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Hba1c Conversion To Blood Sugar

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

People who have diabetes should be testing their blood glucose regularly at home. Regular blood glucose testing helps you determine how well your diabetes management program of meal planning, exercising and medication (if necessary) is doing to keep your blood glucose as close to normal as possible. The results of the nationwide Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) show that the closer you keep your blood glucose to normal, the more likely you are to prevent diabetes complications such as eye disease, nerve damage, and other problems. For some people, other medical conditions, age, or other issues may cause your physician to establish somewhat higher blood glucose targets for you. The following chart outlines the usual blood glucose ranges for a person who does and does not have diabetes. Use this as a guide to work with your physician and your healthcare team to determine what your target goals should be, and to develop a program of regular blood glucose monitoring to manage your condition. Time of Check Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people without diabetes Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people with diabetes Before breakfast (fasting) < 100 70 - 130 Before lunch, supper and snack < 110 70 - 130 Two hours after meals < 140 < 180 Bedtime < 120 90- 150 A1C (also called glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin A1c) < 6% < 7% < = less than > = greater than > = greater than or equal to < = less than or equal to Information obtained from Joslin Diabetes Center's Guidelines for Pharmacological Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Continue reading >>

Predicting Blood Glucose Levels From Hba1c Is Not The Same As Predicting Hba1c From Blood Glucose Levels: A Common Methodological Misunderstanding

Predicting Blood Glucose Levels From Hba1c Is Not The Same As Predicting Hba1c From Blood Glucose Levels: A Common Methodological Misunderstanding

DOI: 10.4225/03/56239BD13C5E0 Report number: SEACO Research Note: October 20, 2015, Affiliation: South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO), Monash University; Global Public Health, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia;Department of Psychology, University of Tasmania Abstract A methodological problem with the conversion of HbA 1C to blood glucose level and visa versa has slipped under our noses. The prediction equations on which the conversions are based assume that predicting HbA 1C from blood glucose is the same as predicting blood glucose from HbA 1C. The problem is pervasive and can be seen on the websites of the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes UK, the US, National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, on commercial sites, and in research. Using a secondary analysis of publicly available outpatient data we illustrate why predicting one from the other is not the same as the reverse. The implications for clinical care, research, and patient self management are highlighted. Discover the world's research 14+ million members 100+ million publications 700k+ research projects Join for free Once glycation has occurred, it is not reversed for the life of the glycated cell. 2blood-sugar- level-converter.html 0 50 100 150 200 ye xe of the squared errors between the y-values (HbA1C) and the line predicting the equations are not the same, the fit of the two models to the data (i.e., the 0 50 100 150 200 250 in a different population. Consider, for example, a study of people with high [1] C.-C. Lin, C.-P. Yang, C.-I. Li, C.-S. Liu, C.-C. Chen, W.-Y. Lin, K.- [3] M. Muggeo, G. Zoppini, E. Bonora, E. Brun, R. C. Bonadonna, [7] R. M. Cohen, R. S. Franco, P. K. Khera, E. P. Smith, C. J. Lindsell, P. J. Continue reading >>

Convert Hba1c To Average Blood Sugar Level

Convert Hba1c To Average Blood Sugar Level

Tweet Use this calculator to convert HbA1c to Average Blood Sugar Level. The HbA1c level in your blood indicates what your average blood glucose level has been in the past 2 to 3 months. Everyone, whether non-diabetic, pre-diabetic, type 1 diabetic or type 2 diabetic has some degree of sugar in their blood. To convert between mg/dl and mmol/L, use our blood sugar converter. You can then convert average blood glucose levels back to HbA1c units with the calculator below. mmol/L Recommended HbA1c ranges The recommended HbA1c range for most with diabetes is to keep the value under 48 mmols/mol (under 6.5% in the old percentage units). People at risk of hypoglycemia, or for whom such tight blood glucose regulation is not advised, may be advised to keep their HbA1c below 59 mmols/mol (under 7.5% in the old percentage units). Because the two tests measure two different things, the calculator can only give an estimate and therefore there will always be some discrepancy between the value provided by the calculator and actual lab test results. How accurate are the results? The calculator looks to provide an estimate of what your HbA1c value may be based upon your average blood glucose results and vice versa. It’s important to note that HbA1c and blood glucose tests measure different things. Blood glucose tests measure the concentration of glucose molecules in the blood at a single point in time. The HbA1c test measures the proportion of haemoglobin molecules in the blood that have become chemically bonded with glucose over a period of up to 3 months. However, the calculator serves as a useful guide which can give you a close indication of what your HbA1c result might be based on your blood glucose results? What can I learn from converting my average blood glucose level to HbA1c Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Chart And Information

