Protein: Metabolism And Effect On Blood Glucose Levels.
Abstract Insulin is required for carbohydrate, fat, and protein to be metabolized. With respect to carbohydrate from a clinical standpoint, the major determinate of the glycemic response is the total amount of carbohydrate ingested rather than the source of the carbohydrate. This fact is the basic principle of carbohydrate counting for meal planning. Fat has little, if any, effect on blood glucose levels, although a high fat intake does appear to contribute to insulin resistance. Protein has a minimal effect on blood glucose levels with adequate insulin. However, with insulin deficiency, gluconeogenesis proceeds rapidly and contributes to an elevated blood glucose level. With adequate insulin, the blood glucose response in persons with diabetes would be expected to be similar to the blood glucose response in persons without diabetes. The reason why protein does not increase blood glucose levels is unclear. Several possibilities might explain the response: a slow conversion of protein to glucose, less protein being converted to glucose and released than previously thought, glucose from protein being incorporated into hepatic glycogen stores but not increasing the rate of hepatic glucose release, or because the process of gluconeogenesis from protein occurs over a period of hours and glucose can be disposed of if presented for utilization slowly and evenly over a long time period. Continue reading >>
How Many Factors Actually Affect Blood Glucose?
A printable, colorful PDF version of this article can be found here. twitter summary: Adam identifies at least 22 things that affect blood glucose, including food, medication, activity, biological, & environmental factors. short summary: As patients, we tend to blame ourselves for out of range blood sugars – after all, the equation to “good diabetes management” is supposedly simple (eating, exercise, medication). But have you ever done everything right and still had a glucose that was too high or too low? In this article, I look into the wide variety of things that can actually affect blood glucose - at least 22! – including food, medication, activity, and both biological and environmental factors. The bottom line is that diabetes is very complicated, and for even the most educated and diligent patients, it’s nearly impossible to keep track of everything that affects blood glucose. So when you see an out-of-range glucose value, don’t judge yourself – use it as information to make better decisions. As a patient, I always fall into the trap of thinking I’m at fault for out of range blood sugars. By taking my medication, monitoring my blood glucose, watching what I eat, and exercising, I would like to have perfect in-range values all the time. But after 13 years of type 1 diabetes, I’ve learned it’s just not that simple. There are all kinds of factors that affect blood glucose, many of which are impossible to control, remember, or even account for. Based on personal experience, conversations with experts, and scientific research, here’s a non-exhaustive list of 22 factors that can affect blood glucose. They are separated into five areas – Food, Medication, Activity, Biological factors, and Environmental factors. I’ve provided arrows to show the ge Continue reading >>
Whey Protein To Prevent After-meal Blood Sugar Spikes?
Controlling after-meal blood sugar levels is a continuing battle for many people with diabetes. Now, a small new study from Israel indicates that eating whey protein prior to a meal improves the body’s insulin response and helps control glucose levels after the meal. Along with casein, whey is one of the two main proteins found in milk. Eating protein is known to stimulate the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that triggers the production of insulin. To determine whether consuming whey protein before a meal would improve blood glucose control after the meal, researchers recruited 15 people with well-controlled Type 2 diabetes who were taking only metformin or a sulfonylurea drug. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either 50 grams of whey protein in 250 milliliters of water or a placebo (inactive treatment — in this case, 250 milliliters of water) followed, 30 minutes later, by a standard high-glycemic-index breakfast composed of three slices of white bread and sugar-containing jelly. (The glycemic index measures how much a food affects blood glucose levels.) Blood samples were taken at 30 minutes prior to the meal, when the meal was served, and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes after the meal. Two weeks after their initial study visit, the participants were assigned to repeat the trial using the alternate treatment (either the whey protein or the placebo). Because of this crossover design, the study was statistically powerful in spite of the small number of subjects. The researchers found that, over the course of the entire 180-minute after-meal period, blood glucose levels were 28% lower in those who had received whey protein compared to those who had received placebo. Levels of insulin and c-peptide (a by-product o Continue reading >>
Low Carbohydrate Dieters: Beware Of High Protein Intake
