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How Blood Sugar Is Regulated

How To Maintain Normal Blood Sugar

How To Maintain Normal Blood Sugar

If you are one of the millions of people who has prediabetes, diabetes, metabolic syndrome or any other form of “insulin resistance,” maintaining normal blood sugar levels can be challenging. Over the past several decades, these chronic disorders have swept through the U.S. and many other nations, reaching epidemic proportions and causing serious, but often preventable, side effects like nerve damage, fatigue, loss of vision, arterial damage and weight gain. Elevated blood sugar levels maintained for an extended period of time can push someone who is “prediabetic” into having full-blown diabetes (which now affects about one in every three adults in the U.S.). (1) Even for people who aren’t necessarily at a high risk for developing diabetes or heart complications, poorly managed blood sugar can lead to common complications, including fatigue, weight gain and sugar cravings. In extreme cases, elevated blood sugar can even contribute to strokes, amputations, coma and death in people with a history of insulin resistance. Blood sugar is raised by glucose, which is the sugar we get from eating many different types of foods that contain carbohydrates. Although we usually think of normal blood sugar as being strictly reliant upon how many carbohydrates and added sugar someone eats, other factors also play a role. For example, stress can elevate cortisol levels, which interferes with how insulin is used, and the timing of meals can also affect how the body manages blood sugar. (2) What can you do to help avoid dangerous blood sugar swings and lower diabetes symptoms? As you’ll learn, normal blood sugar levels are sustained through a combination of eating a balanced, low-processed diet, getting regular exercise and managing the body’s most important hormones in othe Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

Tweet The endocrine system consists of a number of different glands which secrete hormones that dictate how cells and organs behave. The hormones produced by the endocrine system help the body to regulate growth, sexual function, mood and metabolism. The role of the endocrine system The endocrine system is responsible for regulating many of the body's processes. The list below provides a selection of the roles of glands in the endocrine system: Pancreas – regulates blood glucose levels Adrenal gland – increases blood glucose levels and speeds up heart rate Thyroid gland - helps to regulate our metabolism Pituitary gland – stimulates growth Pineal gland – helps to regulate our sleep patterns Ovaries – promote development of female sex characteristics Testes – promote development of male sex characteristics The endocrine system and energy metabolism Metabolism encompasses all the chemical reactions which enable the body to sustain life. Energy metabolism is one of these processes and is vital for life. The body is able to use fat, protein and carbohydrate to provide energy. The pancreas plays an important part in energy metabolism by secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon which respectively make glucose and fatty acids available for cells to use for energy. The endocrine system and diabetes Diabetes affects how the body regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin helps to reduce levels of blood glucose whereas glucagon's role is to increase blood glucose levels. In people without diabetes, insulin and glucagon work together to keep blood glucose levels balanced. In diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin or doesn't respond properly to insulin causing an imbalance between the effects of insulin and glucagon. In type 1 diabetes, the body isn't Continue reading >>

How Does Your Blood Sugar Work?

How Does Your Blood Sugar Work?

If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! What on earth is blood sugar and why does it matter? I realize some people may not even understand what their bodies blood sugar does or why it matters. Perhaps you only think someone who is diabetic needs to worry about their blood sugar, but that’s not actually true. We all need to have balanced blood sugar levels or we could potentially end up diabetic as well. Our blood sugar is a key foundation of our overall health, so many functions in the body depend on healthy blood sugar. Blood sugar balance (or blood glucose level) is one of the 2 most tightly regulated systems in the body, with the other being blood pH. Having a normal healthy functioning blood sugar is key to optimal health, regulating so many functions within the body. Normal blood sugar range is between 80 to 100 mg/dL with 89.9 mg/dL as a good baseline, some suggest even lower levels are optimal such as 70-85. ‘The lower you can maintain your blood glucose levels in a healthy and functional way, without experiencing low-blood-sugar symptoms, the better off you are. Those people who are optimally healthy should maintain a range between 70 and 85 mg/dL or lower; this is equivalent to no more than 1 teaspoon of sugar, or about 5 g or 20 kcal, total. Keep in mind that the body is adamant about maintaining the minimal necessary levels of glucose at any given time because glucose is inherently damaging to vessels, organs and tissues in the body. The less glucose that is absolutely necessary the better.’ ~ Nora Gedgaudas,’Primal Body, Primal Mind‘ When we eat a meal, the nutrients in that meal (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) are broken down by the digestive system. The starches from carbohydrates convert to glucose. The Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>