Blood Sugar Level Chart And Information

A - A + Main Document Quote: "A number of medical studies have shown a dramatic relationship between elevated blood sugar levels and insulin resistance in people who are not very active on a daily or regular basis." A doctor might order a test of the sugar level in a person's blood if there is a concern that they may have diabetes, or have a sugar level that is either too low or too high. The test, which is also called a check of blood sugar, blood glucose, fasting blood sugar, fasting plasma glucose, or fasting blood glucose, indicates how much glucose is present is present in a person's blood. When a person eats carbohydrates, such as pasta, bread or fruit, their body converts the carbohydrates to sugar - also referred to as glucose. Glucose travels through the blood to supply energy to the cells, to include muscle and brain cells, as well as to organs. Blood sugar levels usually fluctuate depending upon what a person eats and how long it has been since they last ate. However; consistent or extremely low levels of glucose in a person's blood might cause symptoms such as: Anxiety Sweating Dizziness Confusion Nervousness Warning signs of dangerously high levels of blood sugar include sleepiness or confusion, dry mouth, extreme thirst, high fever, hallucinations, loss of vision, or skin that is warm and dry. A blood sugar test requires a finger prick or needle stick. A doctor might order a, 'fasting,' blood glucose test. What this means is a person will not be able to drink or eat for 8-10 hours before the test, or the doctor may order the test for a random time or right after the person eats. If a woman is pregnant, her doctor might order a, 'glucose-tolerance test,' which involves drinking glucose solution and having blood drawn a specified amount of time later. The re Continue reading >>

What’s Normal Blood Sugar?

What’s Normal Blood Sugar?

Thank you for dropping in! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.9 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.0–6.1 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2011 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.7 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.7 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.9–5.0 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.9 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.1 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.9–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists: Prediabetes: Continue reading >>

Blood - Sugar Conversion

Blood - Sugar Conversion

Our easy to use blood sugar calculator helps you to get your blood sugar conversion results either in mg/dl used by the American system or in mmol/l used by the British system which is accepted worldwide. Blood sugar conversion is made easy as never before. Please note that 72mg/dl of sugar equals to 4mmol/l of sugar. Continue reading >>

Hba1c Explained

Hba1c Explained

What is HbA1c? HbA1c is formed when haemoglobin (the molecule in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide) joins up with glucose. Why is HbA1c Important? It can be used to diagnose diabetes and it is a good indicator of your glucose control over the previous 2-4 months. Blood glucose combines with haemoglobin to form HbA1c – so a persistently high blood glucose causes a high HbA1c … Using HbA1c to Diagnose Diabetes HbA1c can be used to diagnose diabetes … HbA1c above 48 mmol/mol (or 6.5%) = diabetes. HbA1c under 42 mmol/mol (or 6.0%) = not diabetic. HbA1c between 42-48 mmol/mol (or 6.0-6.5%) is ‘pre-diabetes’ or ‘at high risk of diabetes’. Using HbA1c to Monitor Diabetes As shown above, HbA1c is an indication of your average blood sugar over the previous 2-4months. *It is very important that your own target should be set by your GP or diabetic care team. *People without diabetes should have an HbA1c of around 20-41 mmol/mol. *Diabetics will have varying targets depending on their likelihood to experience low blood glucose. *HbA1c used to be recorded as a percentage (e.g. 6.0%) – it is now recorded as a number (e.g. 42 mmol/mol). Here is a conversion table … 6.0% = 42 mmol/mol 6.5% = 48 mmol/mol 7.0% = 53 mmol/mol 7.5% = 58 mmol/mol 8.0% = 64 mmol/mol 9.0% = 75 mmol/mol Who Should Be Tested? Undiagnosed? If you are not diabetic but are at high risk on our Self Assessment Tool or if you have symptoms of tiredness, thirst and passing urine frequently you should see your GP who may well decide to test your HbA1c. Type 2 Diabetic? You should be tested every 3 months if you are trying to improve your blood glucose control, or every 6 months if your control is stable. Type 1 Diabetic? HbA1c testing is not recommended for children or Continue reading >>

