How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?
How are respiration and photosynthesis related? Question Date: 2002-09-07 Answer 1: During photosynthesis, a plant is able to convert solar energy into a chemical form. It does this by capturing light coming from the sun and, through a series of reactions, using its energy to help build a sugar molecule called glucose. Glucose is made of six carbon atoms, six oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms. When the plant makes the glucose molecule, it gets the carbon and oxygen atoms it needs from carbon dioxide, which it takes from the air. Carbon dioxide doesn't have any hydrogen in it, though, so the plant must use another source for hydrogen. The source that it uses is water. There is a lot of water on the earth, and every water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In order to take the hydrogen it needs to build glucose molecules, the plant uses the energy from the sun to break the water molecule apart, taking electrons and hydrogen from it and releasing the oxygen into the air. The electrons it takes are put into an electron transport system, where they are used to produce energy molecules called ATP that are used to build the glucose molecule-- all made possible by the sun's energy. Thus, during photosynthesis a plant consumes water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, and produces glucose and oxygen. The sugar glucose is important because it is necessary for cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, the chemical energy in the glucose molecule is converted into a form that the plant can use for growth and reproduction. In the first step of respiration, called glycolysis, the glucose molecule is broken down into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and a little energy is released in the form of ATP. This step in respiration does not req Continue reading >>
Key Concepts Section 2 Chapter 1 Photosynthesis THE BASIC NEEDS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS Plants, as well as some Protists and Monerans, can take small molecules from the environment and bind them together using the energy of light. The incoming light energy is transformed into the energy holding the new molecules together, and the organisms use those molecules as an energy "fuel." The basic process can be represented this way: CO2 + H2O light > C6H12O6 + O2 Carbon Water Glucose Oxygen Dioxide (sugar) In the case of organisms that live in water, the carbon dioxide and water are from their immediate surroundings; for most land plants, the water is absorbed from the soil and the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The glucose is used for two major purposes: 1) it serves as an energy reserve for periods of darkness (don't forget that photosynthesizers, like any living things, require energy and get it through respiration processes, commonly aerobic respiration; and 2) it is used as a major component of structure: the cell walls that surround almost all photosynthetic cells are made of starches, huge molecules made up of hundreds, commonly thousands, of sugar molecules bound together. This is why plant fibers are great sources of nutrition if you can break them down. Breaking down plant fibers is chemically difficult - we humans can't, being limited to the more digestible starches put into seeds and fruits and tubers. Plants use those starches as sources of fuel and structure components, and so build them into a molecule that is much easier to break down than the structural starches that hold them together. Keep in mind that photosynthetic organisms are still living things, with protein-based chemistry, which means that they have nutritional requirements beyond carbon dioxide and Continue reading >>
A Closer Look At Glucose
Did you know that the polymers starch and cellulose are both made by plants? In fact, plants make both starch and cellulose by connecting glucose molecules together. Every time they add a glucose to make the chain longer, a water molecule pops out! Add a glucose, out pops H2O! Add a glucose, out pops H2O! And so on and so on until the chains are really long. A starch chain can have 500 to 2 million glucose units. Cellulose can have 2,000 - 14,000 glucoses. That's a lot of sweetness! Glucose is a funny little molecule. Glucose likes to be in a ring, but sometimes the ring opens up. (Why? Why not? You can stand up, you can sit down. So sometimes you stand up!) When the ring closes again, the -OH can be pointed down, or it can be pointed out. Either way, it's still glucose! The -OH is pointed down instead of out. (We didn't draw in the C and H atoms that just hang out. See? The -OH is pointed outward instead of down. Look at the blue H atoms. They've moved around, but they're still there. (By the way, here in science land we call these molecules isomers, because they're made up of the same atoms that are put together differently.) Compare this guy to the other open chain form on the left. It's almost the same, but one of the bonds turned around, making the red O point up instead of down. Yep, it's allowed to do that! It's like swinging your arm around. Energy or Strength? Starch to store energy Plants really know how to use glucose. To make starch, they use α-glucose, with the -OH pointed down. That -OH is right where the next glucose will go. Since that one -OH is pointing down, it gives the chain a built-in curve. That curve is what makes starch so good for storing glucose. The starch polymer curls around and makes a nice little package. Many starch polymers have a lot Continue reading >>
Role Of Carbohydrates
