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Glucose Levels Non Fasting

Nonfasting Glucose, Ischemic Heart Disease, And Myocardial Infarction

Nonfasting Glucose, Ischemic Heart Disease, And Myocardial Infarction

Go to: Abstract The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Elevated fasting plasma glucose levels associate with increased risk of IHD, but whether this is also true for nonfasting levels and whether this is a causal relationship is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 80,522 persons from Copenhagen, Denmark. Of those, IHD developed in 14,155, and MI developed in 6,257. Subjects were genotyped for variants in GCK (rs4607517), G6PC2 (rs560887), ADCY5 (rs11708067), DGKB (rs2191349), and ADRA2A (rs10885122) associated with elevated fasting glucose levels in genome-wide association studies. Results Risk of IHD and MI increased stepwise with increasing nonfasting glucose levels. The hazard ratio for IHD in subjects with nonfasting glucose levels ≥11 mmol/l (≥198 mg/dl) versus <5 mmol/l (<90 mg/dl) was 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2 to 11.2) adjusted for age and sex, and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3 to 4.2) adjusted multifactorially; corresponding values for MI were 9.2 (95% CI: 4.6 to 18.2) and 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1 to 11.2). Increasing number of glucose-increasing alleles was associated with increasing nonfasting glucose levels and with increased risk of IHD and MI. The estimated causal odds ratio for IHD and MI by instrumental variable analysis for a 1-mmol/l (18-mg/dl) increase in nonfasting glucose levels due to genotypes combined were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.52) and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.28 to 2.23), and the corresponding observed hazard ratio for IHD and MI by Cox regression was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.22) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.11), respectively. Like common nonfasting glucose elevation, plasma glucose-increasing polymorphisms Continue reading >>

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

Discuss blood glucose (sugar) targets with your healthcare team when creating your diabetes management plan. People who have diabetes should be testing their blood glucose regularly at home. Regular blood glucose testing helps you determine how well your diabetes management program of meal planning, exercising and medication (if necessary) is doing to keep your blood glucose as close to normal as possible. The results of the nationwide Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) show that the closer you keep your blood glucose to normal, the more likely you are to prevent diabetes complications such as eye disease, nerve damage, and other problems. For some people, other medical conditions, age, or other issues may cause your physician to establish somewhat higher blood glucose targets for you. The following chart outlines the usual blood glucose ranges for a person who does and does not have diabetes. Use this as a guide to work with your physician and your healthcare team to determine what your target goals should be, and to develop a program of regular blood glucose monitoring to manage your condition. Time of Check Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people without diabetes Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people with diabetes Before breakfast (fasting) < 100 70 - 130 Before lunch, supper and snack < 110 70 - 130 Two hours after meals < 140 < 180 Bedtime < 120 90- 150 A1C (also called glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin A1c) < 6% < 7% < = less than > = greater than > = greater than or equal to < = less than or equal to Information obtained from Joslin Diabetes Center's Guidelines for Pharmacological Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Continue reading >>

How Reliable Are Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels?

How Reliable Are Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels?

That number you see in your glucose meter after eating is very important. The non-fasting value of blood sugar levels can indicate the possibility of prediabetes or diabetes. “The timing of non-fasting blood glucose levels is important,” says Alison Massey, MS, RD, LDN, registered dietitian and diabetes educator at the Center for Endocrinology, Mercy Medical Center of Baltimore, whom I interviewed for this article. “Typically, if someone has diabetes we suggest they monitor before meals (target 80-130 mg/dL) and sometimes post-prandially (two hours after meals) which should be less than 180 mg/dL. “Monitoring a pre- and a two-hour after meal blood glucose provides individuals with diabetes a better idea of how the food they are consuming is impacting their blood glucose level.” Values for Non-Fasting Glucose (Blood Sugar) and What They Mean • For non-diabetics, the normal glucose reading two hours after a meal should be less than 140 mg/dL. • You will likely be diagnosed with diabetes if any random blood sugar reading is at least 201. Not all people with undiagnosed diabetes have symptoms (unintentional weight loss, fatigue, excessive hunger, excessive thirst or urination), though a few of these symptoms can also slip under the radar because the person blames them on “I’m getting old” or “I’m getting out of shape.” Some people may blame unplanned weight loss or excessive hunger on stress. Alert: A glucose reading (either fasting or non-fasting) that’s in the prediabetic range, should not be the be-all, end-all for being diagnosed with prediabetes. Blood sugar can be elevated due to chronic stress, long-term insomnia or even short-term sleep difficulties. You'll Also Like: Continue reading >>

