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How Is Blood Sugar Measured In The Uk?

Managing Your Blood Sugar Levels

Managing Your Blood Sugar Levels

Managing your blood sugar is very important if you have diabetes. If your blood sugar is too high for a prolonged period of time you increase the risk of damaging many different parts of the body including your heart, nerves, kidneys, eyes and feet. But knowing what affects your blood sugar, and how to monitor and control this effectively will help to reduce the risk of these long-term complications. What affects your blood sugar levels? Blood sugar levels are affected by what you eat. Carbohydrates are broken down by your digestive system into sugars that enter the blood. Carbohydrates consist of starches, sugar and fiber. Starches are foods such as bread and pasta, while sugars include sweets and cakes. Both starch and sugar carbohydrates cause blood sugar to rise, though the effect is slightly different depending on the types of food you eat. Some foods cause our blood sugar to rise slowly (for example, whole wheat bread and whole wheat pasta). And other foods cause a quick spike in blood sugar, followed by a decline (for example, cake and sweets). How to monitor blood sugar levels. Blood sugar control can be measured in two different ways: A finger prick test that can you tell what is happening immediately, for example I am at risk or blood sugar going to low or high (known as hypoglyceamia and hyperglycaemia respectively) A blood test known as HbA1c can help you know how your lifestyle changes affect blood sugar levels over time and helps you maintain control of your diabetes HbA1c is a blood test performed by your GP to measure long term blood sugar levels, or glycemic control. Hb stands for haemoglobin, the part of your red blood cells that gives them their colour. Sugar in your blood is sticky and attaches to haemoglobin when it enters the blood stream. Red bloo Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Adults: Management

Type 2 Diabetes In Adults: Management

Having high blood glucose makes you more likely to get other health problems, so keeping your blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible is very important. Your doctor or nurse will help you with this. Having your blood glucose checked: HbA1c The HbA1c blood test reflects your average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months. Keeping your HbA1c levels as close to normal as possible is an important part of managing diabetes. Your doctor or nurse should discuss this with you, and together you should agree a personal HbA1c target to aim for. If you find that reaching or staying at the target level is affecting your day‑to‑day life and making things worse, you should discuss this with the doctor or nurse. Your HbA1c should be tested every 3 to 6 months. It might be done more often if your blood glucose levels are changing quickly. When your HbA1c level is stable, you should then have an HbA1c blood test every 6 months. The HbA1c result is given in a unit of measurement that is written as 'mmol/mol'. HbA1c used to be given as a percentage (%), so you may still see this. The HbA1c target for most people with type 2 diabetes is 48 mmol/mol (or 6.5%), but your doctor might suggest a different target for you. You should be offered support, diet and lifestyle advice, and medicine if you need it, to help you reach and stay at your HbA1c target. Questions to ask about HbA1c Testing your own blood glucose Usually, blood glucose testing is done by your doctor or nurse. But some people, for example people using insulin, might be able to do this at home with a home‑testing kit. This is called self‑monitoring. If your doctor or nurse thinks self‑monitoring would be suitable for you, you'll be given training on what to do, and your doctor or nurse should assess Continue reading >>

Needle-free Diabetes? European Medtech Inventions Which Painlessly Measure Blood Glucose!

Needle-free Diabetes? European Medtech Inventions Which Painlessly Measure Blood Glucose!

Will the daily routine of finger pricking to monitor blood glucose levels finally come to an end for the millions worldwide living with diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that affects over 422 million people worldwide. It is the major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack and stroke. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers it an epidemic and predicts it will become the 7th biggest cause of death worldwide by 2030. To monitor blood glucose levels, millions of diabetics have to test their blood sugar close to 10 times a day by pricking their finger with a lancet to obtain a small blood sample. But some companies in Europe are trying to find a pain-free alternative that removes the need for needles – here are three startups revolutionizing blood sugar testing. GlucoSense (London, UK) GlucoSense is a spin-out of the University of Leeds funded by NetScientific that is developing a non-invasive device based on photonics technology. Its basic component is a nano-engineered silica glass with ions that fluoresce in the infrared region when stimulated by a low power laser. When the glass is in contact with the user’s skin, the reflected fluorescence signal varies based on the concentration of glucose in their blood and one can acquire the glucose concentration measurement in less than 30 seconds. NovioSense (Nijmegen, the Netherlands) NovioSense is a Dutch startup working on an implantable glucose sensor that uses tear fluid to measure glucose levels. The device consists of a 15 mm-long metal coil coated with a hydrophilic gel. Its flexible form allows the device to bend to conform to the surface of the lower eye lid, where the sensor is placed. The coil moves to the correct place in the eye and the gel coating swells to increase conta Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes - New Way To Control Blood Sugar Could Get Rid Of Painful Monitoring