Testing

Testing

There are a range of tests which will need to be done to monitor your health and your diabetes. Some of these, such as your blood glucose levels, you will be able to do yourself. Others will be done by healthcare professionals. Self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes management. As part of the day-to-day routine it can help with necessary lifestyle and treatment choices as well as help to monitor for symptoms of hypo- or hyperglycaemia. Monitoring can also help you and your healthcare team to alter treatment which in turn can help prevent any long-term complications from developing. Some people with diabetes (but not all) will test their blood glucose levels at home. Home blood glucose testing gives an accurate picture of your blood glucose level at the time of the test. It involves pricking the side of your finger (as opposed to the pad) with a finger-pricking device and putting a drop of blood on a testing strip. Some people can't see the point of testing as they think they know by the way they feel, but the way you feel is not always a good or accurate guide to what is happening. Blood glucose targets It is important that the blood glucose levels being aimed for are as near normal as possible (that is in the range of those of a person who does not have diabetes). These are: 3.5–5.5mmol/l* before meals less than 8mmol/l, two hours after meals. There are many different opinions about the ideal range to aim for. As this is so individual to each person, the target levels must be agreed between the person and their diabetes team. The target blood glucose ranges below are indicated as a guide. Children with Type 1 diabetes (NICE 2015) on waking and before meals: 4–7mmol/l after meals: 5–9mmol/l.after meals: 5–9mmol/l. Adults with Type Continue reading >>

Understanding The Hba1c Tracker

Understanding The Hba1c Tracker

The HbA1c Tracker complements the Diabetes Chart HbA1c conversion table by addressing the months leading up to a lab test. It provides enhanced picture of daily glucose control estimate of HbA1c on an on-going basis tool for spotting problems means of setting achievable improvement goals Importantly, the HbA1c Tracker is comparatively easy to understand and maintain. Instead of recording numbers, users enter dots which are collected in a histogram. Histograms: is a picture worth a thousand numbers? An HbA1c lab result reflects average glucose levels over the previous two to three months. It corresponds to an average of accurate and representative Self-Monitored Blood Glucose (SMBG) readings over the same period, and can be estimated by determining that average. The easiest way of doing this is to manage SMBG readings in the form of a histogram. A histogram simply takes glucose readings and displays the relative frequency with which they occur. It is an accurate, yet intuitive and very visual tool. If properly sampled, glucose readings cluster in central bars of the histogram. When this happens, the tallest bar usually represents the average of the readings. It also corresponds to an HbA1c estimate. With a little luck HbA1c can be approximated merely by glancing at the histogram. This is why we ask the question, "Is a picture worth a thousand numbers?" The answer is often "yes". Histograms and their visual nature have additional benefits for diabetics. First, when a predominant bar fails to occur, or when it occurs but does not reflect the average, the shape of the histogram itself often provides clues for troubleshooting. Second, the shape shows the tightness by which glucose is controlled. By becoming sensitive to histogram shape, a diabetic can better appreciate how b Continue reading >>

A1c Is Changing To Average Mean Blood Glucose

A1c Is Changing To Average Mean Blood Glucose

A1C Translation to Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) Units Will Yield Easier Patient Education. New more accurate formula used to convert A1c to average blood glucose. A mathematical relationship between the average glucose level over the preceding three months and levels of the A1C test, thus yielding translation of the A1C for reporting as estimated average glucose (eAG), was proven in an international study published online in the August issue of Diabetes Care. A1C has been used for more than 25 years as the major measure of glucose control and to establish targets for diabetes therapy. “The findings of this large study have confirmed what smaller studies have shown and will give us confidence that A1C really does represent an average glucose because we now have a reliable formula to convert A1C into average glucose,” said David M. Nathan, MD, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and cochair of the International A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) Study, in a recent interview. “While eAG will not replace A1C, physicians will be able to obtain reports both in A1C units of glycated hemoglobin and eAG units of milligrams per deciliter or millimols per liter, depending on the country, and choose which to use in clinical situations.” The implications of using eAG in mg/dl or mmol/L – the same units that patients use for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at home – were discussed recently by his co-chair, Robert J. Heine, MD, PhD, Professor of Diabetology in the Department of Endocrinology at the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, and Executive Medical Director of the Diabetes and Endocrine Division of Eli Lilly and Company. “It is extremely helpful for health care professionals and patients to be using the same language to discuss glucose Continue reading >>

Lipids (hdl, Ldl, Tr, Chol)

Lipids (hdl, Ldl, Tr, Chol)

