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High Blood Sugar Vs Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

Practice Essentials

Practice Essentials

Hypoglycemia is characterized by a reduction in plasma glucose concentration to a level that may induce symptoms or signs such as altered mental status and/or sympathetic nervous system stimulation. This condition typically arises from abnormalities in the mechanisms involved in glucose homeostasis. The most common cause of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes is injecting a shot of insulin and skipping a meal or overdosing insulin. The image below depicts a diagnostic algorithm for hypoglycemia. Signs and symptoms The glucose level at which an individual becomes symptomatic is highly variable (threshold generally at < 50 mg/dL). Carefully review the patient's medication and drug history for potential causes of hypoglycemia (eg, new medications, insulin usage or ingestion of an oral hypoglycemic agent, possible toxic ingestion). The patient’s medical and/or social history may reveal the following: Diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency/failure, alcoholism, hepatic cirrhosis/failure, other endocrine diseases, or recent surgery Central nervous system: Headache, confusion, personality changes Ethanol intake and nutritional deficiency Weight reduction, nausea and vomiting Neurogenic or neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia may be categorized as follows: Neurogenic (adrenergic) (sympathoadrenal activation) symptoms: Sweating, shakiness, tachycardia, anxiety, and a sensation of hunger Neuroglycopenic symptoms: Weakness, tiredness, or dizziness; inappropriate behavior (sometimes mistaken for inebriation), difficulty with concentration; confusion; blurred vision; and, in extreme cases, coma and death Reactive hypoglycemic include the following features: More common in overweight and obese people who are insulin-resistant Possible higher risk in patients with a family his Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia may be described as an excess of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Your endocrine system regulates the amount of sugar that is stored and used for energy. It is important in brain cell function, and energy levels. Since the sugar that you consume in your diet is either used or stored, certain conditions and disorders may cause you to have difficulty processing and storing blood glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. One hormone that is important to the normal storing and processing of sugar is insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas that is responsible for maintaining "normal" blood sugar levels. If you have a problem with your pancreas, then you may have increased blood sugar levels. Normal blood Glucose (sugar) levels are 60-110 mg/dL. Normal values may vary from laboratory to laboratory. Levels higher than these might indicate hyperglycemia. Causes of Hyperglycemia: Diabetes. About 90% of people with diabetes, have diabetes of adult onset (Diabetes type 2). You are more at risk for developing diabetes if you are older, extremely overweight (obese), if you have a family history of diabetes (parents, siblings), and if you are of African-American, Hispanic American, or Native-American heritage. People who have diabetes have an underproduction of the hormone, insulin, which lowers your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, you will have problems with elevated blood sugar levels. If you develop diabetes type 2, and you are an adult, your healthcare provider may prescribe medications in a pill form, which allow your body to process insulin that is needed for maintaining "normal" blood glucose levels. It is likely that your pancreas is producing enough insulin, but your body is resistant to the insulin, a Continue reading >>

15 Ways High Blood Sugar Affects Your Body

15 Ways High Blood Sugar Affects Your Body

High blood sugar symptoms Glucose, or sugar, is the fuel that powers cells throughout the body. Blood levels of this energy source ebb and flow naturally, depending what you eat (and how much), as well as when you eat it. But when something goes wrong—and cells aren't absorbing the glucose—the resulting high blood sugar damages nerves, blood vessels, and organs, setting the stage for dangerous complications. Normal blood-sugar readings typically fall between 60 mg/dl and 140 mg/dl. A blood test called a hemoglobin A1c measures average blood sugar levels over the previous three months. A normal reading is below 5.7% for people without diabetes. An excess of glucose in the bloodstream, or hyperglycemia, is a sign of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes don’t make insulin, the hormone needed to ferry sugar from the bloodstream into cells. Type 2 diabetes means your body doesn’t use insulin properly and you can end up with too much or too little insulin. Either way, without proper treatment, toxic amounts of sugar can build up in the bloodstream, wreaking havoc head to toe. That’s why it’s so important to get your blood sugar levels in check. “If you keep glucose levels near normal, you reduce the risk of diabetes complications,” says Robert Ratner, MD, chief scientific and medical officer of the American Diabetes Association. Here’s a rundown of the major complications and symptoms of high blood sugar. No symptoms at all Often, high blood sugar causes no (obvious) symptoms at all, at least at first. About 29 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, but one in four has no idea. Another 86 million have higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. That's why it’s a good idea to get your blood sugar test Continue reading >>