Most of us have heard something about low carb dieting. Whether it is the Atkins Diet or the Paleo Diet, carbohydrate restriction is becoming more popular as more people experience dramatic weight loss. While restricting carbohydrate intake does offer several health benefits, there are also dangers involved with eating too much protein. Not only does excessive dietary protein burden the digestive system, it can also contribute to the production of sugar in the body and even inhibit the body’s ability to naturally detoxify! Eating a low carb diet doesn't mean that you have to overload your plate with protein at every meal! Moderating protein in your diet can help you to live longer, limit sugar, and even improve daily digestion. Weight loss is not the only benefit of carbohydrate restriction. When done correctly, a low carb diet can help to control blood sugar, and it can even reverse insulin resistance, helping to heal disorders that are related to a sugar-heavy diet, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Low carb diets can also help to cool down chronic inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and several autoimmune conditions. Part of the overall success of a low carb diet is that: Many of our processed foods are carbohydrate-rich: Processed foods, which are full of refined oils and sugar, are hazardous for anyone’s health. Carb-heavy foods are often full of common immune system triggers: Several food allergies and immune system disorders are actually rooted in the proteins found in grain-based carbohydrates. One example is wheat gluten. A diet that is full of carbohydrates also feeds infection in the body. This infection could be in the form of bacteria, yeasts, or parasites. 3 Reasons to Limit Your Protein Intake Reason #1 to Moderate Your Protei Continue reading >>
diabetes Nutrition: How Food Affects Your Blood Glucose
Ms Kala Adaikan, Senior Principal Dietitian, from the Department of Dietetics at Singapore General Hospital, a member of the SingHealth group, explains how different foods affect blood glucose levels. What to eat when you have diabetes? Nutrition is an integral part of diabetes care. Rather than a restrictive diet, a diet suitable for diabetes is simply a healthy eating plan that is individualised according to your requirements and lifestyle. People with diabetes do not need to go on a special diet. You may have to modify your diet, rather than overhaul it. If you have diabetes, your doctor would likely recommend that you see a Dietitian to guide you on dietary changes that can help you control your blood glucose levels and manage your weight. “It is important that you understand how different foods affect your blood glucose levels, especially carbohydrates, since it is the nutrient that has the greatest effect on your blood glucose levels,” says Ms Kala Adaikan, Senior Principal Dietitian, at the Department of Dietetics, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a member of the SingHealth group. 3 steps to effective diabetes nutrition Understand the role of the various food nutrients in diabetes management and how they affect blood glucose levels Keep track of the amount of carbohydrates you consume by using carbohydrate counting techniques Reduce and maintain weight within the desirable weight range to improve insulin resistance and achieve better blood glucose control Step 1: Understand how food affects blood glucose levels Carbohydrates Carbohydrates give you energy and should not be avoided. They should be included as part of a healthy eating plan. For optimal diabetes control, one must recognise that quantity and quality of carbohydrates are to be co Continue reading >>
How Do Fats & Proteins Affect Blood Sugar Levels?
After you eat, your blood sugar levels increase and trigger the release of insulin, an important hormone in managing how your body uses glucose. Different types of nutrients affect blood sugar differently, and maintaining an appropriate intake of carbohydrates, proteins and fats will help control blood sugar levels and prevent or manage metabolic diseases like Type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are the three macronutrients your body needs. Carbohydrates are primarily used for energy, while proteins are important for rebuilding tissue, and fats are important for maintaining cell membranes and facilitating vitamin absorption, among other functions. Carbohydrates have the most significant impact on blood sugar, so carbohydrate intake should be monitored closely by individuals with or at risk for Type 2 diabetes. Protein's Effects on Blood Sugar Compared to carbohydrates, protein keeps blood sugar levels steady. When consumed alone, protein does not generate a rise in blood sugar. According to a study published in 2003 in “American Society for Clinical Nutrition,” individuals with Type 2 diabetes who maintained a 30:40:30 intake ratio of protein to carbohydrates to fat showed a 40 percent lower blood sugar response than those who maintained a 15:55:30 intake ratio. This suggests that protein is neutral food for blood sugar levels and can replace at least some carbohydrates to yield a better overall blood sugar response. Fat's Effects on Blood Sugar Like protein, fat has significantly less impact on blood sugar than carbohydrates. When consumed alone, ingested fats have no bearing on the concentration of circulating blood sugar. Replacing some carbohydrate content with healthy dietary fats could therefore result in steadier overall levels of blood sugar. M Continue reading >>
How Does Protein Affect Blood Sugar?
