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Hba1c Means

Guide To Hba1c

Guide To Hba1c

Tweet HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. This guide explains what HbA1c is, how it differs from blood glucose levels and how it's used for diagnosing diabetes. What is HbA1c? The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c. HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin (A1c), which identifies average plasma glucose concentration. How does HBA1c return an accurate average measurement of average blood glucose? When the body processes sugar, glucose in the bloodstream naturally attaches to haemoglobin. The amount of glucose that combines with this protein is directly proportional to the total amount of sugar that is in your system at that time. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why peop Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

Low Hemoglobin A1c And Risk Of All-cause Mortality Among Us Adults Without Diabetes

Low Hemoglobin A1c And Risk Of All-cause Mortality Among Us Adults Without Diabetes

Go to: Abstract Among individuals without diabetes, elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but the literature is sparse regarding the prognostic importance of low HbA1c. Methods and Results National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) participants, 20 years and older, were followed up to 12 years (median follow-up, 8.8 years) for all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbA1c levels and all-cause mortality for 14 099 participants without diabetes. There were 1825 deaths during the follow-up period. Participants with a low HbA1c (<4.0%) had the highest levels of mean red blood cell volume, ferritin, and liver enzymes and the lowest levels of mean total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared with their counterparts with HbA1c levels between 4.0% and 6.4%. An HbA1c <4.0% versus 5.0% to 5.4% was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.45 to 9.63) after adjustment for age, race-ethnicity, and sex. This association was attenuated but remained statistically significant after further multivariable adjustment for lifestyle, cardiovascular factors, metabolic factors, red blood cell indices, iron storage indices, and liver function indices (HR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.25 to 6.76). In this nationally representative cohort, low HbA1c was associated with increased all-cause mortality among US adults without diabetes. Additional research is needed to confirm these results and identify potential mechanisms that may be underlying this association. Keywords: hemoglobin A1c, epidemiology, mortality Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

On This Site Tests: Glucose Tests; Urine Albumin; Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio; Fructosamine Conditions: Diabetes In the News: Screening, Diet and Exercise Key Factors in Task Force's New Diabetes Guidelines (2015), Task Force Updates Recommendations for Screening for Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in Adults (2014), New Report Finds that Diabetes is on the Rise (2014) Elsewhere On The Web American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Basics American Diabetes Association: Risk Test American Association of Diabetes Educators Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes Public Health Resource National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: Prevent diabetes problems - Keep your diabetes under control National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Diabetes A to Z National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program American Diabetes Association – DiabetesPro, estimated Average Glucose, eAG Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

A1c Test

A1c Test

Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>

Testing For Diabetes: What Your Hba1c Levels Mean

Testing For Diabetes: What Your Hba1c Levels Mean

Testing for diabetes: what your HbA1c levels mean The test for Type 2 diabetes is quick and easyCredit:Tom Merton The basic tests to diagnose Type 2 diabetes are effective and very fast. However, often the illness is first diagnosed by chance, when a patient is being tested for something else. That was certainly true for 48-year-old Stacy Evans, a father of three, who works in sales in Milton Keynes. Evans, whose partner Debbie Barks, 51, works for the NHS, says: In 2012, I went to register with a new GP and had a urine test as part of the process. I didnt know anything about type 2 diabetes so wasnt then aware of having any symptoms. But my blood sugar readings were off the scale, apparently. "As I learnt about the disease, I realised that not only was I at high risk, as I was massively overweight and unfit, but also I was exhibiting classic symptoms. I needed to go to the toilet three or four times a night, for example. Other symptoms include a constant thirst, weight loss and excessive tiredness. Stacy Evans, 48, was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in 2012Credit:Rii Schroer/The Telegraph Evans was so unaware of what type 2 diabetes meant he wasnt even shocked. I had no idea how serious it could be. He later learnt that the condition which occurs when the body is unable to produce enough insulin or unable to use what insulin it does produce to control blood sugar levels can have serious consequences, including organ damage and coma. Healthy blood sugar levels from a diabetes test should be between 4.0 to 6.0 mmol/L (millimoles per litre) when fasting or up to 7.8 mmol/L two hours after eating a meal, according to the NHS. But when doctors took Evanss blood, they calculated his blood sugar levels at 17mmol/l. Evans was immediately put on to medication that makes the bo Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test