Low Blood Sugar And Chronic Kidney Disease

Low Blood Sugar And Chronic Kidney Disease

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice or diagnosis from a physician. The most common cause of kidney disease is diabetes. The bodies of people with diabetes do not use the hormone insulin properly or does not make insulin at all, so insulin injections or other diabetes medications are required. Because insulin helps keep the amount of sugar in the blood at a normal level, people with diabetes are at risk for both low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), especially when there are changes in diet, activity or medications. Blood sugar below 70 mg/dL is considered low. Kidney disease and the risk for low blood sugar The greatest risk of low blood sugar occurs in someone who has both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes. Whether or not someone has diabetes, a person with CKD is at risk for low blood sugar because of changes in appetite and meal routine. When kidney function declines insulin and other diabetes medications remain in the system longer because of decreased kidney clearance. For a person with diabetes, insulin and other diabetes medications that lower blood sugar may require an adjustment to prevent low blood sugar. Causes of low blood sugar Common causes of low blood sugar include: Skipping meals or waiting too long to eat A decrease in usual food intake because of poor appetite Taking too much insulin or diabetes medicine Receiving insulin or diabetes medicine at the wrong time Increasing physical activity Drinking alcoholic beverages People with chronic kidney disease sometimes experience a loss of appetite that can lead to skipping meals or not eating enough. This often causes a drop in blood sugar. Symptoms of low blood sugar Some of the symptoms Continue reading >>

All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

Hypoglycemia refers to an abnormally low level of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. Hypoglycemia is not a disease in itself, it is a sign of a health problem. The brain uses a lot of energy and needs glucose to function. Because the brain cannot store or manufacture glucose, it needs a continuous supply. Signs of low blood sugar include hunger, trembling, heart racing, nausea, and sweating. Hypoglycemia is commonly linked with diabetes, but many other conditions can also cause low blood sugar. This article will discuss the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoglycemia, and the difference between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. We will also look at how to prevent it. Here are some key points about hypoglycemia. More detail is in the main article. Hypoglycemia is not a disease but a symptom of another condition. Early symptoms include hunger, sweating, and trembling. A common cause is diabetes. Alcohol abuse and kidney disorders can also lower blood sugar levels. What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a condition where there is not enough glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Levels of blood sugar are below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). Adults and children with mild hypoglycemia may experience the following early symptoms: hunger tremor or trembling sweating irritability a pale face heart palpitations accelerated heart rate tingling lips dizziness weakness Severe hypoglycemia is sometimes called diabetic shock. It may involve: concentration problems confusion irrational and disorderly behavior, similar to intoxication inability to eat or drink Complications If a person does not take action when symptoms of hypoclycemia appear, it can lead to: A person who regularly experiences hypoglycemia may become unaware that it is happening. They will not notice the warning signs, and this can lea Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Symptoms And Diabetes