Type 2 Diabetes - New Way To Control Blood Sugar Could Get Rid Of Painful Monitoring

A new app called Epic Health could monitor glucose levels in healthy and type 2 diabetic patients is just as accurate as traditional, invasive methods that use the finger prick test to draw blood. Type 2 diabetes cause blood sugar levels to rise, but it must be monitored to prevent people experiencing hyperglycaemia. The app, which works by the user place a fingertip over the camera lens of their smartphone, has held its first few weeks of pre-clinical trials in Hereford. The trials are being held to ensure that the app can accurately measure glucose when compared to methods when blood is drawn. Epic Health was created to help those who suffer from diabetes or even those who are pre-diabetic, by making readings easier. It was also designed to make blood glucose monitoring less intrusive and more engaging, encouraging users to understand how certain foods affect their body. Every week 4,500 people are diagnosed with diabetes across the UK, but thousands more are unaware they are at risk. With current finger-prick tests, a user may have to stab their fingers up to 3,000 times a year. A pre clinical trial looked at 79 subjects with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, including undiagnosed borderline type 2, and healthy glucose levels took part in the data collection study. The results showed that 90.58 per cent pairs of results were in the no risk zone and 8.88 per cent of pairs were in the ‘slight lower’ area giving a combined 99.4 per cent safe clinical error result. The results unequivocally show that a mobile phone application can accurately estimate blood glucose levels of healthy, diagnosed and borderline type 2 users, in a completely non-invasive way. The application has also proven that healthy subjects can use it to monitor their blood sugar variations after drinking, Continue reading >>

Blood - Sugar Conversion

Blood - Sugar Conversion

Our easy to use blood sugar calculator helps you to get your blood sugar conversion results either in mg/dl used by the American system or in mmol/l used by the British system which is accepted worldwide. Blood sugar conversion is made easy as never before. Please note that 72mg/dl of sugar equals to 4mmol/l of sugar. Continue reading >>

What Should My Blood Glucose Levels Be?

What Should My Blood Glucose Levels Be?

Everybody is different, and everybody's blood glucose management will be different, so it's important to check with your doctor about the levels you should aim for. But, there are general blood glucose ranges that you can use as guidelines. Blood-glucose levels are measured in units called mmol/L (pronounced milli-moles-per-litre). The ideal ranges are: Before meals: 4-7 mmol/L Two hours after meals: 8-9 mmol/L At bedtime: 6-10 mmol/L You may need to consult your doctor and change your treatment plan if: Blood glucose is consistently lower than 4 mmol/L or higher than 10 mmol/L before meals Blood glucose is consistently lower than 6 mmol/L or higher than 12 mmol/L at bedtime Blood glucose goals may be modified for children and others who are at greater risk of hypoglycaemia In the US blood glucose levels are measured in mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). That’s why you’ll occasionally read about blood glucose readings that seem very high, like 140 or 220. To convert the American scores back to mmol/L, just divide the number by 18. How often should I be checking my blood glucose levels? Checking the level of glucose in your blood and keeping a record of the levels is an important part of taking care of your type 1 diabetes. This allows you to identify the patterns of high or low blood glucose levels. The information will also help you and your doctor or diabetes team to balance food, exercise and insulin doses. Ideally you should aim to do at least four blood glucose checks a day, although some people do many more. To get the most out of monitoring, your healthcare team may advise you to check your blood glucose levels before and then two to three hours after food. It’s also a good idea to monitor before, during and after exercise. If your blood glucose level is hig Continue reading >>