How Does The Liver Regulate Blood Sugar Level?

How Does The Liver Regulate Blood Sugar Level?

The Liver absorbs Glucose after meals, storing it as Glycogen in response to Insulin, a Hormone released by the Pancreas when Blood sugar is high. In between meals, the liver raises blood sugar by hydrolyzing glycogen and releasing glucose in response to Glucagon, the antagonistic hormone released by the pancreas when blood sugar is low. Below is a diagram showing how the Endocrine system controls the Homeostatic feedback loop involved in keeping blood sugar even. Ask New Question Continue reading >>

Brain May Play Key Role In Blood Sugar Metabolism And Diabetes Development

Brain May Play Key Role In Blood Sugar Metabolism And Diabetes Development

A growing body of evidence suggests that the brain plays a key role in glucose regulation and the development of type 2 diabetes, researchers write in the Nov. 7 ssue of the journal Nature. If the hypothesis is correct, it may open the door to entirely new ways to prevent and treat this disease, which is projected to affect one in three adults in the United States by 2050. In the paper, lead author Dr. Michael W. Schwartz, UW professor of medicine and director of the Diabetes and Obesity Center of Excellence, and his colleagues from the universities of Cincinnati, Michigan, and Munich, note that the brain was originally thought to play an important role in maintaining normal glucose metabolism With the discovery of insulin in the 1920s, the focus of research and diabetes care shifted to almost exclusively to insulin. Today, almost all treatments for diabetes seek to either increase insulin levels or increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin. “These drugs,” the researchers write, “enjoy wide use and are effective in controlling hyperglycemia [high blood sugar levels], the hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but they address the consequence of diabetes more than the underlying causes, and thus control rather than cure the disease.” New research, they write, suggests that normal glucose regulation depends on a partnership between the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, the pancreatic islet cells, and neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and other brain areas that are intimately involved in maintaining normal glucose levels. The development of diabetes type 2, the authors argue, requires a failure of both the islet-cell system and this brain-centered system for regulating blood sugar levels . In their paper, the researchers review both animal and human studies tha Continue reading >>

Which Gland Regulates Blood Sugar Level?

Which Gland Regulates Blood Sugar Level?

Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This tight regulation is referred to as glucose homeostasis. The gland” that regulates blood sugar levels the pancreas, including other organs, the liver and the brain. The pancreas produces insulin, which allows cells to remove glucose and fats from the bloodstream. The liver produces glucose when cells need energy and you are not eating. The brain signals the pancreas to release insulin in advance of eating. These are the big three but it is a complicated system. For example, the kidneys excrete sugar into the urine when blood sugar levels get dangerously high. The digestive tract has a large nervous system of its own that regulates, for example, how quickly food is digested and therefore how quickly glucose gets into the bloodstream. Other hormones affect appetite. Exercise modifies insulin activity. Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, and glucagon, which raises it, are the most well known of the hormones involved, but more recent discoveries of other glucoregulatory hormones have expanded the understanding of this process. Blood sugar levels are regulated by negative feedback in order to keep the body in balance. The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Blood Glucose: Importance & Nutrient Conversion

