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How Does Diabetes Contribute To Heart Disease?

Heart Disease

Heart Disease

Print Overview Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect your heart. Diseases under the heart disease umbrella include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), among others. The term "heart disease" is often used interchangeably with the term "cardiovascular disease." Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease. Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices. Symptoms Heart disease symptoms depend on what type of heart disease you have. Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease) Cardiovascular disease symptoms may be different for men and women. For instance, men are more likely to have chest pain; women are more likely to have other symptoms along with chest discomfort, such as shortness of breath, nausea and extreme fatigue. Symptoms can include: Chest pain, chest tightness, chest pressure and chest discomfort (angina) Shortness of breath Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in your legs or arms if the blood vessels in those parts of your body are narrowed Pain in the neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen or back You might not be diagnosed with cardiovascular disease until you have a heart attack, angina, stroke or heart failure. It's important to watch for cardiovascular symptoms and discuss concerns with your doctor. Cardiovascular disease can sometimes be found early with regular evaluations. Heart disease symptoms caused b Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Attack Risk And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes, Heart Attack Risk And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

People with diabetes have heart attacks or strokes more than twice as often as people without diabetes. 1 In addition, two out of three people with diabetes eventually die from these conditions, according to the American Diabetes Association. 2 Heart Disease Risk Factors According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if you have diabetes your risk of death by heart disease may be two to four times greater than for someone who doesn’t have diabetes. 3 The American Heart Association cites the same statistic, adding that at least 68 percent of people with diabetes who are older than 65 years of age die of heart disease. 4 Other risks for heart disease include high LDL cholesterol levels, high blood pressure (hypertension), and high triglyceride levels, according to the CDC. 5 Many people with diabetes also have a combination of other risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. 6 High Blood Sugar and Heart Disease Over time, high blood sugar may lead to increased fatty deposits on blood vessel walls, affecting blood flow and increasing the chance of blood vessel hardening. This is according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 7 Heart Attack Warning Signs The risk of having a heart attack is higher for diabetics and diabetics who have already suffered one heart attack have an even greater risk of having a second. NIDDK mentions some important warning signs that may indicate you might be experiencing a heart attack, such as chest, arm, jaw, neck, back or stomach pain. 8 Other possible symptoms of a heart attack include shortness of breath, nausea, sweating and lightheadedness. 9 Reducing Your Risks as a Diabetic If you have diabetes, th Continue reading >>

Heart Disease And Diabetes

Heart Disease And Diabetes

Heart disease is common in people with diabetes. Data from the National Heart Association from 2012 shows 65% of people with diabetes will die from some sort of heart disease or stroke. In general, the risk of heart disease death and stroke are twice as high in people with diabetes. While all people with diabetes have an increased chance of developing heart disease, the condition is more common in those with type 2 diabetes. In fact, heart disease is the number one cause of death among people with type 2 diabetes. The Framingham Study was one of the first pieces of evidence to show that people with diabetes are more vulnerable to heart disease than those people who did not have diabetes. The Framingham Study looked at generations of people, including those with diabetes, to try to determine the health risk factors for developing heart disease. It showed that multiple health factors -- including diabetes -- could increase the possibility of developing heart disease. Aside from diabetes, other health problems associated with heart disease include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of early heart disease. The more health risks factors a person has for heart disease, the higher the chances that they will develop heart disease and even die from it. Just like anyone else, people with diabetes have an increased risk of dying from heart disease if they have more health risk factors. However, the probability of dying from heart disease is 2 to 4 times higher in a person with diabetes. So, while a person with one health risk factor, such as high blood pressure, may have a certain chance of dying from heart disease, a person with diabetes has double or even quadruple the risk of dying. For example, one medical study found that people with d Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes is a common disease that is on the rise in America. Having diabetes raises your risk for developing other dangerous conditions, especially heart disease and stroke. November is National Diabetes Month, a time to raise awareness about preventing and managing diabetes and protecting yourself from its complications. Diabetes is a serious condition that happens when your body can’t make enough of a hormone called insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it has. Insulin helps your body digest sugars that come from what you eat and drink. Without enough insulin, sugar builds up in your blood. Over time, that sugar buildup damages your nerves, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes, or about 1 of every 11 people. 1 About 8 million of them don’t know they have diabetes. Another 86 million—more than 1 in 3 Americans older than 20 years—have prediabetes, a condition in which a person’s blood sugar is high, but not yet high enough to trigger diabetes.2 Most people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes are about twice as likely to die from heart disease as adults who do not have diabetes.3 Surprising Facts About Diabetes Women with diabetes have a 40% greater risk of developing heart disease and a 25% greater risk of stroke than men with diabetes do.5 Experts aren’t sure why the risk is so much greater in women with diabetes than in men with diabetes. Women’s biology may play a role: Women usually have more body fat, which can put them at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. If you are a woman with diabetes, you can take steps to control your condition and improve your chances for avoiding heart disease and stroke (see below). Almost 7 in 10 people with diabetes over age 65 will die o Continue reading >>

