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How Do You Test For Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Understanding A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Understanding A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a manageable condition. Once you’re diagnosed, you can learn what to do to stay healthy. Diabetes is grouped into different types. The most commonly diagnosed are gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Maybe you have a friend who was told she had diabetes during pregnancy. That type is called gestational diabetes. It can develop during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. Type 1 Diabetes You may have had a childhood friend with diabetes who had to take insulin every day. That type is called type 1 diabetes. The peak age of onset is in the midteens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 1 makes up 5 percent of all cases of diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes makes up 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. It is also called adult-onset diabetes. Although it can occur at any age, it’s more common in people older than 40. If you think you might have diabetes, talk to your doctor. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can cause severe complications, such as: amputation of the legs and feet blindness heart disease kidney disease stroke According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. People with diabetes are 1.5 times as likely to die as people of the same age who don’t have diabetes. Many of the severe side effects of diabetes can be avoided with treatment. That’s why it’s so important to be diagnosed as soon as possible. Some people are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes because they have symptoms. Early diabetes symptoms include: increased or frequent urination increased thirst fatigue cuts or sores that won Continue reading >>

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

RATE★★★★★ An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a blood test primarily used to diagnose gestational diabetes, a form of diabetes that can affect a woman when she is pregnant. OGTT can also be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes. OGTT measures the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood at different time intervals (2 hours for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes) after you drink a solution containing glucose.1 Who is at risk for gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes can be caused by the hormones that are released by the body during pregnancy that reduce insulin production. Like type 2 diabetes, being overweight or obese, having a family history of type 2 diabetes, fat distribution in the waist-to-hip area, a sedentary lifestyle, and smoking can all increase risk for gestational diabetes. In addition to these, having a previous large baby (>9 lbs) also increases the risk for gestational diabetes.2 Why is it important to measure blood glucose? Our bodies require energy to function properly and we get that energy from the foods we eat. Our diet (everything we eat and drink) includes three main sources of energy (also known as calories): protein, fat, and carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fibers).When the body digests most sources of carbohydrates, they are transformed through digestion into a very important source of instant energy, a form of sugar called glucose. Our bodies depend on the action of a number of different natural body chemicals called hormones, including insulin, amylin, incretins, and glucagon, working together in conjunction, to control how we use glucose. In type 2 diabetes, these hormones no longer work in the way they should and this results in elevated blood glucose. Elevated blood glucose that persists over time can lead to serious Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Screening

Type 2 Diabetes Screening

Type 2 diabetes is a common and serious disease in the United States and worldwide. However, it’s thought that one-third of those with type 2 diabetes are unaware that they have this serious illness. Because often there are no symptoms with type 2 diabetes, early screening may help people avoid the more serious complications of this disease, including chronic hyperglycemia that’s associated with long-term damage of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Persons with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes have a significantly higher risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Individuals with diabetes also have a greater likelihood of abnormal cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity. Who Should Be Screened for Diabetes? According to the American Diabetes Association, all patients should be screened for diabetes at three-year intervals beginning at age 45, especially people who are overweight or obese. If multiple risk factors are present, screening should be done at an earlier age and more frequently. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that adults with high blood pressure or high cholesterol be screened for type 2 diabetes (insulin-resistant diabetes) in an effort to reduce cardiovascular disease. What Are the Diabetes Risk Factors? Common risk factors for diabetes include: Family history of diabetes (parents or siblings with diabetes) Overweight (a body mass index equal to or greater than 25) Habitual physical inactivity Race/ethnicity (including African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, and Pacific Islanders) History of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) High blood pressure (equal to or greater than 140/90 in adults) Abnormal lipids: HDL cholestero Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, and symptoms generally come on gradually, they may go unnoticed for a long time, or they may be attributed to something else. For example, increased thirst may be chalked up to a hot summer, or fatigue may be interpreted as a sign of aging or stress. This is unfortunate, because even short-term high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) diminishes your quality of life. And if high blood sugar persists for a long time, it can eventually cause complications such as diabetic retinopathy or kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) that cannot be completely reversed with improved blood sugar control. Type 2 diabetes can cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, including: Fatigue Dry mouth Thirst Excessive urination Hunger Weight loss Blurry vision Cloudy thinking Irritability Wounds that won't heal Infections associated with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes include gum infections, urinary tract infections (particularly in women), slowly healing wounds with subsequent infections, and infections of the feet. Symptoms in Men Type 2 diabetes symptoms are generally the same for men and women. However, urological problems such as erectile dysfunction (ED) — the inability to achieve or maintain an erection — have been associated with all forms of diabetes, including type 2. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 20 to 75 percent of men with any type of diabetes have ED. Researchers believe diabetes causes sexual function problems in men due to damage to the body's autonomic nervous system, which controls circulation. If you have the symptoms of ED, it may be a sign you have diabetes. Another urological problem associated with diabetes in men is retrograde ejaculation, or the release of semen into the bladder during ejaculation. Sym Continue reading >>