Blood Sugar Symptoms And Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease in which the pancreas stops producing the hormone insulin. The result is that your body can’t convert sugar into energy. There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes and there is currently no known cure. Two of the potential warning signs of diabetes are high blood-sugar—or hyperglycemia—and low blood sugar—or hypoglycemia. Blood sugar levels symptoms: Highs and Lows Let’s start with hypoglycemia and look at blood-sugar drop symptoms. Although symptoms may overlap, some of the signs of low blood sugar include dizziness, sweating, shaking, poor coordination, hunger, nausea and irritability. When it comes to hyperglycemia (or sugar shock), you may feel thirsty, have to urinate more frequently, find your vision blurry, feel exhausted, have stomach pain, or notice a fruity or wine-like odor on your breath. See your doctor if you experience high or low blood sugar symptoms If your blood sugar drops to severely low levels it can lead to convulsions, coma or death. While prolonged high blood sugar can lead to eye, organ and other complications or diabetic ketoacidosis, which is also life-threatening. That’s why it’s important to see your doctor, explain which of the blood-sugar symptoms you’re feeling, and go from there. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

Can Low Blood Sugar Or High Blood Sugar Cause Nightmares?

Can Low Blood Sugar Or High Blood Sugar Cause Nightmares?

Both low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) can cause any of a list of reactions in the body. Among these are sleep disturbances, which may manifest as nightmares. Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia has many causes. We all require certain levels of glucose in our systems to maintain energy levels. For the non-diabetic, in the absence of certain disorders, this is generally not an issue, as the metabolic process automatically balances the levels of glucose and insulin in our bodies. For the diabetic, particularly one who is using insulin and/or other medications to manage their glucose levels, continuing balance might be more difficult to achieve. Some causes of hypoglycemia include an overdose of insulin; a dose of insulin combined with a skipped meal; a reaction to a combination of diabetic medications; exercise that isn’t factored into insulin dosing; or any of a number of other medical problems, including tumors and hormonal disorders. Once blood sugar drops below certain levels, the body releases epinephrine, signaling an emergency to the body. This in turn causes the symptoms experienced by those who have hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia does not only occur during the day. In fact, the onset of hypoglycemia during the nighttime hours is not at all uncommon. While it might be easy to spot the symptoms of a serious drop in blood sugar levels while awake (shakiness, sweating, confusion, blurred vision, tingling or numbness of the tongue or lips, lightheadedness or dizziness, among other symptoms), recognizing the problem during the night is more difficult, and potentially more critical. Nighttime onset of hypoglycemia can manifest as nightmares or crying out during sleep, excessive sweating, and confusion and irritability upon waking. It is critical to Continue reading >>

Hypoglycaemia (low Blood Sugar) In Newborns

Hypoglycaemia (low Blood Sugar) In Newborns

What is hypoglycaemia? Hypoglycaemia means low blood sugar. Your baby's sugar levels are regulated by his hormones, the key hormone being insulin. Insulin helps his body to store sugar (blood glucose) and release it when he needs it. When everything is working well, your baby's hormones keep his blood sugar levels balanced. When the balance is out, hypoglycaemia can happen. If your baby's blood sugar is low and it is not treated, it could be harmful to his health. Low blood sugar that isn't picked up can even lead to a baby's brain being damaged. That's why your midwife or doctor will closely monitor your baby to make sure he stays well. Rest assured that if your baby is not premature, and is otherwise healthy, he is unlikely to have low blood sugar. What causes hypoglycaemia in newborns? Your baby's blood sugar levels go down in the first few hours after birth, which is completely normal. Your baby gets his glucose from milk. When your baby has just had a feed, his sugar levels will go up. As the next feed draws closer, his sugar levels will start to dip. Keeping the right level of sugar in the blood is a delicate balancing act. Most healthy babies can cope easily with these normal ups and downs in blood sugar level. If you feed your baby whenever he wants, he will take the milk he needs to ensure his sugar levels remain balanced. However, some babies can be at risk, including babies born to mums who have diabetes. These babies may produce too much insulin when they are born, making them prone to lower blood sugar levels. Babies are also susceptible to hypoglycaemia if they: were born prematurely or very small had breathing difficulties at birth have suffered excessive coldness, or hypothermia have an infection Low blood sugar in newborns can usually be reversed quickl Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Low Blood Sugar | Symptoms And Causes