Regulation Of Blood Glucose: Importance & Nutrient Conversion

Blood glucose levels are closely regulated and maintained within a narrow range. Learn how the pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, maintain normal blood sugar levels and how other nutrients can be converted to blood glucose in this lesson. If you drink a 12-ounce can of soda, did you know that you are consuming almost ten teaspoons of sugar? So, what does your body do with all of that sugar? Well, refined sugar is handled like any other simple or complex carbohydrate that you consume, which means it gets converted to glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar that is used as energy by your body and brain. Now, just because every cell in your body uses glucose doesn't mean you should start eating more sugar. Your body only allows a certain amount of glucose to be present in your bloodstream at one time. If there's too much, the extra is sent to storage, and as we will discover, one of your body's favorite storage places is your fat cells. In this lesson, we will take a look at how the amount of glucose found in your blood, referred to as blood glucose or blood sugar, is regulated and how nutrients other than carbs can be converted into glucose. When you stop by a fast food restaurant and enjoy a double cheeseburger, fries, and a soda, the carbohydrates in your meal get broken down into glucose within your digestive tract. These molecules are small enough to pass into your bloodstream causing your blood glucose level to rise. Your pancreas is not happy about this rising blood sugar. In fact, your pancreas acts somewhat like a bouncer at a nightclub; there is too much sugar crowding your bloodstream, so your pancreas tells some of it to leave. To do this your pancreas secretes insulin, which is a hormone that moves glucose out of the blood and into the cells. In other words Continue reading >>

8 Tips To Avoid Blood Sugar Dips And Spikes

8 Tips To Avoid Blood Sugar Dips And Spikes

If you have type 2 diabetes and your blood sugar levels are racing up and down like a roller coaster, it's time to get off the ride. Big swings in your blood sugar can make you feel lousy. But even if you aren't aware of them, they can still increase your risk for a number of serious health problems. By making simple but specific adjustments to your lifestyle and diet, you can gain better blood-sugar control. Your body uses the sugar, also known as glucose, in the foods you eat for energy. Think of it as a fuel that keeps your body moving throughout the day. Blood Sugar Highs and Lows Type 2 diabetes decreases the body’s production of insulin, which is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Without enough insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and can damage nerves and blood vessels. This increase of blood sugar also increases your risk for heart disease and stroke. Over time, high blood sugar, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to more health problems, including kidney failure and blindness. "Keeping blood sugar stable can help prevent the long-term consequences of fluctuations," says Melissa Li-Ng, MD, an endocrinologist at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. Dr. Li-Ng explains that high blood sugar can cause a number of symptoms that include: Fatigue Increased thirst Blurry vision Frequent urination It's also important to know that you can have high blood sugar and still feel fine, but your body can still suffer damage, Li-Ng says. Symptoms of high blood sugar typically develop at levels above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). "You can have high blood sugar that's between 150 and 199 and feel perfectly fine," Li-Ng says. Over time, your body can also get used to chronically high blood sugar levels, so you don’t feel the symptoms, she says. On the flip side, if you Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Regulation Of Blood Glucose

1. REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE 2. Normal Blood glucose levels Fasting levels: 70-100 mg/dL Postprandial : up to 140 mg/dL Maintained with in physiological limits by 1. Rate of Glucose entrance into blood circulation 2. Rate of its removal from the blood stream. 3. Glucose Concentration ( mg/dl ) 200 post prandial level Diagnostic for Diabetics 180 ( Renal thereshold ) Hyperglycemia 140 PP Normal 126 Fasting level Diagnostic for Diabetics 100 Normal (F) 70 Hypoglycemia 40 Hypoglycemic Coma 4. What goes wrong when the concentration decreases? Hypoglycaemia The symptoms associated with low blood sugar are: tiredness, confusion, dizziness, headaches, mood swings, muscle weakness, tremors, cold sweating , irreversible CNS damage, coma, death 5. What goes wrong when the concentration increases too far? Hyperglycaemia The symptoms include: Excessive thirst; frequent urination; fatigue; weight loss; vision problems, such as blurring; increased susceptibility to infections, Dibetes mellitus 6. Rate of glucose entrance in to the blood by: 1. Absorption from intestine 2. Hepatic glycogenolysis 3. Gluconeogenesis 4. Glucose obtained from other carbohydrates, eg: fructose, galactose etc 7. Rate of Removal of Glucose from blood depends on: 1. Oxidation of glucose by tissue to supply energy 2. Hepatic glycogenesis 3. Glycogen formation in muscles 4. Conversion of glucose to fats in adipose tissues 5. Synthesis/formation of fructose in seminal fluid, lactose in mammary gland. 6. Formation of ribose sugars and nucleic acid synthesis. 8. Stages of maintenance of blood glucose level 9. Absorptive stage • Absorptive stage starts from feeding and lasts upto 3-4 hours after meal. During this phase following activities takes place with regards to glucose. • Dietary glucose to liver and th Continue reading >>