A Diabetes Test You Can Do Yourself

A Diabetes Test You Can Do Yourself

Are you urinating more often, feeling very thirsty, hungry, or tired? Maybe you’re losing weight. You may have type 2 diabetes. To find out, you can make an appointment with your doctor and have your blood tested for the condition. Or you can go to the drug store, buy a blood glucose meter, and give yourself a diabetes test. An estimated 40 percent of adults with type 2 diabetes don’t know they have it, which means they aren’t getting treatment that could protect them from very serious health problems down the road, such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, and kidney failure. The best option is to go to a doctor if you’re having symptoms of diabetes. But if you’re reluctant to do that, for whatever reason, the next best thing is to buy an over-the-counter diabetes test kit. "If you have a family history of diabetes, are obese, or have high blood pressure, you should test yourself for diabetes, if your doctor hasn’t already done so," says Marvin M. Lipman, M.D., Consumer Reports' chief medical adviser. "By being a proactive person, you might save yourself a lot of grief in the future.” Blood glucose meters can be purchased without a prescription. Models in our Ratings of more than two dozen devices cost $10 to $75. They usually come with 10 lancets, but you might have to buy a pack of test strips separately, which can cost $18 and up; check the package to see what it includes. If the meter doesn’t come with strips, make sure you buy a pack made for that model or you’ll get inaccurate results. Most models come with batteries. Here’s what you need to do next: Fast overnight. Don’t have anything to eat or drink (except water) for at least 8 hours, then test yourself first thing in the morning, before breakfast. Follow directions. Read the manual to ma Continue reading >>

How To Test For Diabetes Type

How To Test For Diabetes Type

Whether warning signs of diabetes are present or not, there are various tests that are performed to evaluate a person’s risk of developing certain types of diabetes or make a diabetes diagnosis. Learn more about what tests are out there: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) Tests for: Prediabetes, Type 2, Gestational diabetes This blood test requires fasting for eight hours (WebMD recommends preparing by eating a steady amount of about 150g of carbs per day for three days leading up to the test). After blood is drawn, a glucose drink is administered and blood is drawn again after two more hours. If the results of the OGTT are higher than what is considered normal but not quite high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes, the blood sugar level may fall into the category of an IGT, or impaired glucose tolerance test. An IGT, history of gestational diabetes, being overweight, poor nutrition, ethnicity, and family history of diabetes put pregnant women at an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes. Glucose Challenge Test Tests for: Gestational diabetes An abbreviated version of the OGTT, the glucose challenge test is also used to determine whether expecting mothers have gestational diabetes. The test is directed at women who are 24 – 28 weeks pregnant. Blood is drawn 1 hour after a glucose drink is administered — no fasting is required. The results will determine whether further testing, such as an OGTT, is necessary. Plasma Glucose Tests Test for: Type 1, Type 2 Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG): An FPG is a snapshot measure of blood sugar levels. This blood test is usually performed first thing in the morning after fasting for eight hours. Random Plasma Glucose (RPG): No fasting is required for this blood test. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test Tests for: Type 1, Type 2 Mo Continue reading >>

