Blood sugar levels are regulated by negative feedback in order to keep the body in balance. The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. Continue reading >>

Relationships Between Sleep Quality And Glucose Regulation In Normal Humans.

Relationships Between Sleep Quality And Glucose Regulation In Normal Humans.

Abstract To define the effects of sleep on glucose regulation, we analyzed plasma glucose levels, insulin secretion rates (ISR), and plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels in normal subjects receiving a constant glucose infusion during nocturnal sleep, nocturnal sleep deprivation, and daytime recovery sleep. Plasma glucose and ISR markedly increased during early nocturnal sleep and returned to presleep levels during late sleep. These changes in glucose and ISR appeared to reflect the predominance of slow-wave (SW) stages in early sleep and of rapid-eye-movement and wake stages in late sleep. Major differences in glucose and ISR profiles were observed during sleep deprivation as glucose and ISR remained essentially stable during the first part of the night and then decreased significantly, despite the persistence of bed rest and constant glucose infusion. During daytime recovery sleep, SW stages were increased, glucose levels peaked earlier than during nocturnal sleep, and the decreases of glucose and ISR in late sleep were reduced by one-half. Thus sleep has important effects on brain and tissue glucose utilization, suggesting that sleep disturbances may adversely affect glucose tolerance. Continue reading >>

How Does Your Blood Sugar Work?

How Does Your Blood Sugar Work?

If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! What on earth is blood sugar and why does it matter? I realize some people may not even understand what their bodies blood sugar does or why it matters. Perhaps you only think someone who is diabetic needs to worry about their blood sugar, but that’s not actually true. We all need to have balanced blood sugar levels or we could potentially end up diabetic as well. Our blood sugar is a key foundation of our overall health, so many functions in the body depend on healthy blood sugar. Blood sugar balance (or blood glucose level) is one of the 2 most tightly regulated systems in the body, with the other being blood pH. Having a normal healthy functioning blood sugar is key to optimal health, regulating so many functions within the body. Normal blood sugar range is between 80 to 100 mg/dL with 89.9 mg/dL as a good baseline, some suggest even lower levels are optimal such as 70-85. ‘The lower you can maintain your blood glucose levels in a healthy and functional way, without experiencing low-blood-sugar symptoms, the better off you are. Those people who are optimally healthy should maintain a range between 70 and 85 mg/dL or lower; this is equivalent to no more than 1 teaspoon of sugar, or about 5 g or 20 kcal, total. Keep in mind that the body is adamant about maintaining the minimal necessary levels of glucose at any given time because glucose is inherently damaging to vessels, organs and tissues in the body. The less glucose that is absolutely necessary the better.’ ~ Nora Gedgaudas,’Primal Body, Primal Mind‘ When we eat a meal, the nutrients in that meal (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) are broken down by the digestive system. The starches from carbohydrates convert to glucose. The Continue reading >>

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem. In this Article Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose...it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar And Sleep Problems: How Blood Sugar Levels Impact Sleep

Blood Sugar And Sleep Problems: How Blood Sugar Levels Impact Sleep

November is National Diabetes Month and Alaska Sleep Clinic is dedicating this month’s blog posts to raising awareness for diabetic complications and how they correlate with sleep disorders and overall tiredness. SLEEP PROBLEMS AND SNORING MAY PREDICT DIABETES Studies have shown that individuals who consistently have a bad night's sleep are more likely to develop conditions linked to diabetes and heart disease. Loud snoring sleepers (many of whom may have sleep apnea), compared to quiet sleepers, double (2x) their risks of developing certain types of metabolic syndrome(s); including diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure. This likelihood also increased dramatically to 80% in those who found it difficult to fall asleep and to 70% for those who woke up feeling not as refreshed. Blood Sugar and Sleep Problems Sleep can affect your blood sugar levels, and your blood glucose control can also affect your sleep. It’s a vicious cycle. As the amount of sleep decreases, blood sugar increases, escalating the issue. Lack of sleep has been shown to increase blood sugar levels and the risk of diabetic issues. Higher blood sugar means less long-lasting fat metabolism in the night and even less sleep. Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine found that people who slept less than 6 hours a night had more blood sugar complications compared to those who received 8 hours of sleep. HIGH BLOOD SUGAR - HYPERGLYCEMIA Sleepless and restless nights hurt more than your mood and energy; it is a form of chronic stress on the body. When there is added stress on your body this results in having higher blood sugar levels. When researchers restricted people with type-1 diabetes to just 4 hours of sleep, their sensitivity to insulin was reduced by 20% compared to that after a full nig Continue reading >>