I’m considering whether I should advise my patients with diabetes to pay careful attention to the protein (particularly complete animal proteins) content of their diet. It’s an important issue to Dr. Richard K. Bernstein, who definitely says it has to be taken into account. Here are some of Dr. Bernstein’s ideas pulled from the current edition of Diabetes Solution: The liver (and the kidneys and intestines to a lesser extent) can convert protein to glucose, although it’s a slow and inefficient process. Since the conversion process—called gluconeogenesis—is slow and inefficient, diabetics don’t see the high blood sugar spikes they would see from many ingested carbohydrates. For example, 3 ounces (85 g) of hamburger patty could be converted to 6.5 g of glucose under the right circumstances. Protein foods from animals (e.g., meat, fish, chicken, eggs) are about 20% protein by weight. Dr. B recommends keeping protein portions in a particular meal consistent day-to-day (for example 6 ounces with each lunch). He recommends at least 1–1.2 g of protein per kilogram of ideal body weight for non-athletic adults. The minimum protein he recommends for a 155-lb non-athletic adult is 11.7–14 ounces daily. Growing children and athletes need more protein. Each uncooked ounce of the foods on his “protein foods” list (page 181) provides about 6 g of protein. On his eating plan, you choose the amount of protein in a meal that would satisfy you, which might be 3 ounces or 6–9 ounces. If you have gastroparesis, however, you should limit your evening meal protein to 2 ounces of eggs, cheese, fish, or ground meat, while eating more protein at the two earlier meals in the day. Dr. Bernstein wrote: “In many respects—and going against the grain of a number of the medi Continue reading >>
How To Control Blood Sugar After A High-protein Meal
What is the influence of dietary protein on post meal blood glucose? Does protein effect blood sugar after a meal? Is there additional math we need to do for improved control after meals? At present, those of us who use intensive insulin therapy understand how proper mealtime insulin dosing requires appropriate carbohydrate counting. This is based on the thought that carbohydrate is the main nutrient that influences our post meal blood sugar values. However, studies have demonstrated that protein and fat may also play a role in what happens to our post meal blood sugar. The impact of dietary protein on blood sugar has long been a topic of debate. Early research hypothesized that 100 g of ingested protein produced 50–80 g glucose. Later research showed, it was only ~ 10 g of glucose that showed up in the circulation following consumption of 50 g of protein (this is a serving of cooked meat about the size of a full outstretched woman’s hand). This equates to ~ 1 g of glucose produced from every 5 g of protein consumed. The results of the study below are consistent with this and, indicate consumption of ~ 75g and 100 g of protein ALONE may produce late rises in blood glucose which is similar to that from 15 and 20 g of glucose. This is relevant, given that 20 g of consumed glucose causes significant post meal excursions when insulin is NOT given. However, because the impact from protein (usually not covered by insulin) is delayed and sustained it shows a good reason we need consider dosing for protein dependent on portion consumed. Protein-rich meals may result in delaying the rise in blood glucose and produce a sustained high blood glucose. This indicates a need for more insulin for such meals or snacks as well as a new way to think about dosing insulin to offset the Continue reading >>
How Does Eating Affect Your Blood Sugar?
Part 1 of 8 What is blood sugar? Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, comes from the food you eat. Your body creates blood sugar by digesting some food into a sugar that circulates in your bloodstream. Blood sugar is used for energy. The sugar that isn’t needed to fuel your body right away gets stored in cells for later use. Too much sugar in your blood can be harmful. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is characterized by having higher levels of blood sugar than what is considered within normal limits. Unmanaged diabetes can lead to problems with your heart, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels. The more you know about how eating affects blood sugar, the better you can protect yourself against diabetes. If you already have diabetes, it’s important to know how eating affects blood sugar. Part 2 of 8 Your body breaks down everything you eat and absorbs the food in its different parts. These parts include: carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins and other nutrients The carbohydrates you consume turn into blood sugar. The more carbohydrates you eat, the higher the levels of sugar you will have released as you digest and absorb your food. Carbohydrates in liquid form consumed by themselves are absorbed more quickly than those in solid food. So having a soda will cause a faster rise in your blood sugar levels than eating a slice of pizza. Fiber is one component of carbohydrates that isn’t converted into sugar. This is because it can’t be digested. Fiber is important for health, though. Protein, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals don’t contain carbohydrates. These components won’t affect your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, your carbohydrate intake is the most important part of your diet to consider when it comes to managing your blood sugar levels. Part 3 Continue reading >>
How Does Protein Affect Blood Sugar In Diabetics?