Diabetic Heart Disease

Diabetic Heart Disease

is heart disease that develops in people with diabetes. Heart disease, also known as cardiovascular disease, refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can cause a heart attack, which is sometimes "silent," or a stroke. People who have diabetes are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease because, over time, high blood sugar can damage blood vessels and nerves that control the heart. Heart attack A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart is blocked Symptoms of a heart attack include: Pressure, tightness, pain, or a squeezing or aching feeling in your chest or arms Nausea, indigestion, heartburn, or abdominal pain Shortness of breath Cold sweat Fatigue Lightheadedness or sudden dizziness Silent heart attack A silent heart attack is one that has few or no symptoms Stroke A stroke occurs when part of your brain goes without blood for too long Symptoms of a stroke include: Sudden weakness or droopiness of the face, or issues with your vision Sudden weakness or numbness in one or both arms Difficulty speaking, slurred speech, or garbled speech If you experience symptoms of a heart attack or stroke, be sure to seek immediate medical attention. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Drug Jardiance Reduces Heart Disease Death

Diabetes Drug Jardiance Reduces Heart Disease Death

With commentary by senior study author Silvio Inzucchi, MD, professor of medicine and director of the Yale University Diabetes Center A new glucose-lowering drug, empagliflozin (Jardiance), can not only help treat diabetes, but can protect against cardiovascular-related deaths, new research suggests. That is important, since those with type 2 diabetes are at much higher risk of cardiovascular disease. About two of every three people with type 2 diabetes die of heart disease or stroke, the American Diabetes Association says. In the new study, Jardiance helped prevent one in three cardiovascular-related deaths in patients with diabetes who had established heart disease, the researchers found. "We found that the risk for cardiovascular death was reduced by 38%, overall death [from any cause] by 32%, and hospitalization for heart failure by 35%,'' says Silvio Inzucchi, MD, professor of medicine and director of the Yale University Diabetes Center. He presented the findings at the meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Stockholm on September 17. The findings were also published Sept. 17 in the The New England Journal of Medicine. "This is the first time that a diabetes drug has shown such a benefit in high-risk patients," Dr. Inzucchi says. "There were also no major safety signals [side effects] except for the known side effect of this class of increasing the risk of genital infections…'' Empagliflozin, or Jardiance, is in a class known as a SGLT-2, a sodium glucose cotransporter-2. It was FDA-approved in 2014. It can be given as a solo treatment or in combination with other diabetes drugs. Other drugs in the SGLT-2 class include Invokana (canagliflozin) and Farxiga (dapagliflozin), sometimes combined with other drugs. The SGLT-2 drugs lower Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy And The Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease

Diabetic Retinopathy And The Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Abstract OBJECTIVE— We sought to examine the relation of diabetic retinopathy to incident coronary heart disease (CHD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— A population-based, prospective cohort study consisting of 1,524 middle-aged individuals with type 2 diabetes without prevalent CHD and stroke at baseline was conducted. Diabetic retinopathy signs were graded from retinal photographs according to the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. Incident CHD events (myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, or coronary revascularization) were identified and validated following standardized protocols. RESULTS— In our study, 214 (14.7%) participants had diabetic retinopathy. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 years, there were 209 (13.7%) incident CHD events. After controlling for age, sex, race, study center, fasting glucose, A1C, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, cigarette smoking, BMI, and lipid profile, the presence of diabetic retinopathy was associated with a twofold higher risk of incident CHD events (hazard rate ratio [HR] 2.07 [95% CI 1.38–3.11]) and a threefold higher risk of fatal CHD (3.35 [1.40–8.01]). Further adjustments for inflammatory markers, carotid artery intima-media thickness, or nephropathy had minimal impact on the association. The increased risk of CHD was significant in both men (1.89 [1.08–3.31]) and women (2.16 [1.16–4.02]) with diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS— In individuals with type 2 diabetes, the presence of retinopathy signifies an increased CHD risk, independent of known risk factors. Our data support the role of microvascular disease in the pathogenesis of CHD in diabetes. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of mortality in ind Continue reading >>