Life on this planet needs a constant supply of energy in order to fight the effects of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. The most abundant source of this energy is the sun, where vast amounts of radiant energy are created in the nuclear fusion furnaces. A tiny part of this radiant energy reaches this planet in the form of light, where a tiny part, of a tiny part of this energy is absorbed by plants and converted from light energy into chemical energy. This is the process called photosynthesis. Pigments in special cellular organelles trap quanta of light energy and convert them to high energy electrons. These high energy electrons are in turn used to move electrons in covalent bonds to a higher energy state. In this process atoms and bonds in carbon dioxide and water are rearranged and new molecules are created. Quanta of light energy are used to pull electrons in covalent bonds to higher energy levels where they are stable and stored for future use. Two important molecular products are produced in this process; oxygen, which is released into the atmosphere, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid, which is kept inside the cells. All plants create 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) as the first stable chemical molecule in this energy trapping mechanism. This simple, 3-carbon molecule is then used to make all the other kinds of carbohydrates the plant needs. Monosaccharide sugars are made by combining and recombining all those carbon atoms first trapped as 3PG. The most abundant and versatile of these monosaccharides is glucose. This versatile molecule then plays many roles in the life of the plant - and the lives of animals that eat them. A primary role for the glucose molecule is to act as a source of energy; a fuel. Plants and animals use glucose as a soluble, easily distribu Continue reading >>
Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis captures energy for life on Earth. Many chemicals are made to allow life processes to occur in plants. These chemicals can move in and out of cells by the process of diffusion. Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion. Photosynthesis is a process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These molecules include sugars, enzymes and chlorophyll. Light energy is absorbed by the green chemical chlorophyll. This energy allows the production of glucose by the reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is also produced as a waste product. This reaction can be summarised in the word equation: The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: Glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Glucose made by the process of photosynthesis may be used in three ways: It can be converted into chemicals required for growth of plant cells such as cellulose It can be converted into starch, a storage molecule, that can be converted back to glucose when the plant requires it It can be broken down during the process of respiration, releasing energy stored in the glucose molecules Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis: Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis Chloroplasts - containing chlorophyll and enzymes needed for reactions in photosynthesis. Nucleus - containing DNA carrying the genetic code for enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis Cell membrane - allowing gas and water to pass in and out of the cell while controlling the passage of other molecules Vacuole - containing cell sap to keep the cell turgid Cytoplasm - enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis made here Continue reading >>
Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms
When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>
Plants - Welcome
We all know that plants have roots, stems, leaves, and maybe even flowers. The parts of the plant are specialized to perform different tasks. The roots absorb water and nutrients (like nitrogen) from the soil. The stem transports the water and nutrients to the leaves. And the leaves, thats where the action happens. The leaves of the plant have specialized cells that all perform jobs to that the plant can do photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is what makes plants different than animals. Plants can make their own food (autotrophs) whereas animals have to eat (heterotrophs) in order to get food. Plants make food by performing photosynthesis. Inside the stem are two types of transport cells, xylem and phloem. Both of these cells make tubes in the stem for transporting different substances. The xylem transports the water and minerals. Phloem transports sugar. Inside the leaves are more specialized cells. The leaf has cells that open and close to allow gases into and out of the leaf. These cells are called guard cells and they open and close the stomata (opening like a mouth in the leaf). When the guard cells are open, carbon dioxide and oxygen can move into and out of the leaf through the stoma. Water vapor can also be lost through the stomata. Also inside the leaf are cells that contain lots of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are the organelles in plant cells that do photosynthesis. These special cells with lots of chloroplasts are called palisades cells. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which is a green pigment that absorbs light from the sun. Plants perform photosynthesis in specialized organelles called chloroplasts. The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light from the sun. Inside the chloroplast the light energy is used to make the high energy, carb Continue reading >>
Bbc Bitesize - Higher Biology - Science Of Food Production - Revision 4
The human population is increasing and this increases demand for food. Farmers can alter genes, control pests and ensure acceptable well-being to increase yields of plants and livestock. The glucose can be broken down in plant cells by the process of respiration. The chemical energy released by respiration can be used by the plant for cellular activities such as protein synthesis or cell division. Thousands of glucose molecules can be linked together to form the complex carbohydrate starch. Starch is stored inside plant cells as grains. Thousands of glucose molecules can be linked together to form the complex carbohydrate cellulose. Cellulose is a very tough molecule that is used to build the cell wall of plant cells. Glucose is an example of a carbohydrate - it contains the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Plant cells can convert the sugar into another type of energy storage molecule - fat. Plant cells can also combine sugars with nitrates to make amino acids and use these to produce proteins. Continue reading >>
What Do Chloroplasts Use To Make Glucose?