Approximately one out of every 10 people in the U.S. has diabetes, a disease that affects how the body uses sugar, also known as glucose. Careful blood glucose control is essential to manage this condition and reduce the risk of complications such as nerve damage, blindness and heart disease. Adding more protein-rich foods to your diet -- and few carbohydrates and fats -- may help balance blood glucose levels. Video of the Day Improved Blood Glucose Balance A 2003 study published in the "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition" concluded that a high-protein diet helped lower blood glucose levels after eating and improved overall blood glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. Test individuals on the high-protein diet had a ratio of protein to carbohydrates to fat of 30:40:30, compared to 15:55:30 for the control group. Both groups consumed the diet for five weeks. Despite the positive results from this research, longer studies are needed to gauge the long-term effects and any possible adverse effects of a high-protein diet on diabetics. Direct Effects of Protein Many protein-rich foods contain minimal or no carbohydrates and only have a small effect on blood sugar levels. These include lean meats, chicken, turkey, fish and eggs. However, you add extra carbohydrates if the protein food is battered, crusted or marinated or you are eating it with sauce. University of Michigan Medicine recommends that a meal should contain a half portion of raw or cooked vegetables such as green beans and squash, a quarter portion of carbohydrate such as whole-grain pasta or brown rice, and a quarter portion -- 3 ounces -- of protein such as lean meat or fish. Protein-rich foods such as legumes and milk and dairy products also contain carbohydrates, which will raise your blood glucose Continue reading >>
Why Do My Blood Sugars Rise After A High Protein Meal?
Complex issues often require more detail than you can pack into a Facebook post. One such area of confusion and controversy is gluconeogenesis and the impact of protein on blood sugar and ketosis. Some common questions that I see floating around the interwebs include: If you are managing diabetes, should you avoid protein because it can convert to glucose and “kick you out of ketosis”? If you’ve dropped the carbs and protein to manage your blood sugars, should you eat “fat to satiety” or continue to add more fats until you achieve “optimal ketosis” (i.e. blood ketone levels between 1.5 and 3.0mmol/L)? Then, if adding fat doesn’t get you into the “optimal ketosis zone”, do you need exogenous ketones to get your ketones up so you can start to lose weight? This article explores: the reason that some people may see an increase in their blood sugars and a decrease in their ketones after a high protein meal, what it means for their health, and what they can do to optimise the metabolic health. You’re probably aware that protein can be converted to glucose via a process in the body called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the process of converting another substrate (e.g. protein or fat) to glucose. Gluco = glucose Neo = new Genesis = creation Gluconeogenesis = new glucose creation As shown in the table below, all but two of the amino acids (i.e. the building blocks of protein) can be converted to glucose. Five others can be converted to either glucose or ketones depending on the body’s requirements at the time. Once your body has used up the protein, it needs to build and repair muscle and make neurotransmitters, etc. any “excess protein” can be used to refill the small protein stores in the blood stream and replenish glycogen stores in the liv Continue reading >>
Effect Of A High-protein, Low-carbohydrate Diet On Blood Glucose Control In People With Type 2 Diabetes
There has been interest in the effect of various types and amounts of dietary carbohydrates and proteins on blood glucose. On the basis of our previous data, we designed a high-protein/low-carbohydrate, weight-maintaining, nonketogenic diet. Its effect on glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes was determined. We refer to this as a low-biologically-available-glucose (LoBAG) diet. Eight men were studied using a randomized 5-week crossover design with a 5-week washout period. The carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio of the control diet was 55:15:30. The test diet ratio was 20:30:50. Plasma and urinary β-hydroxybutyrate were similar on both diets. The mean 24-h integrated serum glucose at the end of the control and LoBAG diets was 198 and 126 mg/dl, respectively. The percentage of glycohemoglobin was 9.8 ± 0.5 and 7.6 ± 0.3, respectively. It was still decreasing at the end of the LoBAG diet. Thus, the final calculated glycohemoglobin was estimated to be ∼6.3–5.4%. Serum insulin was decreased, and plasma glucagon was increased. Serum cholesterol was unchanged. Thus, a LoBAG diet ingested for 5 weeks dramatically reduced the circulating glucose concentration in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. Potentially, this could be a patient-empowering way to ameliorate hyperglycemia without pharmacological intervention. The long-term effects of such a diet remain to be determined. Data obtained in our laboratory (1–3) as well as from others (reviewed in 4) indicate that glucose that is absorbed after the digestion of glucose-containing foods is largely responsible for the rise in the circulating glucose concentration after ingestion of mixed meals. Dietary proteins, fats, and absorbed fructose and galactose resulting from the digestion of sucrose and lactose, Continue reading >>
