This Calculator Uses The 2007 Adag Formula To Estimate A1c And Average Blood Glucose Equivalents.
Enter a value into one of the fields below then press convert. A1c Value: Average Blood Glucose mg/dl or mmol/L Continue reading >>
The A1c Test & Diabetes
What is the A1C test? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research. How does the A1C test work? The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent. Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis. Why should a person be tested for diabetes? Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and li Continue reading >>
All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test
People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>
Why The A1c Test Is Important
The A1c is a blood test, done in a lab, that shows what your average blood sugar has been for the past 3 months. Other names for this test are glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c. How the A1c Test Works The glucose that the body doesn't store or use for energy stays in the blood and attaches to red blood cells, which live in the bloodstream for about 4 months. The lab test measures the amount of glucose attached to the red blood cells. The amount is the A1c and is shown as a percentage. Your A1c number can give you and your health care team a good idea of how well you've controlled your blood sugar over the previous 2 to 3 months. When you get your A1c result from a Kaiser Permanente lab, you'll also see another number called the estimated Average Glucose, or eAG. Understanding the eAG Your estimated Average Glucose (eAG) number is calculated from the result of your A1c test. Like the A1c, the eAG shows what your average blood sugars have been over the previous 2 to 3 months. Instead of a percentage, the eAG is in the same units (mg/dl) as your blood glucose meter. The chart shows the relationship between the A1c percentage and the eAG. If A1c % is: Your eAG is: 6 126 6.5 140 7 154 7.5 169 8 183 8.5 197 9 212 9.5 226 10 240 10.5 255 11 269 11.5 283 12 298 What the Numbers Mean The A1c and eAG reflect your average blood sugar over a period of time. These numbers help you and your doctor see how well your treatment plan is working. The higher your A1c and eAG numbers are, the higher your chances for having long-term health problems caused by consistently high blood sugar levels. These problems include heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, vision problems, and numbness in your legs or feet. The lower your A1c and eAG numbers, the lower you Continue reading >>
Estimated Average Glucose (eag) From Hba1c
Knowing an estimated average glucose can allow clinicians to set a goal and target for glucose levels, especially in non-compliant patients who do not check their glucose levels frequently or do not record them. Continue reading >>
Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>
Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>
Diabetes Simplified: A1c Testing
By Wil Dubois “Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who’s the best-controlled of all?” —what the Wicked Queen would have asked if she’d had diabetes instead of vanity issues If you’ve had diabetes for any time at all, you’ve probably heard of the A1C test. Sometimes, it’s also called the HbA1c test, the Hemoglobin A1c test, or the glycated hemoglobin test. They’re all the same thing. This is a lab test that allows your doctor, by consulting with a magic mirror, to determine how well your diabetes has been controlled, night and day, for the last three months. If that’s not black magic, I don’t know what is. Of course, as sci-fi writer Arthur C. Clarke famously said, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” The A1C has become the widely accepted benchmark for diabetes control. It’s used to classify who is in control and who is not, and to quantify the risk levels of those not in-target. The higher the A1C, the greater the risk of complications. The A1C is now also used diagnostically, with A1C scores actually used to diagnose new-onset diabetes. The A1C Test: How Does It Work? Well, like I said, it’s magic: in this case, the magic of biochemistry. The test measures the average blood sugar level for the past three months. It can do this because glucose sticks to red blood cells, just like powdered sugar sticks to freshly-fried doughnut holes. The result of the test is expressed as a percentage: 6.2 percent…7.8 percent…8.3 percent…9.6 percent…12.4 percent…and so on. Most A1C scores are only expressed in tenths of a percent, but some labs report twentieths, as well, so you might see an A1C of 6.79 percent or 8.32 percent. Wait a sec. A percentage of what, exactly? The percentage of hemoglobin in the sample of red Continue reading >>
How To Calculate Your A1c
The Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c for short) test is a blood test used to measure the average blood glucose concentration in your body in the past 1-3 months. For diabetics, this is the standard way of determining how well the diabetes is controlled. An A1c of less than 7% is considered good. Getting the test every 3 months (usually during a doctor visit) is usually enough. But sometimes you may want to just estimate your A1c level based on the data from your regular self-tests. The formula below could help in this case. Accuracy, of course, could vary depending on how often and when you check your blood sugar. I found it pretty accurate last time I used it. My calculation was off only by 0.1%. This is the same formula GlucoseTracker uses in the app's dashboard. Glucose in mg/dL: A1c = (46.7 + average_blood_glucose) / 28.7 Glucose in mmol/L: A1c = (2.59 + average_blood_glucose) / 1.59 So, for example, if your average blood glucose level in the past 3 months is 130 mg/dL (7.2 mmol/L) , your estimated A1c is 6.15%. There are also cheaper devices you can buy that will allow you to do the actual A1c tests yourself, like this one. If you need to do these tests more often, say every month, then it could save you money in the long run as lab tests could get expensive. It may not be as accurate as the lab tests, but my guess is it's probably good enough. Continue reading >>
How To Convert Glucose Levels To A1c