Diagnosis & Testing | Type2diabetes.com

Diagnosis & Testing | Type2diabetes.com

Type 2 Diagnosis and Testing: an introduction Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health problem worldwide. In the US alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 2010 diabetes affected 25.8 million people (thats 8.3% of the population) and most of these had type 2 diabetes. Among these, 18.8 million were diagnosed and 7 million were undiagnosed. Type 2 diabetes was most common in people 65 years of age or older, occurring in approximately 27% of this age group.1 The statistics are even more sobering if you consider the percentages of adults in the US with prediabetes. Based on statistics from 2005 to 2008, the CDC found that 35% of US adults (age 20 years and older) had prediabetes, with the highest rate among adults 65 years of age and older. Prediabetes affects 1 in 2 adults (50%) in this age range. When these percentages are applied to the entire population of the US (2010 census data), this translates to 79 million adults 20 years of age or older with prediabetes. 1 What makes diabetes such a dangerous public health problem is that if it remains untreated (or undiagnosed) over time it can lead to major health complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and other problems. So, early detection and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (preferably in the prediabetes stage before it becomes type 2 diabetes), followed by effective treatment, is very important.2 A story of hormonal imbalance affecting multiple organs What happens in type 2 diabetes is that the body loses the ability to use insulin effectively (this is called insulin resistance). Insulin is a hormone produced in the beta cells of the pancreas (an organ located behind the stomach) and serves as sort of a gate keeper, allowing glucose to enter cells where it Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis & Tests

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis & Tests

XIAFLEX® is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with Dupuytren's contracture when a "cord" can be felt. It is not known if XIAFLEX® is safe and effective in children under the age of 18. Do not receive XIAFLEX® if you have had an allergic reaction to collagenase clostridium histolyticum or any of the ingredients in XIAFLEX®, or to any other collagenase product. See the end of the Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in XIAFLEX®. XIAFLEX® can cause serious side effects, including: Tendon rupture or ligament damage. Receiving an injection of XIAFLEX® may cause damage to a tendon or ligament in your hand and cause it to break or weaken. This could require surgery to fix the damaged tendon or ligament. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have trouble bending your injected finger (towards the wrist) after the swelling goes down or you have problems using your treated hand after your follow-up visit Nerve injury or other serious injury of the hand. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get numbness, tingling, increased pain, or tears in the skin (laceration) in your treated finger or hand after your injection or after your follow-up visit Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX® because it contains foreign proteins. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms of an allergic reaction after an injection of XIAFLEX®: hives swollen face breathing trouble chest pain low blood pressure dizziness or fainting Increased chance of bleeding. Bleeding or bruising at the injection site can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have a problem with your blood clotting. XIAFLEX® may not b Continue reading >>

Random Blood Glucose Test

Random Blood Glucose Test

RATE★★★★★ A random blood glucose test is used to diagnose diabetes. The test measures the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood. If your blood glucose level is 200 mg/dL or higher and you have the classic symptoms of high blood sugar (excessive thirst, urination at night, blurred vision and, in some cases, weight loss) your doctor may diagnose you with diabetes. If you do not have any symptoms of high blood sugar, your doctor will probably have you take another test for further evidence of diabetes.1 Usually, having high blood glucose can be a sign that your body is not functioning normally and that you may have diabetes. If you have high blood glucose and it is not treated, it can lead to serious health complications. However, finding out that your blood glucose is elevated is powerful information that you can use to keep yourself healthy. If you know that your blood glucose is high, you can take steps to lower it, by losing weight (if you are overweight or obese), getting regular moderate physical activity, and taking a medication that lowers blood glucose.2 Why measuring blood glucose is important in diagnosing type 2 diabetes Our bodies require energy to function properly and we get that energy from the foods we eat. Our diet (everything we eat and drink) includes three main sources of energy (also known as calories): protein, fat, and carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fibers).When the body digests most sources of carbohydrates, they are transformed through digestion into a very important source of instant energy, a form of sugar called glucose. Our bodies depend on the action of a number of different natural body chemicals called hormones, including insulin, amylin, incretins, and glucagon, working together in conjunction, to control how we Continue reading >>