Point-of-care Blood Glucose Testing For Diabetes Care In Hospitalized Patients

Point-of-care Blood Glucose Testing For Diabetes Care In Hospitalized Patients

In the United States, the annual estimated cost of treating diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion, a 41% increase from 2007. The largest component (43%) related to inpatient care.1 A 5-country EU study estimated that in 2010, the total direct costs of care for people with diabetes were highest in Germany (in part due to the greater diabetes population) at €43.2 billion, followed by the UK (€20.2 [£13.8] billion), France (€12.9 billion), Italy (€7.9 billion) and Spain (€5.4 billion). In all countries, the majority of these costs were related to inpatient care—33.7%, 58.2%, 37.2%, 56.9%, and 35.8%, respectively.2 It is now quite clear that both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in hospitals are associated with poorer outcomes such as increased morbidity, mortality and length of stay.3-11 Due to the promise of early trials in critically ill patients,12,13 tight glycemic control (TGC) regimens in hospitals were endorsed by a number of professional organizations including the American Diabetes Association (ADA).14 Subsequent studies and meta-analyzes of randomized controlled trials of TGC in critically ill patients15-17 have generated conflicting results with evidence pointing to higher mortality rates possibly attributable to higher hypoglycemic rates. As a result, the ADA now recommends a glucose range of 140-180 mg/dl (7.8-10 mmol/l) in critically ill inpatients and premeal glucose target <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) with random glucose target <180 mg/dl (10 mmol/l) in insulin treated non–critically ill inpatients, and less stringent targets for those with severe comorbidities.18 In hospitals, control of blood glucose (BG) in narrow therapeutic ranges requires appropriate near patient glucose monitoring techniques that need to be rapid, accurate and cost-effective. The Continue reading >>

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

Hba1c Conversion Chart

Hba1c Conversion Chart

The HbA1c test measures how much haemoglobin in the blood has become glycated (chemically bonded with glucose). ••••• HbA1c values have changed and are now reported as a measurement in mmols/mol instead of the percentage previously given. To make sense of the new units and compare these with old units and vice versa, use our HbA1c units converter table below. Old unit = NGSP unit = %HbA1c New unit = IFCC unit = mmol/mol HbA1c Old HbA1c New HbA1c Old HbA1c New 4.0 20 8.1 65 4.1 21 8.2 66 4.2 22 8.3 67 4.3 23 8.4 68 4.4 25 8.5 69 4.5 26 8.6 70 4.6 27 8.7 72 4.7 28 8.8 73 4.8 29 8.9 74 4.9 30 9.0 75 5.0 31 9.1 76 5.1 32 9.2 77 5.2 33 9.3 78 5.3 34 9.4 79 5.4 36 9.5 80 5.5 37 9.6 81 5.6 38 9.7 83 5.7 39 9.8 84 5.8 40 9.9 85 5.9 41 10 86 6.0 42 10.1 87 6.1 43 10.2 88 6.2 44 10.3 89 6.3 45 10.4 90 6.4 46 10.5 91 6.5 48 10.6 92 6.6 49 10.7 93 6.7 50 10.8 95 6.8 51 10.9 96 6.9 52 11.0 97 7.0 53 11.1 98 7.1 54 11.2 99 7.2 55 11.3 100 7.3 56 11.4 101 7.4 57 11.5 102 7.5 58 11.6 103 7.6 60 11.7 104 7.7 61 11.8 105 7.8 62 11.9 107 7.9 63 12.0 108 8.0 64 Sit down with your child to decide what kind of meter they would prefer out of the options available. Hypos Hypos occur when your blood glucose falls too low. PLAY A healthy diet for someone with diabetes is the same as a healthy diet for anyone else. Find out what… Living with diabetes during pregnancy can be challenging, but you can still lead a healthy life. Take control of your… Glucose testing is the process used to measure the amount of glucose in your blood and can be carried out… FreeStyle Optium Neo has a choice of tools designed to help people who use insulin. Understanding your blood glucose level is a beneficial part of diabetes self-management and can help you and your healthcare team… Continue reading >>