Your A1C levels are a commonly used indicator for diabetes control. Hemoglobin is the protein that allows red blood cells to transport oxygen. Glucose reacts with hemoglobin to form A1C; the higher your blood glucose levels, the more hemoglobin A1C you will have. The percentage of your hemoglobin that is in the A1C form is often used to measure your average blood glucose levels. Normally, your A1C level is converted to give an estimate of your average blood glucose level, but you can also convert average blood glucose levels to A1C. Video of the Day Obtain several blood glucose readings. Your A1C level will reflect your average blood glucose level, so if you want to estimate your percentage of hemoglobin A1C, you need to get a sense of your average blood glucose level. Measure your blood glucose levels several times each day for multiple days. The Family Doctor website recommends talking to your doctor to determine how often you need to measure your blood glucose levels, but you should try to measure the amount of glucose in your blood before and after meals. Average your blood glucose readings. Because A1C is determined by the amount of glucose in your blood over the span of several weeks, Lab Tests Online explains, you will need to use an average of many readings. Utilizing only one blood glucose reading could cause you to significantly overestimate or underestimate your A1C levels. Add 46.7 to your average blood glucose level. The formula for converting A1C to an estimated average blood glucose level, reports the American Diabetes Association, is (28.7 x A1C) - 46.7 = estimated Average Glucose. Thus, the first step for performing the reverse calculation is to add 46.7 to your average blood glucose. Divide the result by 28.7. This will give you a number that represent Continue reading >>
A1c Versus Glucose Testing: A Comparison
Diabetes was originally identified by the presence of glucose in the urine. Almost 2,500 years ago it was noticed that ants were attracted to the urine of some individuals. In the 18th and 19th centuries the sweet taste of urine was used for diagnosis before chemical methods became available to detect sugars in the urine. Tests to measure glucose in the blood were developed over 100 years ago, and hyperglycemia subsequently became the sole criterion recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes. Initial diagnostic criteria relied on the response to an oral glucose challenge, while later measurement of blood glucose in an individual who was fasting also became acceptable. The most widely accepted glucose-based criteria for diagnosis are fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dL or a 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on more than one occasion (1,2). In a patient with classic symptoms of diabetes, a single random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL is considered diagnostic (1). Before 2010 virtually all diabetes societies recommended blood glucose analysis as the exclusive method to diagnose diabetes. Notwithstanding these guidelines, over the last few years many physicians have been using hemoglobin A1C to screen for and diagnose diabetes (3). Although considered the “gold standard” for diagnosis, measurement of glucose in the blood is subject to several limitations, many of which are not widely appreciated. Measurement of A1C for diagnosis is appealing but has some inherent limitations. These issues have become the focus of considerable attention with the recent publication of the Report of the International Expert Committee that recommended the use of A1C for diagnosis of diabetes (4), a position that has been endorsed (at the time of Continue reading >>
What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?
Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>
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- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
Why Doesn't My Average Blood Glucose Match My A1c?!
But before we get into that, let’s briefly go over why A1C is used to approximate average glucose over ~3 months : As glucose enters your blood, it attaches to a protein in your red blood cells called “hemoglobin.” Hemoglobin is the same protein that carries oxygen in your bloodstream, and it is what gives blood its red color A1C measures the total amount of glucose that has attached to your hemoglobin over the lifespan of your red blood cells (typically ~3 months). OK, now that we’ve got the science down, here’s why your average BG and lab-measured A1C values might not match up: 1. BG meter average does not usually reflect the average over a full 24 hours This reason is pretty obvious. If you are not on a CGM, it’s tough to get a full picture of your average blood glucose throughout the day. We generally test much more during the day than at night, and nighttime glucose values may be very different from daytime values. We also tend to test more often before eating (when glucose is typically lower), and less often after meals (when glucose is typically higher). So, for most people, BG meter average doesn’t accurately reflect average blood glucose over a full 24 hours. A1C, on the other hand, does. If you want your BG meter average to better reflect your A1C values, check more often! And make sure you check at various times throughout the day, including 1-3 hours after eating. 2. The Average BG to A1C conversion equation is not perfect Most (if not all) average BG to A1C conversion tables and calculators use the below equation to estimate A1C: Average BG (mg/dL) = 28.7 X A1C (%) – 46.7 This equation is based on data from a 2008 study of over 500 subjects (268 T1Ds, 159 T2Ds, and 80 non-diabetics) at 10 international centers around the Continue reading >>
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- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
- Type 2 diabetes: What is the average age of onset?
Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know
The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>
Relationship Between A1c And Glucose Levels In The General Dutch Population
Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship among A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-h postload plasma glucose in the Dutch general population and to evaluate the results of using A1C for screening and diagnosis of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 2006–2007, 2,753 participants of the New Hoorn Study, aged 40–65 years, who were randomly selected from the population of Hoorn, the Netherlands, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Glucose status (normal glucose metabolism [NGM], intermediate hyperglycemia, newly diagnosed diabetes, and known diabetes) was defined by the 2006 World Health Organization criteria. Spearman correlations were used to investigate the agreement between markers of hyperglycemia, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to evaluate the use of A1C to identify newly diagnosed diabetes. RESULTS In the total population, the correlations between fasting plasma glucose and A1C and between 2-h postload plasma glucose and A1C were 0.46 and 0.33, respectively. In patients with known diabetes, these correlations were 0.71 and 0.79. An A1C level of ≥5.8%, representing 12% of the population, had the highest combination of sensitivity (72%) and specificity (91%) for identifying newly diagnosed diabetes. This cutoff point would identify 72% of the patients with newly diagnosed diabetes and include 30% of the individuals with intermediate hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS In patients with known diabetes, correlations between glucose and A1C are strong; however, moderate correlations were found in the general population. In addition, based on the diagnostic properties of A1C defined by ROC curve analysis, the advantage of A1C compared with OGTT for the diagnosis of diabetes is limited. Fasting glucose levels Continue reading >>