The Epidemiology Of Cardiovascular Disease In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: How Sweet It Is … Or Is It?

The Epidemiology Of Cardiovascular Disease In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: How Sweet It Is … Or Is It?

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, with a prevalence that approaches 8% of the adult populations of the USA and much of Europe, and with more than 100 million cases worldwide.1 The predominant clinical form of diabetes mellitus is type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, which accounts for more than 90% of all cases. Most type 2 diabetes is preceded by a symptom-free period of impaired glucose tolerance, which is characterised by a response to an oral glucose challenge that is abnormal but does not satisfy the criteria for diabetes. The ratio of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes is about 1·5.1 Type 2 diabetes develops when the underlying insulin resistance associated with impaired glucose tolerance is compounded by failing insulin secretion, with functionally compromised pancreatic beta-cells. Type 2 diabetes occurs with an equal frequency in men and women and most commonly in overweight individuals older than 40. Certain ethnic and racial groups, such as Native Americans, Asians (here used to mean people from the Far East and the subcontinent), Africans, and residents of the South Pacific islands Nauru and Mauritius, are particularly vulnerable to development of type 2 diabetes when they change to a lifestyle with decreased physical activity and a high-fat, low-fibre ‘westernised’ diet that promotes increased obesity. In comparison, type 1, or insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus is rare. Type 1 generally starts during childhood and adolescence, is more common in northern Europeans, and is the result of an absolute insulin deficiency secondary to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Both major types of diabetes mellitus are characterised by hyperglycaemia, abnormal lipid and protein metabolism, and specific Continue reading >>

Third In A Series On Diabetes And The Heart. Diabetic Heart Disease In Women: Prevalence As Compared To Men? Implications For Treatment?

Third In A Series On Diabetes And The Heart. Diabetic Heart Disease In Women: Prevalence As Compared To Men? Implications For Treatment?

Introduction The publication of the Framingham Study and epidemiology data have shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) confers an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiac mortality [1]. Features of this association are:- Relative risk of CHD and fatal CHD are greater in diabetic women than diabetic men. Classic and diabetes-related risk factors both contribute to the total CHD risk. Insulin treatment may be associated with a worse cardiovascular outcome. Diabetes develops over decades: women have pre-diabetes for 10 years on average, while men have pre-diabetes for 8 years, before it progresses to overt diabetes [2]. Indeed, there is accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that women’s metabolic and vascular risk factor profile has to deteriorate to a greater extent, i.e., women have to “travel further” than men, before becoming diabetic. The Nurses Health Study, an observational study including 117,000 female nurses followed since 1976, also found that cardiovascular risk increased in women at least 15 years before a clinical diagnosis of diabetes [3]. The risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is 150% greater in diabetic than non-diabetic women, but only 50% greater in diabetic than non-diabetic men, according to the Framingham data, which was among the first studies to provide evidence of the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic women than in diabetic men [4]. Several authors have suggested that intermediate (pre-diabetic) levels of hyperglycemia are even more dangerous for women than for men. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate has remained greater for women than for men. Despite improvements in CV mortality in the last 2 decades, CHD remains understudied, underdiagnosed and undertreated in women Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Cardiovascular (cv) Disease Go Hand In Hand.

Type 2 Diabetes And Cardiovascular (cv) Disease Go Hand In Hand.