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Non-fasting blood sugar levels are considered random readings where a person's levels should be no higher than 200 mg/dl, or it indicates type 2 diabetes. A fasting glucose level, on the other hand, should be no higher than 126. Further tests provide insight into how long it takes a person's blood sugar to spike and drop after eating. Warning Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include having close relatives with the condition, being over 45 years of age, being overweight, not exercising on a regular basis, and having gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Because symptoms can be mild for months or even years, type 2 often is initially indicated during a routine non-fasting blood test. Considerations Diabetes cannot be confirmed by non-fasting blood sugar levels, so physicians require fasting tests as well. Diabetes is suspected if the non-fasting level is higher than 200 mg/dl, especially if the patient also has symptoms of increased thirst and urination, along with fatigue. Even soon after eating, such high blood sugar numbers are considered unhealthy. The physician will advise the person to return for a fasting blood sugar test, which is performed after at least eight hours with no food. Identification A fasting blood sugar level indicates type 2 diabetes if the reading is higher than 126 on two separate days. Numbers between 100 and 126 are considered impaired, or pre-diabetes, where a person can more easily return to normal levels through diet changes and exercise. Types A glucose tolerance test is another type of non-fasting blood sugar diagnostic procedure. The patient typically drinks water with a specific amount of glucose added, and then a health care professional determines how long it takes the blood sugar level to peak and return to normal. Levels should drop Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Testing

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Testing

There are many different times you can test your blood sugar. While a fasting blood sugar test, one taken when you have not had anything to eat or drink for the previous eight hours, is typically used to diagnose diabetes, testing at other times throughout the day can help you keep your blood sugar under control. Depending on your needs, you may test your blood sugar as little as twice daily or as frequently as seven or more times daily. Your doctor will recommend when and how frequently you should test your blood sugar. At-home blood sugar testing is usually performed with a hand-held monitor. Video of the Day Before and After Meal Testing A blood glucose level measured before a meal other than breakfast is typically a non-fasting blood sugar. Checking your blood sugar before a meal can help you choose which foods you can eat, which foods you should avoid, and how much insulin you should take if you are on a sliding scale. Testing your blood sugar about two hours after your meal lets you know how your body is processing your meal and whether you have enough insulin in your system to handle the food you ate. Fasting and before meal blood sugars should be in the 80 to 120 mg/dL range and after meal blood sugars should be less than 180 mg/dL, or as directed by your doctor. Many people with diabetes need to test their blood sugar before bed, and some even need to test during the night. Low blood sugar levels before bed can lead to hypoglycemia, a condition that can go unrecognized in the night and become dangerous. Some people, on the other hand, experience a phenomenon known as dawn syndrome, when their blood sugar rises near dawn even though they have not recently eaten. Testing your blood sugar at bedtime and during the night can help you and your doctor know more about Continue reading >>

Normal Glucose Levels: Check Your Numbers

Normal Glucose Levels: Check Your Numbers

Normal glucose levels are important to monitor, even if you have not been diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is the name of a group of diseases in which the body is unable to properly utilize blood sugar (glucose) for energy. There are three primary forms of diabetes—type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes—and, in each case, the body is unable to effectively move the glucose that results from the metabolism of the sugar and starches we eat into the cells of our muscles, brain, and other vital tissues. The end result: The body’s cells are deprived of their energy source and the blood sugar or glucose builds up in the blood. Most adults will have their blood glucose tested to determine their normal glucose levels as part of their annual visit with their healthcare provider. This is usually done after fasting overnight or for at least eight hours—hence its name: fasting blood glucose or FPG. Download this expert FREE guide, Diabetes Symptoms and Treatments: How to lower blood sugar with a diabetic diet, medications, and lifestyle changes. This new report tells you how you can take command of your diabetes, simplify blood sugar management, and make the most of today’s breakthroughs in treatment. What are Normal Glucose Levels? Experts have established criteria to define normal glucose levels and what is considered to be an FPG indicative of diabetes or prediabetes: Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose: 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) to 100 mg/dl Prediabetes Fasting Plasma Glucose: 100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl Diabetes Fasting Plasma Glucose: 126 mg/dl or higher If your healthcare provider suspects you have diabetes because you have not achieved normal glucose levels, they will likely perform additional blood tests includ Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Non-fasting Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Non-fasting Blood Sugar?