Increase In Dietary Protein Improves The Blood Glucose Response In Persons With Type 2 Diabetes | The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic
Background: In single-meal studies, dietary protein does not result in an increase in glucose concentrations in persons with or without type 2 diabetes, even though the resulting amino acids can be used for gluconeogenesis. Objective: The metabolic effects of a high-protein diet were compared with those of the prototypical healthy (control) diet, which is currently recommended by several scientific organizations. Design: The metabolic effects of both diets, consumed for 5 wk each (separated by a 25-wk washout period), were studied in 12 subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. The ratio of protein to carbohydrate to fat was 30:40:30 in the high-protein diet and 15:55:30 in the control diet. The subjects remained weight-stable during the study. Results: With the fasting glucose concentration used as a baseline from which to determine the area under the curve, the high-protein diet resulted in a 40% decrease in the mean 24-h integrated glucose area response. Glycated hemoglobin decreased 0.8% and 0.3% after 5 wk of the high-protein and control diets, respectively; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The rate of change over time was also significantly greater after the high-protein diet than after the control diet (P < 0.001). Fasting triacylglycerol was significantly lower after the high-protein diet than after the control diet. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acid concentrations were not significantly different after the 2 diets. Conclusion: A high-protein diet lowers blood glucose postprandially in persons with type 2 diabetes and improves overall glucose control. However, longer-term studies are necessary to determine the total magnitude of response, possible adverse effects, and the long-term acceptability of the diet. Dietary protein , diabetes , diet , in Continue reading >>
10 Diabetes Diet Myths
Have you heard that eating too much sugar causes diabetes? Or maybe someone told you that you have to give up all your favorite foods when you’re on a diabetes diet? Well, those things aren’t true. In fact, there are plenty of myths about dieting and food. Use this guide to separate fact from fiction. MYTH. The truth is that diabetes begins when something disrupts your body's ability to turn the food you eat into energy. MYTH. If you have diabetes, you need to plan your meals, but the general idea is simple. You’ll want to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. Choose foods that work along with your activities and any medications you take. Will you need to make adjustments to what you eat? Probably. But your new way of eating may not require as many changes as you think. MYTH. Carbs are the foundation of a healthy diet whether you have diabetes or not. They do affect your blood sugar levels, which is why you’ll need to keep up with how many you eat each day. Some carbs have vitamins, minerals, and fiber. So choose those ones, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Starchy, sugary carbs are not a great choice because they have less to offer. They’re more like a flash in the pan than fuel your body can rely on. MYTH. Because carbs affect blood sugar levels so quickly, you may be tempted to eat less of them and substitute more protein. But take care to choose your protein carefully. If it comes with too much saturated fat, that’s risky for your heart’s health. Keep an eye on your portion size too. Talk to your dietitian or doctor about how much protein is right for you. MYTH. If you use insulin for your diabetes, you may learn how to adjust the amount and type you take to match the amount of food you eat. But this doesn't mean you Continue reading >>
Food Order Has Significant Impact On Glucose And Insulin Levels
Eating protein and vegetables before carbohydrates leads to lower post-meal glucose and insulin levels in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, Weill Cornell Medical College researchers found in a new study. This finding, published June 23 in the journal Diabetes Care, might impact the way clinicians advise diabetic patients and other high-risk individuals to eat, focusing not only on how much, but also on when carbohydrates are consumed. Dr. Louis Aronne's study in Diabetes Care found that insulin and glucose levels were significantly lower when protein and vegetables were eaten before carbohydrates. "We're always looking for ways to help people with diabetes lower their blood sugar," said senior author Dr. Louis Aronne, the Sanford I. Weill Professor of Metabolic Research and a professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College, who is the study's principal investigator. "We rely on medicine, but diet is an important part of this process, too. Unfortunately, we've found that it's difficult to get people to change their eating habits. "Carbohydrates raise blood sugar, but if you tell someone not to eat them — or to drastically cut back — it's hard for them to comply," added Dr. Aronne, who is also director of the Comprehensive Weight Control Center at Weill Cornell. "This study points to an easier way that patients might lower their blood sugar and insulin levels." Patients with type 2 diabetes typically use a finger prick test to check their glucose levels throughout the day. Maintaining normal levels, specifically after meals, is of the utmost importance, because if a diabetics' blood sugar level is consistently high or frequently spikes, they risk complications of their disease, including hardening of the arteries and eventually death from heart dise Continue reading >>