How Does The Human Body Regulate Its Blood Glucose Levels?

How Does The Human Body Regulate Its Blood Glucose Levels?

Once a person has eaten a meal, their digestive system will break the nutrients down into smaller components that can travel in the blood to any parts of the body that need them. Any carbohydrates in this food will be broken down into sugars (e.g. glucose). These sugars will rapidly enter the blood. At this point, it is critical for the body to use the glucose ASAP to avoid hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose) and maintain a constant blood glucose level. The glucose in the blood is therefore stored in liver and muscle cells in the form of a larger molecule called glycogen. The body is able to detect blood glucose levels via an organ called the pancreas. More specifically, it is detected by areas within the pancreas called islets of Langerhans. In this region there are 2 types of cells. Beta-cells and alpha-cells. Beta-cells will detect high blood glucose (e.g. after a meal) and secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone that will help the liver and muscle cell uptake more glucose and convert it to glycogen, thus lowering the overall blood glucose levels. Alpha-cells will detect low blood glucose (e.g. after exercise) and secrete glucagon. Glucagon is also a hormone, but it has the role of breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose from the liver and muscle cells. This will increase the blood glucose. To provide an overview, the components within this system communicate with each other via hormones in order to provide a relatively constant blood glucose level. This maintanence of the internal environment is an example of homeostasis. Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation Cycle

Blood Sugar Regulation Cycle

Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of glucose are maintained by the body. Blood sugar levels are regulated by negative feedback in order to keep the body in balance. The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by the cells in the pancreas. If the blood glucose level falls to dangerous levels (as in very heavy exercise or lack of food for extended periods), the Alpha cells of the pancreas release glucagon, a hormone which alerts the liver to increase blood glucose levels. The liver cells convert glycogen storage into glucose. The glucose is released into the bloodstream, increasing blood sugar levels. There are also several other causes for an increase in blood sugar levels. Among them are the "stress" hormones such as adrenaline, several of the steroids, infections, trauma, and, of course, the ingestion of food. When levels of blood sugar rise, whether as a result of glycogen conversion, or from digestion of a meal, a different hormone is released from Beta cells found in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. This hormone, insulin, causes the liver to convert more glucose into glycogen, and to force about 2/3 of body cells (primarily muscle and fat tissue cells) to take up glucose from the blood, thus decreasing blood sugar levels. Insulin also provides signals to several other body systems, and is the chief regulatory metabolic control in humans. Type 1 diabetes is caused by insufficient or non-existent production of insulin, while type 2 diabetes is primarily due to a decreased response to insulin in the tissues of the body (insulin resistance). Both types of diabetes, if untreated, result in too much glucose remaining in the blood (hyperglycemia) and many of the same complications. Also, too much insulin and/or exercise without enough Continue reading >>

Examining The Mechanisms Of Glucose Regulation.

Examining The Mechanisms Of Glucose Regulation.