If your HbA1c levels are high, it may be a sign of diabetes , a chronic condition that can cause serious health problems , including heart disease , kidney disease , and nerve damage . Other names: HbA1c, A1c, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin An HbA1c test may be used to check for diabetes or prediabetes in adults. Prediabetes means your blood sugar levels show you are at risk for getting diabetes. If you already have diabetes, an HbA1c test can help monitor your condition and glucose levels. You may need an HbA1c test if you have symptoms of diabetes. These include: A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes. Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test? You don't need any special preparations for an HbA1c test. There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly. HbA1c results are given in percentages. Typical results are below. Your results may mean something different. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider. If you have diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends keeping your HbA1c levels below 7%. Your health care provider may have other recommendations for you, depending on your overall health, age, weight, and other factors. Is there anything else I need to know about an HbA1c test? The HbA1c test is not used for gestational diabetes , a type of diabetes that only affects pregnant women, or for diagnosing diabetes in chil Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

back to Overview When I was a teenager, the HbA1c test results cut straight through my lies and made-up paper logbook. It’s often viewed as the number to rule all numbers. But hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test results can be misleading and don’t tell the full story. As I learned in my teens, the HbA1c test shines a light on things I was trying to hide. Overall, It’s not good at getting to the details of blood sugars, but when used with other pieces of information it can draw attention to (sometimes unseen) problem areas in our diabetes management, and that’s a good thing. How do HbA1c test results work? Let’s take a quick look at the basics of the HbA1c test. A certain amount of sugar in your blood sticks to your red blood cells and can’t be unstuck. It’s there for the life of the cell, which is, on average, about 8-12 weeks. Those red blood cells in your body are constantly recycled, and by checking your HbA1c value every 8-12 weeks (or as often as recommended by your doctor – the ADA recommends at least twice a year), you get to see a fresh new grouping of them. So – A higher blood sugar for a longer time means more sugar on more cells – which means a higher HbA1c. Get it? Ideal HbA1c range HbA1c goals are very individual, which makes sense. We’re all different, right? Of course, there are reference values as a guide, and that’s a good place to start. The ADA suggests an HbA1c of 7%, but also say that “more or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for each individual.” Why have different goals? Because, as you know, there’s a lot to consider with diabetes. Avoiding lows (hypoglycemia) while pushing for lower A1c’s is really important because low blood sugars are immediately dangerous. It’s simply not safe to push for a very low H Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

The hemoglobin A1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It's also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range. It can tell if you need to adjust your diabetes medicines. The A1c test is also used to diagnose diabetes. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells. It gives blood its red color, and it’s job is to carry oxygen throughout your body. The sugar in your blood is called glucose. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells. The A1c test measures how much glucose is bound. Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in your blood for the past 3 months. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher. For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% mean you have a higher change of getting of diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. The target A1c level for people with diabetes is usually less than 7%. The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher your risk of having complications related to diabetes. A combination of diet, exercise, and medication can bring your levels down. People with diabetes should have an A1c test every 3 months to make sure their blood sugar is in their target range. If your diabetes is under good control, you may be able to wait longer between the blood tests. But experts recommend checking at least two times a year. People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get misleading results with this test. Other things that can Continue reading >>

Hba1c: How Do We Measure It And What Does It Mean?

Hba1c: How Do We Measure It And What Does It Mean?

The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing rapidly. Diabetes currently affects 246 million people worldwide and is expected to affect 380 million by 2025 [1] . Measurement of glycated hemoglobin, predominantly HbA1c, is fundamental to the management of patients with diabetes. HbA1c is used to monitor long-term glycemic control, adjust therapy, assess the quality of diabetes care and predict the risk for the development of complications [24] . Accurate and reliable methods to measure HbA1c are necessary for optimal use. Glycated hemoglobin is derived from the nonenzymatic addition of glucose to amino groups of hemoglobin. HbA1c is a specific glycated hemoglobin that results from the attachment of glucose to the N-terminal valine of the hemoglobin -chain [5] . Total glycated hemoglobin includes all glycated fractions, comprising HbA1c as well as hemoglobin glycated at sites other than the N-terminus of the beta chain e.g., epsilon amino groups on lysine residues. The concentration of HbA1c depends on both the concentration of glucose in the blood and the life span of the erythrocyte. Because erythrocytes are in the circulation for approximately 120 days, HbA1c represents the integrated glucose concentration over the preceding 812 weeks [2] . It is, therefore, free of the large fluctuations that occur daily in blood glucose concentrations. The existence of several forms of hemoglobin has been known for over 50 years and an unusual hemoglobin was described in patients with diabetes in 1969 [6] . Numerous assays were subsequently developed to measure glycated hemoglobins. The principle of all methods is to separate the glycated and nonglycated forms of hemoglobin. This can be accomplished based on differences in charge (usually by HPLC) or structure (usually i Continue reading >>

Is Insulin The Preferred Treatment For Hba1c >9%?

Is Insulin The Preferred Treatment For Hba1c >9%?