Hypoglycemia And Low Blood Sugar | Symptoms And Causes

What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? While each child may experience symptoms of hypoglycemia differently, the most common include: shakiness dizziness sweating hunger headache irritability pale skin color sudden moodiness or behavior changes, such as crying for no apparent reason clumsy or jerky movements difficulty paying attention or confusion What causes hypoglycemia? The vast majority of episodes of hypoglycemia in children and adolescents occur when a child with diabetes takes too much insulin, eats too little, or exercises strenuously or for a prolonged period of time. For young children who do not have diabetes, hypoglycemia may be caused by: Single episodes: Stomach flu, or another illness that may cause them to not eat enough fasting for a prolonged period of time prolonged strenuous exercise and lack of food Recurrent episodes: accelerated starvation, also known as “ketotic hypoglycemia,” a tendency for children without diabetes, or any other known cause of hypoglycemia, to experience repeated hypoglycemic episodes. medications your child may be taking a congenital (present at birth) error in metabolism or unusual disorder such as hypopituitarism or hyperinsulinism. Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Print Overview Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar (glucose), your body's main energy source. Hypoglycemia is commonly associated with the treatment of diabetes. However, a variety of conditions, many of them rare, can cause low blood sugar in people without diabetes. Like fever, hypoglycemia isn't a disease itself — it's an indicator of a health problem. Immediate treatment of hypoglycemia involves quick steps to get your blood sugar level back into a normal range — about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter, or mg/dL (3.9 to 6.1 millimoles per liter, or mmol/L) — either with high-sugar foods or medications. Long-term treatment requires identifying and treating the underlying cause of hypoglycemia. Symptoms Similar to the way a car needs gas to run, your body and brain need a constant supply of sugar (glucose) to function properly. If glucose levels become too low, as occurs with hypoglycemia, it can cause these signs and symptoms: Heart palpitations Fatigue Pale skin Shakiness Anxiety Sweating Hunger Irritability Tingling sensation around the mouth Crying out during sleep As hypoglycemia worsens, signs and symptoms may include: Confusion, abnormal behavior or both, such as the inability to complete routine tasks Visual disturbances, such as blurred vision Seizures Loss of consciousness People with severe hypoglycemia may appear as if they're intoxicated. They may slur their words and move clumsily. Many conditions other than hypoglycemia may cause these signs and symptoms. A blood sample to test your blood sugar level at the time of these signs and symptoms is how to know for sure that hypoglycemia is the cause. When to see a doctor Seek a doctor's help immediately if: You have what may be symptoms of hypoglycemia an Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia can occur when blood sugar levels are too high. People develop hyperglycemia if their diabetes is not treated properly. Hypoglycemia sets in when blood sugar levels are too low. It is usually a side effect of treatment with blood-sugar-lowering medication. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with far-reaching health consequences. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is released into the bloodstream, or the insulin cannot be used properly. In type 1 diabetes, the body only produces very little insulin, or none at all. We need insulin to live. Without it, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood because it cannot be taken out and used by the body. Very high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, leads to a number of symptoms. If blood sugar levels are too low, it is called hypoglycemia. When is blood sugar considered to be too high or too low? Slight fluctuations in blood sugar levels are completely normal and also happen on a daily basis in people who do not have diabetes. Between around 60 and 140 milligrams of sugar per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) is considered to be healthy. This is equivalent to between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/L. “Millimole per liter” (mmol/L) is the international unit for measuring blood sugar. It indicates the concentration of a certain substance per liter. If type 1 diabetes is left untreated, people’s blood sugar levels can get very high, even exceeding 27.8 mmol/L (500 mg/dL). Such high levels are rather uncommon for type 2 diabetes. Blood sugar concentrations below 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) are considered to be too low. As you can see in the illustration below, there are no clear-cut borders between the normal range of blood sugar and high and low blood sugar. Signs of hyperglycemia People with type 2 diabetes do not always realize that their Continue reading >>

Do You Know The Difference Between High Blood Sugar And Low Blood Sugar?