written by: Bobby Mathew edited by: Diana Cooper updated: 11/19/2010 Is there such a thing as normal? There is when it comes to non-fasting blood sugar levels. So if you find yourself asking what is normal non-fasting blood sugar, your on the right track to managing your diabetes. If you're a diabetic, you probably check your blood sugar levels often. But blood sugar levels do not always give you the best picture of how your body is able to metabolize blood sugar. For example, you might check your blood sugar one morning to see that it is 94 mg/dl. But the question is how long did it take to reach that level? You should also be concerned with how and when your blood sugar levels spike, normally one to two hours after you eat. This is because diabetes complications and HbA1c levels depend more on those levels than they depend on the fasting levels. Non-fasting blood sugar levels can give you a better understanding of your diabetes. This article answers one question: what is normal non-fasting blood sugar? One diabetic mgiht be able to eat a sandwich without ever having his blood sugar go above 140 mg/dl. You might eat a piece of bread and see your blood sugar skyrocket past 200 mg/dl. People's blood sugars do vary somewhat, but there are guidelines as to what are normal blood sugar levels at certain times, such as just before you eat and after your eat. According to the American Diabetes Association: A normal non-fasting blood sugar reading taken one to two hours after a meal is one that is below 180 mg/dl. A normal non-fasting blood sugar reading taken before a meal is 70 to 130 mg/dl What Can I Do To Maintain Normal Non-Fasting Blood Sugar Levels? There are a number of things you can do to maintain normal non-fasting blood sugar levels: Physical activity and exercise Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

The “normal Blood Sugar Range” May Be Misleading You

The “normal Blood Sugar Range” May Be Misleading You

A fasting blood sugar test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in your blood after you have not eaten for at least eight hours. Checking for an ideal fasting blood sugar is one of the most commonly performed tests to check for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. So what should your fasting blood sugar be? The normal blood sugar range is 65-99 mg/dL. If your fasting blood sugar is between 100 and 125 mg/dL, you have “impaired fasting glucose,” also referred to as “prediabetes.” If your fasting blood sugar is more than 126 mg/dL on two or more occasions, you have full-blown diabetes. What Is Prediabetes? People defined as having impaired fasting glucose/prediabetes are individuals whose blood sugar levels do not meet criteria for diabetes, yet are higher than those considered normal. These people are at relatively high risk for the future development of diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), prediabetes is not a disease itself but rather a risk factor “for diabetes as well as cardiovascular disease.”[1] However, the ADA also state that prediabetes can be considered an “intermediate stage” in the diabetes disease process.[1](One might wonder how prediabetes can be a both a risk factor for diabetes and an intermediate stage of the diabetes disease process simultaneously). In addition to increasing the chance of developing diabetes, it’s well-established that people with impaired fasting glucose/prediabetes are more likely to be overweight or obese, especially with what’s known as abdominal or visceral obesity. They also are more likely to have high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension.[1] Even Normal-Range Blood Glucose Levels Can Increase Diabetes Risk There’s a lot more at stake for thos Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes

Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes

Each time you test your blood sugar, log it in a notebook or online tool or with an app. Note the date, time, results, and any recent activities: What medication and dosage you took What you ate How much and what kind of exercise you were doing That will help you and your doctor see how your treatment is working. Well-managed diabetes can delay or prevent complications that affect your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes doubles your risk for heart disease and stroke, too. Fortunately, controlling your blood sugar will also make these problems less likely. Tight blood sugar control, however, means a greater chance of low blood sugar levels, so your doctor may suggest higher targets. Continue reading >>

Is My Blood Sugar Normal?