5 Important Tests For Type 2 Diabetes

5 Important Tests For Type 2 Diabetes

It takes more than just one abnormal blood test to diagnose diabetes.Istockphoto For centuries, diabetes testing mostly consisted of a physician dipping his pinkie into a urine sample and tasting it to pick up on abnormally high sugar. Thankfully, testing for type 2 diabetes is lot easier nowat least for doctors. Urine tests can still pick up diabetes. However, sugar levels need to be quite high (and diabetes more advanced) to be detected on a urine test, so this is not the test of choice for type 2 diabetes. Almost all diabetes tests are now conducted on blood samples, which are collected in a visit to your physician or obstetrician (if you're pregnant). If you have an abnormal resultmeaning blood sugar is too highon any of these tests, you'll need to have more testing. Many things can affect blood sugar (such as certain medications, illness, or stress). A diabetes diagnosis requires more than just one abnormal blood sugar result. The main types of diabetes blood tests include: Oral glucose-tolerance test . This test is most commonly performed during pregnancy. You typically have your blood drawn once, then drink a syrupy glucose solution and have your blood drawn at 30 to 60 minute intervals for up to three hours to see how your body is handling the glut of sugar. Normal result: Depends on how many grams of glucose are in the solution, which can vary. Fasting blood sugar. This is a common test because it's easy to perform. After fasting overnight, you have your blood drawn at an early morning doctor's visit and tested to see if your blood sugar is in the normal range. Normal result: 70-99 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or less than 5.5 mmol/L Two-hour postprandial test. This blood test is done two hours after you have eaten ("prandial" means meal). Normal result: 7 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Testing: Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Testing: Type 2 Diabetes

The who, what, where, and why of diabetes testing Everyone knows that Type 2 diabetes is a serious, long-term health condition that impairs bodily function, threatens quality of life, and can lead to other complications. And almost everyone knows that its incidence and prevalence are on the rise globally. So why aren’t people routinely being tested for diabetes? According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), through 2014, 21 million people had been diagnosed with diabetes in the U.S. alone. And the American Diabetes Association (ADA) reports 1.4 million Americans are diagnosed each year. These numbers are expected to increase, because • More of the population is aging; • More people are eating unhealthy diets; and • Physical inactivity is on the rise. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called diabetes a hidden global pandemic because, although it isn’t infectious or communicable, the number of people diagnosed with the condition is growing annually. It can lead to blindness, limb amputation, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. It overburdens health-care systems and reduces quality of life for patients and their families. Given the increasing diagnoses, and the growing awareness of Type 2, it is imperative everyone knows the risk factors and the who, what, where, and why of getting tested for diabetes. By learning how you can help friends and loved ones determine their risk of diabetes, you could save a life. Who is at risk? Common risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include • Being over age 40; • Having obesity or excess weight; • Having a waistline larger than 31.5 inches (80 centimeters) in women and 37 inches (94 centimeters) in men; • Being of South Asian descent or ethnicity; • Living with a mental health problem, cardiovascula Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Tests For Screening And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

Tests For Screening And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

This article offers a discussion of available tests used to screen for and diagnose type 2 diabetes. It reviews the evidence supporting different screening strategies and describes the test characteristics of different diagnostic approaches, with particular reference to the American Diabetes Association's 1997 guidelines for diagnosis and 2009 standards of medical care for diabetes. The recent International Expert Committee report on the role of A1C in diagnosis is also discussed. Overview of Available Tests Proposed tests for diabetes screening are numerous and vary from history- and anthropometric-based questionnaires to proteomics-based risk assessment.12-15 Although some of these tests might prove to be useful, the current preferred tests are limited to two groups: serum glucose—based tests and glycated proteins. Serum glucose—based tests include fasting plasma glucose (FPG), random plasma glucose (RPG), and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The most well-studied and useful glycated protein is A1C. The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of diabetes focus on the FPG, whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) focuses on the OGTT. However, practicing physicians frequently employ other measures in addition to those recommended, including urinary glucose, RPG, and A1C. In one survey of primary care physicians and mid-level providers, 89% of providers reported using FPG for screening in some cases, 58% used RPG, and 42% used A1C. For confirmation of a diabetes diagnosis, 80% used A1C, and 64% used FPG. Only 7% of providers reported that they regularly use the OGTT to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).16 A survey conducted by Ealovega et al.17 found that 95% of opportunistic screening was done by RPG, 3% by FPG, 2% by A1C, and < 1% by OGTT. In addit Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

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