Do You Know The Difference Between High Blood Sugar And Low Blood Sugar?

If you have diabetes, you may experience high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) from time to time. Learning how to recognize and manage high and low blood sugar levels can help you avoid medical emergencies and help you control your diabetes better. It’s important to check your blood glucose levels as recommended by your doctor to determine if your blood sugar is within your target range. High blood sugar occurs when the sugar, or glucose level in your blood rises above normal. A number of things can cause you to have high blood sugar. If you have type 1 diabetes, you may have given yourself a lower amount of insulin than your doctor recommended. If you have type 2, your body may have enough insulin, but it’s not as effective as it should be. Other causes attributed to high blood sugars are: Overeating Not exercising enough Missing medicines High stress levels Illness High blood sugar usually develops slowly over a period of hours, but may rise quickly if overeating simple sugars, such as dessert-type foods. Low blood sugar occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in your blood drops below what your body needs. This can be caused by any number of things, but most often occurs when you: Haven’t eaten enough food, especially carbohydrates Skipped a meal or snack Took too much medicine Exercised more than usual Took other medications that caused your blood sugar level to drop Unlike symptoms of high blood sugar, low blood sugar symptoms can occur within 10 to 15 minutes. If your blood sugar level drops below your target range, you may feel weak, tired, anxious or shaky. Eating something with sugar usually returns your blood sugar to its normal range and you will begin to feel better within a few minutes. Try to avoid blood sugar Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

What is hypoglycemia? People who have diabetes and use insulin or diabetes pills can have low blood sugar (glucose). Low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia, happens when the level of sugar in the blood falls below 70 mg/dl. Blood sugar drops when there is more insulin than needed to regulate the sugar level. What are the causes of hypoglycemia? Eating meals late or skipping meals. Not eating the whole meal or enough carbohydrates. Being more active than usual. Taking more medicine than needed. Drinking alcohol without eating. Any combination of the above. What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? Weakness or shaking. Moist skin, sweating. Fast heartbeat. Dizziness. Sudden hunger. Confusion. Pale skin. Numbness in mouth or tongue. Irritability, nervousness. Unsteadiness. Nightmares, bad dreams, restless sleep. You might pass out if your hypoglycemia is not treated. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

When Your Blood Sugar Is Too High Or Too Low

When Your Blood Sugar Is Too High Or Too Low

Sometimes, no matter how hard you try to keep your blood sugar in the range your doctor has advised, it can be too high or too low. Blood sugar that is too high or too low can make you very sick. Here's how to handle these emergencies. What You Need to Know about High Blood Sugar If your blood sugar stays over 240, it is too high. High blood sugar usually comes on slowly. It happens when you don't have enough insulin in your body. High blood sugar can happen if you miss taking your diabetes medicine, eat too much, or don't get enough exercise. Sometimes, medicines you take for other problems may cause high blood sugar. Be sure to tell your doctor about other medicines you take. This chart shows the ranges of blood sugar. Having an infection or being sick or under stress can also make your blood sugar too high. That is why it is very important to test your blood and keep taking your medicine (insulin or diabetes pills) when you have an infection or are sick. Your blood sugar may be too high if you are very thirsty and tired, have blurry vision, are losing weight fast, and have to go to the bathroom often. Very high blood sugar may make you feel sick to your stomach, faint, or throw up. It can cause you to lose too much fluid from your body. Testing your blood sugar often, especially when you are sick, will warn you that your blood sugar may be rising too high. If your blood sugar stays over 300 when you check it two times in a row, call your doctor. You may need a change in your insulin shots or diabetes pills, or a change in your meal plan. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, if patient is taking acetaminophen, or if symptoms/expectations do not match CGM readings, and if not performed, may result in hypoglycemia. Please see important risk and sa Continue reading >>

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