JARDIANCE is a prescription medicine used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes, and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adults with type 2 diabetes who have known cardiovascular disease. JARDIANCE is not for people with type 1 diabetes or for people with diabetic ketoacidosis (increased ketones in the blood or urine). Dehydration. JARDIANCE can cause some people to have dehydration (the loss of body water and salt). Dehydration may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, light-headed, or weak, especially when you stand up. You may be at a higher risk of dehydration if you: have low blood pressure, take medicines to lower your blood pressure, including water pills (diuretics), are on a low salt diet, have kidney problems, are 65 years of age or older. Ketoacidosis (increased ketones in your blood or urine). Ketoacidosis is a serious condition and may need to be treated in the hospital. Ketoacidosis may lead to death. Ketoacidosis occurs in people with type 1 diabetes and can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes taking JARDIANCE, even if blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dL. Stop taking JARDIANCE and call your doctor right away if you get any of the following symptoms, and if possible, check for ketones in your urine: nausea, vomiting, stomach-area (abdominal) pain, tiredness, or trouble breathing. Serious urinary tract infections. Serious urinary tract infections can occur in people taking JARDIANCE and may lead to hospitalization. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of a urinary tract infection such as a burning feeling when passing urine, a need to urinate often or right away, pain in the lower part of your stomach or pelvis, or blood in the urine. Sometimes people also may have a fever, back pain, nausea or vomit Continue reading >>

Relation Of Familial Patterns Of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, And Diabetes To Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis

Relation Of Familial Patterns Of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, And Diabetes To Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis

Purpose: To investigate the possibility that family history beyond early-onset coronary heart disease might contribute to coronary heart disease susceptibility, we studied associations between additional family history and the coronary artery calcium score. Methods: Associations between coronary artery calcium score and self-reports of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes in first-degree relatives of 5264 nondiabetic subjects were assessed using logistic and linear regression adjusting for risk factors; adjusted mean coronary artery calcium score estimates were determined by pooling results. Results: Family history of coronary heart disease alone and in combination with diabetes and/or stroke was significantly associated with a positive coronary artery calcium score compared with no family history with odds ratios ranging from 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.6–2.3) and adjusted mean coronary artery calcium score estimates ranging from 137 (95% CI: 101–173) to 184 (95% CI: 143–226). Associations between family history of coronary heart disease and coronary artery calcium score were significant regardless of age at onset, sex, lineage, or number of relatives with coronary heart disease. The association between family history of diabetes only and coronary artery calcium score was also significant (OR, 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.7) with an adjusted mean coronary artery calcium score estimate of 122 (95% CI: 93–151). Generally, family history of stroke had nonsignificant associations with coronary artery calcium score. Conclusions: Numerous family history variables in addition to early-onset coronary heart disease are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Our results have implications for improving coronary heart disease risk assessment. Family his Continue reading >>

Heart Health For Women

Heart Health For Women

PDF Format Heart Health for Women What is cardiovascular disease (CVD)? Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both men and women in the United States. CVD is a general term for diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. Many are caused by the buildup of a waxy substance called plaque in the arteries. Plaque can narrow and harden the arteries, a condition called atherosclerosis. It can take several decades for atherosclerosis to develop. What are the different types of CVD? There are several types of CVD. The type of CVD depends on where atherosclerosis occurs in the body: Coronary artery disease affects the arteries that supply the heart with blood. Peripheral artery disease affects arteries that supply the other organs in your body. Cerebrovascular disease affects arteries that supply the brain. How can atherosclerosis lead to a heart attack or stroke? Atherosclerosis makes it hard for blood to move through the arteries. If blood flow is blocked in a coronary artery, it causes a heart attack. If this happens in an artery in the brain, it can cause an ischemic stroke. If an artery ruptures in the brain, it is called a hemorrhagic stroke. Is CVD different for women and men? Women have unique risk factors for CVD that men do not share. Women also get different types of CVD than men. CVD in men is more likely to cause heart disease. CVD in women is more likely to cause stroke. Stroke can cause lifelong disability in those who survive. Heart attack symptoms in women can be different from those in men. All women need to learn these symptoms and call 9-1-1 if they experience them. What are the risk factors for CVD? Some risk factors for CVD cannot be changed, whereas others can be altered by making lifestyle changes or treating certain medical c Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Risk Factor For Heart Disease And Diabetes