Chloroplasts are the original “green” solar power transformers. These tiny organelles, found only in the cells of plants and algae, use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Dan Jenk, science writer for the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University describes the process as follows, “…plants approach the pinnacle of stinginess by scavenging nearly every photon of available light energy to produce food.” Chemical Potential Energy Energy that is stored within a molecular bond is called, “chemical potential energy.” When a chemical bond is broken, such as when a starch molecule is eaten then broken down in the digestive system of an animal, energy is released. All organisms need energy to survive. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy that is stored in the molecular bonds of glucose. This process takes place in chloroplasts. A plant uses the glucose molecules to create carbohydrates -- starch and cellulose -- and other nutrients that it needs to grow and reproduce. Photosynthesis thus makes it possible to convert light energy to a form of energy that can be used for food, by both the plant and the animals that eat the plant. Photosynthesis can be represented by the following simplified equation: 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) → C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) Light-Dependent Reactions The light reactions of photosynthesis begin when light from the Sun hits a chloroplast. Chlorophyll, the green pigment inside a chloroplast, absorbs particles of light energy called photons. An absorbed photon initiates a sequence of chemical reactions that create two types of high energy compounds, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). I Continue reading >>
How Can A Plant Use The Sugars Made In Photosynthesis?
How can a plant use the sugars made in photosynthesis? During the process of photosynthesis, plants utilize sunlight and convert it into useful products, according to the following well-balanced chemical equation: `6CO_2 + 6H_2O + sunlight -> C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2` In this reaction, glucose (a common sugar) is produced. These glucose molecules are used by the plant in a number of ways. The most common use is the production of energy (in the form of ATP molecules) through the process of cellular respiration. This process... During the process of photosynthesis, plants utilize sunlight and convert it into useful products, according to the following well-balanced chemical equation: `6CO_2 + 6H_2O + sunlight -> C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2` In this reaction, glucose (a common sugar) is produced. These glucose molecules are used by the plant in a number of ways. The most common use is the production of energy (in the form of ATP molecules) through the process of cellular respiration. This process can be summarized by the following equation: `C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2 -> 6CO_2 + 6H_2O + ATP` Note that most of the processes require energy, including the process of photosynthesis. During the daytime hours, when photosynthesis is taking place, plants produce more glucose than they can consume. This extra glucose is stored in the plant in the form of starch. Cell walls are made up of starch and that is where much of the extra glucose is used. Sugars are also stored in other parts of the plant. Apart from starch, sugars can be also be stored as fats and oils. Glucose can also be converted to sucrose and stored in fruits, stem, roots, seeds, etc. Glucose can also be used in the formation of amino acids, which are then used for protein synthesis in the plants. Plants are made of eukaryotic cells that con Continue reading >>
When Does A Plant Change Sugar To Starch?
Plant photosynthesis and energy creation are complex processes involving carbon dioxide, water and sunlight, facilitated by multiple enzymes to create the basic sugar called glucose. Much of the glucose plants produce is immediately metabolized into different forms of energy that plants use to grow and reproduce. The portions of glucose that are not immediately converted to energy are converted to complex sugar compounds, called starches. These are produced after the photosynthesis cycle. Plants then store starches for future energy needs or use them to build new tissues. Photosynthesis Plants are photoautotrophs. Unlike humans and animals, they create their own energy from sunlight and naturally occurring organic compounds. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use light energy to create glucose by reacting this energy, in the form of electrons, with water and carbon dioxide in cell membranes. Glucose is then used during cellular metabolism in plant tissues to create energy. When sunlight is ample, plants often create more glucose than is needed for immediate metabolism and store it in starches. Starches Plants store starches in a variety of ways. Starch molecules are enormous when compared to other simple molecules, often containing thousands of bonded sugars. Photosynthesis is carried out in plant cells and requires two distinct processes known as light dependent and light independent reactions. Both most occur for glucose to be synthesized. Thus, plants build starches only after the metabolic processes of photosynthesis. Enzymes bond glucose molecules into more complex sugars that form starches. Storing Starches Plants create, use and store starches for many purposes, but the two major ones are cellulose synthesis and energy storage. Cellulose is the primary Continue reading >>
How Plants Use Glucose Flashcards Preview
How do plants use glucose for respiration? Some of the glucose plants manufacture in their leaves is used for respiration. What happens when plants use glucose for respiration? It releases energy which enables the plant to convert the rest of the glucose into other useful substances, which they can use to build new cells and grow. What do the substances made by respiration from glucose also require the plant to do to make them? The plant needs to gather a few minerals from the soil. How do plants use glucose to make cell walls? The glucose is converted into cellulose to make stronger cell walls, especially in a rapidly growing plant. How do plants use glucose to make proteins? The glucose is combined with nitrate ions (absorbed from the soil) to make amino acids which are then made into proteins. How does a plant store glucose in its seeds? The glucose is turned into lipids (fats and oils) for storing in seeds. Because they contain lots of oil, we get cooking oil and margarine from them. The glucose is turned into starch and stored in the plants roots, stems and leaves. Why is glucose stored as starch in the roots, stems and leaves? So it's ready to use for when photosynthesis isn't happening (like in the winter). Continue reading >>
What Is Glucose Used For In A Plant?