This Stick-on Biosensor Monitors Blood Sugar—no Needle Necessary

This Stick-on Biosensor Monitors Blood Sugar—no Needle Necessary

Measuring your blood sugar may be weirdly trendy, but if you’re one of the estimated 3.5 million Brits with diabetes, it’s mostly a pain. A literal pain. People with diabetes either have to prick their fingers and draw blood or wear a monitor with a tiny tube inserted into their skin to continuously measure glucose in the fluid between cells. And sticking a needle in yourself isn’t exactly pleasant. A new biosensor described in a paper published Wednesday in Science Advances suggests a workaround. Instead of a finger prick, an extremely thin, skin-like patch instead uses electrical signals to drive glucose out of nearby blood vessels to the skin’s surface to be measured. The whole thing is powered by a paper battery, and looks a little like a trendy temporary tattoo. In a very small clinical trial of two healthy subjects and a third with diabetes, the device measured blood glucose levels almost as well as a standard clinical blood test during a five-day study. None of the patients reported any irritation or discomfort. A noninvasive or minimally invasive blood glucose monitor is a kind of a holy grail. Not only would it be a huge upgrade in lifestyle for those with diabetes but it could solve some of the problems with patient compliance created by pain, skin irritation, and infections. Not to mention that millions of people who need to continually monitor their glucose levels is a massive market. There’s been several approaches to doing this, many of them consumer devices that have targeted the wellness market rather than people with diabetes, thus evading government regulation. One popular approach uses sweat to measure glucose levels. Earlier this year, rumours circulated that Apple is even chasing a needle-free blood sugar monitor. You might remember that G Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is diagnosed on the basis of history (ie polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss) PLUS a random venous plasma glucose concentration >= 11.1 mmol/l OR a fasting plasma glucose concentration >= 7.0 mmol/l (whole blood >= 6.1 mmol/l) OR 2 hour plasma glucose concentration >= 11.1 mmol/l 2 hours after 75g anhydrous glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) With no symptoms diagnosis should not be based on a single glucose determination but requires confirmatory plasma venous determination. At least one additional glucose test result on another day with a value in the diabetic range is essential, either fasting, from a random sample or from the two hour post glucose load (1,2). If the fasting or random values are not diagnostic the 2-hour value should be used. These diagnostic criteria for diagnosing and classifying diabetes were applied to the management of diabetes in the UK from June 1st 2000 (1). The new criteria included lowering the threshold for diagnosing diabetes from a fasting glucose level of 7.8 mmol/l to 7.0 mmol/l. It should be noted that children usually present with severe symptoms and diagnosis should then be based on a single raised blood glucose result, as above. Immediate referral to a Paediatric Diabetes Team should not be delayed. A diagnosis should never be made on the basis of glycosuria or a stick reading of a finger prick blood glucose alone, although such tests may be useful for screening purposes. HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (3) HbA1c can be used as a diagnostic test for diabetes providing that stringent quality assurance tests are in place and assays are standardised to criteria aligned to the international reference values, and there are no conditions present which preclude its accurate measurement an HbA Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Conversion

Blood Glucose Conversion

U.S. value = UK / Canadian value times 18 (mmol/L x 18 = mg/dl). U.K./Candian value = U.S. value divided by 18 (mg/dl / 18 = mmol/L). US: UK / Canada: Click opposite box to calculate. In a person without diabetes, blood sugar is typically between 80 and 110 mg/dl. For more information on healthy levels and how diabetes is diagnosed, see the Criteria For Diagnosis section of the Symptoms and Diagnosis page or ask in the diabetes forum. Blood Glucose Conversion Chart mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L (US) (Europe) (US) (Europe) (US) (Europe) (US) (Europe) 20 1.1 130 7.2 225 12.5 340 18.9 30 1.7 135 7.5 230 12.8 350 19.4 40 2.2 140 7.8 235 13.1 360 20.0 50 2.8 145 8.1 240 13.3 370 20.6 55 3.1 150 8.3 245 13.6 380 21.1 60 3.3 155 8.6 250 13.9 390 21.7 65 3.6 160 8.9 255 14.2 400 22.2 70 3.9 165 9.2 260 14.4 410 22.8 75 4.2 170 9.4 265 14.7 420 23.3 80 4.4 175 9.7 270 15.0 430 23.9 85 4.7 180 10.0 275 15.3 440 24.4 90 5.0 185 10.3 280 15.6 460 25.6 95 5.3 190 10.6 285 15.8 480 26.7 100 5.6 195 10.8 290 16.1 500 27.8 105 5.8 200 11.1 295 16.4 520 28.9 110 6.1 205 11.4 300 16.7 540 30.0 115 6.4 210 11.7 310 17.2 560 31.1 120 6.7 215 11.9 320 17.8 580 32.2 125 6.9 220 12.2 330 18.3 600 33.3 Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels, Range Check & Conversion