Abstract The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increased by 49% between 1990 and 2000, reaching nearly epidemic proportions. In 2010, DM (type 1 or 2) was estimated to affect nearly 30% (10.9 million) of people 65 years and older and 215,000 of those younger than 20 years. Macrovascular and microvascular complications can occur; DM is a major cause of heart disease and stroke, and is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Based on 2007 data, the economic impact of DM is considerable, with total costs, direct medical costs, and indirect costs estimated at $174 billion, $116 billion, and $58 billion, respectively. Normal glucose regulation is maintained by an intricate interaction between pancreatic β-cells (insulin/amylin), pancreatic α-cells (glucagon), and associated organs (eg, intestines, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue). Newly elucidated mechanisms include the involvement of the kidneys in glucose regulation, as well as central glucose regulation by the brain. The central defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are decreased insulin secretion, glucoregulatory hormone deficiency/resistance, and insulin resistance, resulting in abnormal glucose homeostasis. This article provides an extensive review of mechanisms involved in physiologic blood glucose regulation and imbalances in glucose homeostasis. Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Blood Sugar

Regulation Of Blood Sugar

1. Seminar-5 By Dr.M.S.Bala Vidyadhar 2.  Introduction  History & Basic considerations  Normal Physiology  Mechanisms of Blood Sugar Regulation  Hormonal Role  Alteration of blood glucose levels  Diabetes Mellitus  Public Health Scenario  Conclusion & References  Previous year questions 3.  Blood sugar concentration, or glucose level, refers to the amount of glucose present in the blood of a human.  Normally, in mammals the blood glucose level is maintained at a reference range between about 3.6 and 5.8 mM (mmol/l).  It is tightly regulated as a part of metabolic homeostasis. 4.  1552 BC: Ebers Papyrus in ancient Egypt. First known written description of diabetes.  1st Century AD: Arateus — “Melting down of flesh and limbs into urine.”  1776: Matthew Dobson conducts experiments showing sugar in blood and urine of diabetics.  Mid 1800s: Claude Bernard studies the function of the pancreas and liver, and their roles in homeostasis.  1869: Paul Langerhans identifies cells of unknown function in the pancreas. These cells later are named “Islets of Langerhans.” 5.  1889: Pancreatectomized dog develops fatal diabetes.  1921: Insulin “discovered” — effectively treated pancreatectomized dog.  1922: First human treated with insulin. Eli Lilly begins mass production.  1923: Banting and Macleod win Nobel Prize for work with insulin.  1983: Biosynthetic insulin produced.  2001: Human genome sequence completed. 6.  Blood sugar/Glucose concentration: The amount of Glucose ( in mg) in 1 dl of the human blood. Measured as mg/ dl or mg %.  Normal Blood Glucose  Fasting state : 60 to 100 mg%  Postprandial : 100 to 140 mg % 7.  Hyperglycemia: It is a condition in which an excessive amount Continue reading >>

Testing Blood Sugar Level

Testing Blood Sugar Level

How do hormones regulate blood sugar levels? ‘Blood glucose testing’ is an activity designed to increase understanding of the hormones that control blood sugar in the body, and why this control is important in staying healthy. This activity is designed for students aged 11-14 and involves practical science techniques such as pipetting. Students can gain a practical understanding of the hormones that are secreted in the body when blood sugar levels are too high or too low. Aims: To introduce insulin and glucagon as hormones that help control blood sugar levels To give students the chance to develop practical science skills using pipettes and test tubes Curriculum links: Homeostasis Hormonal control in humans Hormones and eating Take home messages: blood glucose levels need to be kept in a very narrow “safe” range for our bodies to function correctly the hormones glucagon and insulin regulate blood sugar levels Glucagon is produced by the pancreas and stimulates glucose to be released from glycogen in the liver Insulin is produced by the pancreas and allows cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream Discussion points: Diabetes occurs when blood glucose levels are not regulated properly. Type-1 diabetes is when you no longer produce insulin and your blood glucose level can become dangerously high unless you are given insulin regularly by injection. Type-2 diabetes is when you don’t produce enough insulin or no longer respond to the insulin you do produce. Type-1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and tends to be diagnosed in children. Type-2 diabetes tends to affect older people or those who are over-weight. Continue reading >>

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