Glucose is a simple sugar that can be stored in a variety of forms. It is a vital component for most types of life on earth. Plants have the ability to create glucose instead of absorbing it from other sources. Photosynthesis is the process in which they take the energy of the sunlight and the molecules from carbon dioxide and create nutrients for themselves. During photosynthesis, plants use specific cells called chloroplasts, which house layers and layers of chlorophyll, a pigment that holds energy from light photons that pass through it. This energy is then converted into a chemical that is easier for plants to use. Some of the light energy is converted directly into ATP, the same type of molecule that helps human muscles move, while the rest of it is made into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The ATP energy goes directly into running the other "factory" parts of the plant, while the NADPH is combined with carbon dioxide to create glucose. NADPH provides hydrogen atoms that are bonded to other molecules to create the simple sugar. This process differs in some plants, and is usually based on how many single molecules are needed to form one molecule of glucose. Glucose is a carbohydrate, a molecule that living organisms use to gain energy. Plants draw up the nutrients and minerals they require from their roots, the building blocks for their cells, and breaking apart the glucose, they make the energy needed to combine the building blocks into leaves, flowers, seeds and other important parts, including cellulose, the vital material that plants use to make their cell walls. Essentially, when the chemical bonds that hold the glucose molecule together are broken, they release electrons that, now free, need to join with other atoms, thus giving the molecu Continue reading >>
Lecture 3b: Wilbur
) are longer than usual, so please plan your time for next week accordingly. 1. Looking at the above results from the Diet Analysis project, students reported being low in most food groups (except protein). Pick a food group that you would like to improve upon. What small step can you take to improve your intake of this food group? 2. Over half of the class reported not eating enough of grains. We will be discussing the importance of whole grains next week. Check out the following resource, Tips to Help You Eat Whole Grains. Of the tips discussed which do you currently practice? Do you have any tips you can add to this list to incorporate whole grains into your meals and/or snacks? Are there any grains listed that are new to you that you would like to try to incorporate into your meals? Note: I find that when I review food records from students, they don't report eating much of anything. If you don't eat, it is going to be hard to meet the recommendations for nutrient intake. Students reported being low in dairy, but from my experience you don't need 3 c. of dairy to get the nutrients like calcium that you need. Usually 2 c. is plenty as long as you are meeting the recommendations from the other food groups. 3. The last two weeks you kept track of what you ate and drank for three days and then entered those foods into a diet analysis program, the USDAs SuperTracker. The overall goal of this assignment is to compare your nutrient intake with the recommendations we will be discussing throughout the course (like the DRIs and MyPlate). What did you like about this free program? Was it helpful? Do you think it was accurate? What were the pros and cons of your experience? (Consider sharing at least one pro and at least one con in your posting.) Note: I know many of you comme Continue reading >>
How Plants Use Glucose
Plants use glucose in a variety of ways that are essential to their growth and survival. Glucose aids in overall growth, allows for respiration through the cell walls and is also stored for future use in the roots, as well as in the form of seeds. Glucose is essentially energy for the plant in a carbohydrate form that can be used immediately or stored in the form of starches for later use. It is crucial to the growth and survival of the plant as it directly effects the production of cellulose, the material plants use to construct cellular walls. Glucose is initially formed through the act of photosynthesis, which is how plants use water and carbon dioxide to produce energy. From this combination of carbon dioxide and water,a carbohydrate is formed which is initially used in the leaf structure for a variety of purposes. Under the right conditions, plants can create an excessive amount of glucose, and it is then stored in various ways throughout the plant structure. It is through this process that the plant produces oxygen, as well, and the glucose present in the cell walls of the leaves aids in expelling this gas by acting as an immediate form of energy. Any glucose that isnt immediately used by the plant for cell function, such as the building of cellular walls, is either stored or converted. Glucose is the primary building block of cellulose in the plant and is vital for cell production. The construction of additional cellular walls drives the growth of the plant and the larger it becomes, the more efficient the plant becomes at photosynthesis. Leftover glucose reacts with nitrates found in the leaves and produces amino acids, which are also essential to growth. Every bit of glucose is either used or stored, from the very point of production through photosynthesis, to Continue reading >>