Blood Sugar Levels, Range Check & Conversion

Convert blood sugar/glucose levels from mg/dL (US standard) to mmol/L (Canada and UK standard) and vice versa using our blood sugar converter. mg/dL gives the concentration by the ratio of weight to volume, in this case milligrams per decilitre. mmol/L gives the molarity, which is the number of molecules of a substance within a specified volume, in this case within 1 litre. mg/dL is the unit predominantly used in the USA and continental Europe, whereas Canada and the UK use mmol/L to measure blood glucose levels. What’s the difference between mg/dL and mmol/L? Both sets of units are used to measure blood sugar levels and both give a measurement of the concentration of glucose in the blood, albeit in slightly different ways. mg/dL: Unit for measuring concentration of glucose in the blood in the USA – milligrams per decilitre.: Milligrams per 100 millilitres Blood glucose typically varies from 70 mmol/dl to 130 mmol/dl for people without diabetes, according to the ADA mmol/L: Millimoles per litre is the international standard unit for measuring the concentration of glucose in the blood – also known as millimolar (mM). Blood sugar (also called blood glucose) needs to be tightly controlled in the human body to minimise the risk of complications developing. Understanding blood sugar levels Blood sugar (also called blood glucose) needs to be tightly controlled in the human body to minimise the risk of complications developing. If your blood sugar levels remain higher than the target levels for long periods of time, you will be at greater risk of developing long term complications such as heart, kidney, nerve and retinal diseases. If you are on insulin, sulfonylureas or prandial glucose regulators, it’s important that blood glucose levels do not go too low (going hypo) Continue reading >>

'wrong Test' Failing Diabetics

'wrong Test' Failing Diabetics

Thousands of cases of diabetes are undetected in the UK because patients' blood sugar levels are being measured at the wrong time. People at risk of type 2, known as adult onset diabetes, often have their blood sugar checked when they have been fasting. But experts believe that testing the blood at this time rather than after a meal could mean that up to one-third of cases are being missed. Coinciding with World Diabetes Day, the International Diabetes Federation has called for more widespread post-meal testing. Dr Melanie Davies, consultant physician at Leicester Royal Infirmary, looked at glucose testing in a group of South Asian patients, who are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Cases missed Her team found that more than 30% of cases were missed because blood sugar readings were taken before food rather than two hours after eating. Dr Davies also said that the accepted blood sugar level of between 6.1 and 6.9 should be lowered to 5.3 - 5.8 in order to detect all those with diabetes. "We really need to start doing what some other European countries are doing and start measuring post-prandial glucose rather than fasting glucose," she told BBC News Online. Dr Davies said this practice should be used not just for diagnosing diabetes but for ongoing monitoring. "Seventy-five per cent of people with diabetes will die of heart disease and one of the puzzles we've had is why we've not been able to have any impact on that in the past ten to fifteen years," Dr Davies said. "The problem is we've not been tackling it properly because we haven't been measuring the blood glucose properly." Patients measuring their blood sugar before meals may believe they are doing reasonably well but it is the post-meal sugar level that will be the real predictor of any complications. Re Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Levels

Blood Glucose Levels

What is the blood sugar level? The blood sugar level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is also known as plasma glucose level. It is expressed as millimoles per litre (mmol/l). Normally blood glucose levels stay within narrow limits throughout the day: 4 to 8mmol/l. But they are higher after meals and usually lowest in the morning. In diabetes the blood sugar level moves outside these limits until treated. Even with good control of diabetes, the blood sugar level will still at times drift outside this normal range. Why control blood sugar levels? When very high levels of blood glucose are present for years, it leads to damage of the small blood vessels. This in turn increases your risk of developing late-stage diabetes complications including: With type 1 diabetes, these complications may start to appear 10 to 15 years after diagnosis. They frequently appear less than 10 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, because this type of diabetes is often present for years before it is recognised. By keeping the blood sugar level stable, you significantly reduce your risk of these complications. How can I measure blood sugar levels? Home testing kits come in a variety of shapes and sizes. A pharmacist or the diabetes clinic nurse can advise you about the best model. You can usually obtain a blood glucose meter at little or no cost via the diabetes clinic. Testing strips are available on NHS prescription. You can learn to measure blood sugar levels simply and quickly with a home blood glucose level testing kit. All kits have at least two things: a measuring device (a 'meter') and a strip. To check your blood sugar level, put a small amount of blood on the strip. Now place the strip into the device. Within 30 seconds it will display the blood glucose level. The Continue reading >>

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