HbA1c (average 3 months blood sugar) Measurements of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) more accurately identify persons at risk for clinical outcomes than the commonly used measurement of fasting glucose. High HbA1c levels accurately predicts future diabetes. In addition HbA1c isa risk marker for stroke, heart disase and all-cause mortality. John Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health The HbA1c test adds value as a marker of general health and can be used for monitoring individuals with and without diabetes. Not only high but also low HbA1c levels might be associated with allcause disease and underpins the applicability and value of HbA1c testing. Rebecca Paprott et al Diabetes Care Nov. 2014 HbA1c management is poor Few patiens with diabetes actually know their HbA1c level Over half of patients with diabetes who get their HbA1c tested have an HbA1c level higher than 7% Patients who know their last level report better assessment of their bloodsugar control than those who did not The diagnosis of diabetes is made if the HbA1c level is > 6.5% Present HbA1c New HbA1c mmol/mol Medium-glucose mmol/1 5.0 31 5.4 6.0 42 7.0 Measure for HbA1c type 2-diabetes less than 6.5 48 7.7 7.0 53 8.5 Measure for HbA1c type 1-diabetes less than 7.5 58 9.3 8.0 64 10.1 9.0 75 11.7 Target groups: Pre diabetes Diagnosed, diabetes is under control Diagnosed, diabetes is not under control How does glucose compare to HbA1c Below table list the close relationship between testing your glucose and testing your HbA1c level (your average glucose) Types of blood sugar test Advantages Disadvantages HbA1c This blood test measure the percentage of blood sugar attached to haemoglobin HbA1c levels between 5.7 and 6.4 per cent indicate that a patient has pre diabetes HbA1c levels of 6.5 percent or higher Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>

Hba1c: Converting Old To New

Hba1c: Converting Old To New

Having had to resort to Dr Google to translate my latest HbA1c result into something meaningful, I thought it might be useful to publish a conversion table for new HbA1c measurements. Since October 2011 the way HbA1c results are expressed has changed – from % to mmol/mol. Mostly this has been done to mess with your head, but there is also a secondary reason about trying to standardise measures all around the world to make it easier to compare results from different laboratories and research trials. Given the UK has been trying to shift from imperial to metric measurement since 1965 yet many people still respond to the question “how many metres is that?” with “about 3 feet” I’m thinking these changes may take a little while to sink in. So ShootUp has a handy guide. Ye olde HbA1c measurement (%) Shiny new IFCC HbA1c measurement (mmol/mol) 6.0 42 6.5 48 7.0 53 7.5 58 8.0 64 9.0 75 If you have a calculator to hand, you might want this handy formula to convert your own numbers: New mmol/mol = [Old % – 2.15] x 10.929 Old % = [New mmol/mol divided by 10.929] + 2.15 So if your new number is 53, divide it by 10.929, then add 2.15 and round up a bit to discover that’s roughly 7% in old money. And if your old number was 8% and you want to know what that means in the new world, take away 2.15 and then multiply the result by 10.929 to become enlightened. Or you could use Diabetes UK’s handy HbA1c converter. Continue reading >>

Why Doesn’t My Average Blood Glucose Match My A1c?!

Why Doesn’t My Average Blood Glucose Match My A1c?!

So, you test your meter for accuracy and everything looks good. You take your average BG and convert it to A1C using a table, calculator, or equation you find online. Then, you get your blood work done and learn that your actual A1C is… Not even close! What’s the deal? As it turns out, the relationship between average BG and A1C isn’t as clear as most of us think. After doing some research, I came across a couple reasons why someone’s actual A1C may be higher or lower than expected… But before we get into that, let’s briefly go over why A1C is used to approximate average glucose over ~3 months: As glucose enters your blood, it attaches to a protein in your red blood cells called “hemoglobin.” Hemoglobin is the same protein that carries oxygen in your bloodstream, and it is what gives blood its red color A1C measures the total amount of glucose that has attached to your hemoglobin over the lifespan of your red blood cells (typically ~3 months). OK, now that we’ve got the science down, here’s why your average BG and lab-measured A1C values might not match up: 1. BG meter average does not usually reflect the average over a full 24 hours This reason is pretty obvious. If you are not on a CGM, it’s tough to get a full picture of your average blood glucose throughout the day. We generally test much more during the day than at night, and nighttime glucose values may be very different from daytime values. We also tend to test more often before eating (when glucose is typically lower), and less often after meals (when glucose is typically higher). So, for most people, BG meter average doesn’t accurately reflect average blood glucose over a full 24 hours. A1C, on the other hand, does. If you want your BG meter average to better reflect your A1C values, che Continue reading >>

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