Is My Blood Sugar Normal?

“Is my blood sugar normal?” seems like a simple question – but it’s not! The answer can vary dramatically based on your situation. Let’s look at some of the factors to consider. Please remember: you should figure out your personal goals in consultation with your doctor. Normal Blood Sugar in Diabetic vs. Non-Diabetic First, a quick note on how we measure blood sugar. In the USA, blood sugars are measured by weight in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dL. Most everyone else uses millimole per liter, abbreviated mmol. If you are in the USA, look at the big numbers, most everyone else look at the small numbers. In a person without diabetes, blood sugars tend to stay between 70 and 100 mg/dL (3.8 and 5.5 mmol). After a meal, blood sugars can rise up to 120 mg/dL or 6.7 mmol. It will typically fall back into the normal range within two hours. In a person with diabetes, the story is much more complex: Below 70 mg/dL Below 3.8 mmol Low Blood Sugars (Hypoglycemia). When blood sugars drop below this level, you may start feeling hunger, shakiness, or racing of the heart. Your body is starved for sugar (glucose). Read how to detect and treat low blood sugars. 70 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL 3.8 mmol to 7.7 mmol Normal Blood Sugar. In this range, the body is functioning normally. In someone without diabetes, the vast majority of the time is spent in the lower half of this range. 140 mg/dL to 180 mg/dL 7.7 mmol to 10 mmol Elevated Blood Sugars. In this range, the body can function relatively normally. However, extended periods of time in this zone put you at risk for long-term complications. Above 180 mg/dL Abovoe 10 mmol High Blood Sugars. At this range, the kidney is unable to reabsorb all of the glucose in your blood and you begin to spill glucose in your urine. Your bo Continue reading >>

Random Glucose Test

Random Glucose Test

Random glucose test ({aka} random blood glucose) is a [blood sugar] test taken from a non-[fasting] subject. This test, also called capillary blood glucose (CBG), assumes a recent [meal] and therefore has higher reference values than the fasting glucose test. Reference values[edit] The reference values for a "normal" random glucose test in an average adult are 79–160 mg/dl (4.4–7.8 mmol/l), between 160–200 mg/dl is considered pre-diabetes, and > 200 mg/dl is considered diabetes according to ADA guidelines (you should visit your doctor or a clinic for additional tests however as a random glucose of > 200 mg/dl does not necessarily mean you are diabetic).[citation needed] See also[edit] Blood glucose Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia External links[edit] Glucose Tests @ Lab Tests Online ADA page that hints at random glucose levels Continue reading >>

Random Glucose Tests: Testing Stability

Random Glucose Tests: Testing Stability

Glucose testing is a random blood test to check glucose levels. It is usually done by pricking the finger to draw a small drop of blood. This blood is then wiped onto a test strip that will give a glucose reading. This is a powerful tool for people with diabetes. It can help assess how well the disease is being managed. Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to release insulin from your pancreas once sugars are turned into glucose. The insulin allows the glucose to enter the bloodstream and release energy. In diabetes, this function does not work properly. Some early symptoms of diabetes are excessive urination and thirst. This is caused by the sugar buildup in the blood that is not absorbed. It is filtered out through the kidneys in large amounts, which can then lead to dehydration. Other symptoms may include weight loss, blurred vision, being tired constantly, tingling in arms and legs, sore gums, and slow healing. Glucose testing helps keep track of symptoms and manage diabetes. Random blood glucose values vary depending on the last time you ate. If you are testing within one to two hours after the start of a meal, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends glucose levels be under 180 mg/dL. Before a meal the levels can be between 80 and 130 mg/dL. A normal glucose reading for someone without diabetes is lower than 140 mg/dL. If the reading is anywhere from 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL, there is a chance you suffer from impaired glucose tolerance. This is otherwise known as prediabetes, and there is a chance it can develop into type 2. If the reading is higher than 200 mg/dL, there is a high chance you have diabetes. A doctor may schedule another glucose test for you if it is positive for diabetes. There are a number of factors that can c Continue reading >>

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