Insulin Resistance: Risk Factor For Heart Disease And Diabetes

MORE Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body's cells cannot properly intake insulin. Insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is a hormone that helps the body use energy from blood glucose, or blood sugar from digested food, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. "Think of insulin as the key that unlocks the door to their cells. That door needs to be opened in order for glucose to exit the blood into the cell," said Kimber Stanhope, a nutrition research scientist at the University of California at Davis. When people are insulin resistant, their pancreas, which acts as the locksmith of sorts, is still making those "keys," but the locks — the receptors on cells that take in blood sugar — aren't working as well as they should, Stanhope said. That’s a problem because insulin doesn't just play a role in helping the body use blood sugar as fuel; it's critical for many other bodily processes as well. Being insulin resistant can put people on the path towards developing Type 2 diabetes, and is the single best predictor of who will develop diabetes 10 or 20 years down the line. Once someone is pre-diabetic or diabetic, the pancreas simply can't produce enough insulin to make the cells sufficiently take up glucose and blood sugar levels rise. Insulin resistance also raises the risk of other disorders, such as heart disease. More than 50 million Americans have metabolic disorders that include insulin resistance, according to the American Heart Association. The condition occurs in more than 50 percent of obese children, according to a 2006 study published in the journal Diabetes Care. Causes One of the primary causes of insulin resistance is excess body fat, Stanhope said. "Nearly everybody that is ov Continue reading >>

Eating Fried Foods Tied To Increased Risk Of Diabetes, Heart Disease

Eating Fried Foods Tied To Increased Risk Of Diabetes, Heart Disease

People who eat a lot of fried foods may have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease, according to a large, long-term study. Led by Leah Cahill, research fellow in the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), and An Pan of the National University of Singapore’s Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, the researchers examined data from more than 100,000 men and women over about 25 years. They found that people who ate fried food at least once per week had a greater risk of both type 2 diabetes and heart disease, and that the risk increased as the frequency of fried food consumption increased. For instance, participants who ate fried foods 4-6 times per week had a 39% increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and those who ate fried foods 7 or more times per week had a 55% increased risk, compared with those who ate fried foods less than once per week. Eating fried foods away from home—where frying oil may not be fresh—posed the greatest risk, Cahill said. With each reuse, oil becomes more degraded, and more gets absorbed into food, which can contribute to weight gain, higher cholesterol, and higher blood pressure—all risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Trans fat-free cooking oils—increasingly used by restaurants—may pose less risk, Cahill said, although she noted in a June 20, 2014 Time.com article that she cannot give specific recommendations on the safest oils to cook with. “Our study is really a first take, and we need to know more before we can say what’s safe,” she said. She added in an interview, “Because there is not enough research to date to clearly confirm that one type of oil is best to use for frying, it is probably wisest to alternate a variety of oils to provide you with a mix of fatty acids Continue reading >>

Prevention And Treatment Of Congestive Heart Failure In Diabetic Patients

Prevention And Treatment Of Congestive Heart Failure In Diabetic Patients

Article INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular diseases are the most important complication, by far, of diabetes mellitus. Nowadays, cardiovascular complications are the major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients.1 It is well known that the most frequent heart disease in diabetes is coronary artery disease, including the major epicardial arteries and microcirculation. Mortality from acute myocardial infarction is greater in diabetic patients in the short and long term.2 Likewise, poorly controlled hyperglycemia is associated with a greater mortality in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction.3 However, it was not so long ago that there was less information available on the association between diabetes mellitus and the other major cardiovascular complication, heart failure. Interest in heart failure has grown dramatically in the last decade for several reasons: a) increasing prevalence; b) poor prognosis (similar to that of common types of cancer); c) increased rate of hospital admissions; d) very high incidence (particularly in older persons), and e) high economic cost. Likewise, the development of new drugs capable of improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients with congestive heart failure has also helped to raise interest. Although arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease are the fundamental causes of congestive heart failure in our geographic area, diabetes mellitus is also associated with a greater risk of developing heart failure, as well as with a worse prognosis. It is not known for sure if this increased incidence of heart failure in diabetes is due to the consequences of coronary artery disease associated to diabetes or if it is a direct consequence of diabetes that is independent of myocardial ischemia, the so-called Continue reading >>

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