A Beginner’s Guide To Paleo And Blood Sugar

A Beginner’s Guide To Paleo And Blood Sugar

Confused about blood sugar? Here’s a quick and basic overview of what it is, what kinds of diet and lifestyle factors can affect it, and what that means from the perspective of a Paleo diet and lifestyle framework. What Is Blood Sugar? The “sugar” in “blood sugar” isn’t the same thing as table sugar. Biologically, “sugars” are simple carbohydrates, the building blocks of all the carbohydrates in everything you eat (including table sugar, but also including other foods that contain carbohydrates, like potatoes). One type of simple carbohydrate or “sugar” is glucose, which is the “sugar” measured when somebody measures your “blood sugar.” A more accurate name for it is “blood glucose,” which is what you’ll see in most studies. So having high blood sugar doesn’t mean that you ate a lot of table sugar and the sugar is now in your bloodstream; it means you ate a lot of carbohydrates (from any source) and the sugar (glucose) is now in your bloodstream. Any digestible carbohydrate can raise blood sugar, although some raise it higher and faster than others. Problems with Blood Sugar Regulation In healthy people, blood sugar is automatically regulated. You eat some carbs and your blood sugar rises, but insulin appears to the rescue and lowers blood sugar levels by storing the glucose for you to use later between meals (that’s an incredibly simplified explanation, and the reality is very complicated, but if you want more on insulin, you can read about it here). That’s how it works in healthy people. But problems with blood sugar regulation are incredibly widespread. In fact, some of them are so common we’ve almost stopped seeing them as problems – like the mood and energy rollercoaster that leaves you trying to drag yourself out of a mi Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Insulin mTOR Signaling Regulation of glucose and insulin has been largely studied with regard to aging, as variations in insulin signaling have profound effects on longevity in worms, flies, and rodents (Johnson et al., 2013). Indeed dysfunction in glucose homeostasis is regarded as a critical risk factor in many age-associated diseases and is commonly viewed as the link between obesity and many age-associated diseases linked to protein misfolding. Naked mole-rats, like calorically restricted mice and other rodent models of extended longevity, naturally have low fasting blood glucose levels. However, after being given a bolus of glucose either orally or by intraperitoneal injection, naked mole-rats show an impaired glucose tolerance and have prolonged elevated blood glucose concentrations. While this response is generally associated with insulin resistance, naked mole-rats are, in fact, very sensitive to insulin, responding to insulin injections with a pronounced and rapid drop in blood glucose levels. Moreover, unlike mice that rapidly restore blood glucose into the normal fasting range within 1 h of receiving an insulin bolus, naked mole-rats maintain extremely low blood glucose levels for more than 2 h with seemingly no ill effects (Kramer and Buffenstein, 2004). Insulin levels of naked mole-rats are below the sensitivity for mouse assays: while this could reflect low levels of insulin associated with reliance on volatile fatty acids as a fuel substrate (Buffenstein and Yahav, 1991a), genome and transcriptome studies reveal that the naked mole-rat insulin protein, like that of other hystricognath rodents, is very different from that of mice. Moreover transcriptome studies suggest that all the components of the insulin-signaling and mTOR pathways are downregulated, wi Continue reading >>

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