Abstract The algorithms and guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association recommend that insulin administration be strongly considered for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with HbA1c levels exceeding 9.0% and 10%, respectively. Although the caveat is given in both sets of recommendations that this is particularly appropriate when patients are "symptomatic," referring to urinary frequency with increased thirst and appetite, weight loss, and ketosis, the clinical definition of such presentations may be ill-defined, and it is noteworthy that both documents consider insulin to offer particular benefit under such circumstances. However, with multiple options for glycemic treatment, it is of interest to reconsider this argument for insulin use. It should be recalled that in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, diet alone was associated with a reduction in HbA1c from 9% to 7%. Drug-naïve people with T2D do often show surprisingly strong reductions in HbA1c with metformin-based dual-agent oral treatment approaches; a recent report showed that even with baseline HbA1c >11%, the combination of metformin with a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin was associated with reduction in HbA1c from 11.6% to 6.0%. A 32-week study of the combination of rosiglitazone with metformin in patients with mean baseline HbA1c 8.9% showed a mean HbA1c reduction of 2.3%, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.8% had a reduction in HbA1c to 7.8%. With metformin plus sitagliptin, a mean placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction of 2.1% from a baseline of 8.8% was reported, with those patients with baseline HbA1c >9% having a 2.6% reduction in HbA1c, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.2% having a 2.9% reduction in HbA1c. Simil Continue reading >>

What Is Hba1c? | Diabetes Uk

What Is Hba1c? | Diabetes Uk

HbA1c is your average blood glucose (sugar) levels for the last two to three months. A high HbA1c means you have too much sugar in your blood. This means youre more likely to develop diabetes complications , like serious problems with your eyes and feet. Knowing your HbA1c level and what you can do to lower it will help you reduce your risk of devastating complications. This means getting your HbA1c checked regularly. Its a vital check and one of your 15 Healthcare Essentials . Youre entitled to get this test at least once a year. But if your HbA1c is high or needs a little more attention, itll be done every three to six months. Dont skip it. Once you know your HbA1c level, its important you understand what the results mean and how to stop them from going too high. Even a slightly raised HbA1c level makes you more at risk of serious complications, so get all the facts here and be in the know about HbA1c. So what's the ideal HbA1c level when you have diabetes? It's 48mmol/mol (6.5%) or below. It's different if you've been told you're at risk of developing Type 2 . HbA1c is whats known as glycated haemoglobin. This is something thats made when the glucose (sugar) in your body sticks to your red blood cells. Your body cant use the sugar properly, so more of it sticks to your blood cells and builds up in your blood. Red blood cells are active for around 2-3 months, which is why the reading is taken quarterly. Too much sugar in the blood damages your blood vessels. This damage can lead to serious problems in parts of your body like your eyes and feet. You can check these average blood sugar levels yourself, but youll have to buy a kit, whereas your healthcare professional will do it for free. Its different from a finger-prick test , which is a snapshot of your blood sugar l Continue reading >>

What Is The Hba1c?

What Is The Hba1c?

In the blood stream are the red blood cells, which are made of a molecule, haemoglobin. Glucose sticks to the haemoglobin to make a 'glycosylated haemoglobin' molecule, called haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C. The more glucose in the blood, the more haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C will be present in the blood. Red cells live for 8 - 12 weeks before they are replaced. By measuring the HbA1C it can tell you how high your blood glucose has been on average over the last 8-12 weeks. A normal non-diabetic HbA1C is <36mmol/mol (5.5%). In diabetes about 48mmol/mol (6.5%) is good. The HbA1C test is currently one of the best ways to check diabetes is under control; it is the blood test that gets sent to the laboratory, and it is done on the spot in some hospital clinics. Remember, the HbA1C is not the same as the glucose level. Coincidentally the glucose/HbA1C numbers for good control are rather similar though in the UK and Europe: glucose levels averaging 6.5 mmols/l before meals is equivalent to 60mmol/mol (7%). HbA1C (glucose levels are higher after meals) (see below). Two examples Below are two examples of people who have their HbA1c measured. One is poorly controlled, one well controlled. When should the HbA1C be measured? Measure HbA1c every 3 months if trying to improve every 6 months if very stable If your diabetes is controlled (basically an HbA1C lower than 53mmol/mol ( 7% ), every 3-6 months. But if the last reading is above 53mmol/mol (7%) and you are in reasonable health, you will need to achieve a lower level if possible, and the next reading should be sooner. This assumes you will make changes to improve your control. There is no point in having your HbA1c measured if you are not trying to achieve good control of your diabetes, although the level does predict the likelihood of co Continue reading >>

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