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Glucose Level Non Fasting

How Reliable Are Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels?

How Reliable Are Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels?

That number you see in your glucose meter after eating is very important. The non-fasting value of blood sugar levels can indicate the possibility of prediabetes or diabetes. “The timing of non-fasting blood glucose levels is important,” says Alison Massey, MS, RD, LDN, registered dietitian and diabetes educator at the Center for Endocrinology, Mercy Medical Center of Baltimore, whom I interviewed for this article. “Typically, if someone has diabetes we suggest they monitor before meals (target 80-130 mg/dL) and sometimes post-prandially (two hours after meals) which should be less than 180 mg/dL. “Monitoring a pre- and a two-hour after meal blood glucose provides individuals with diabetes a better idea of how the food they are consuming is impacting their blood glucose level.” Values for Non-Fasting Glucose (Blood Sugar) and What They Mean • For non-diabetics, the normal glucose reading two hours after a meal should be less than 140 mg/dL. • You will likely be diagnosed with diabetes if any random blood sugar reading is at least 201. Not all people with undiagnosed diabetes have symptoms (unintentional weight loss, fatigue, excessive hunger, excessive thirst or urination), though a few of these symptoms can also slip under the radar because the person blames them on “I’m getting old” or “I’m getting out of shape.” Some people may blame unplanned weight loss or excessive hunger on stress. Alert: A glucose reading (either fasting or non-fasting) that’s in the prediabetic range, should not be the be-all, end-all for being diagnosed with prediabetes. Blood sugar can be elevated due to chronic stress, long-term insomnia or even short-term sleep difficulties. You'll Also Like: Continue reading >>

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

Discuss blood glucose (sugar) targets with your healthcare team when creating your diabetes management plan. People who have diabetes should be testing their blood glucose regularly at home. Regular blood glucose testing helps you determine how well your diabetes management program of meal planning, exercising and medication (if necessary) is doing to keep your blood glucose as close to normal as possible. The results of the nationwide Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) show that the closer you keep your blood glucose to normal, the more likely you are to prevent diabetes complications such as eye disease, nerve damage, and other problems. For some people, other medical conditions, age, or other issues may cause your physician to establish somewhat higher blood glucose targets for you. The following chart outlines the usual blood glucose ranges for a person who does and does not have diabetes. Use this as a guide to work with your physician and your healthcare team to determine what your target goals should be, and to develop a program of regular blood glucose monitoring to manage your condition. Time of Check Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people without diabetes Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people with diabetes Before breakfast (fasting) < 100 70 - 130 Before lunch, supper and snack < 110 70 - 130 Two hours after meals < 140 < 180 Bedtime < 120 90- 150 A1C (also called glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin A1c) < 6% < 7% < = less than > = greater than > = greater than or equal to < = less than or equal to Information obtained from Joslin Diabetes Center's Guidelines for Pharmacological Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Non-fasting Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Non-fasting Blood Sugar?

written by: Bobby Mathew edited by: Diana Cooper updated: 11/19/2010 Is there such a thing as normal? There is when it comes to non-fasting blood sugar levels. So if you find yourself asking what is normal non-fasting blood sugar, your on the right track to managing your diabetes. If you're a diabetic, you probably check your blood sugar levels often. But blood sugar levels do not always give you the best picture of how your body is able to metabolize blood sugar. For example, you might check your blood sugar one morning to see that it is 94 mg/dl. But the question is how long did it take to reach that level? You should also be concerned with how and when your blood sugar levels spike, normally one to two hours after you eat. This is because diabetes complications and HbA1c levels depend more on those levels than they depend on the fasting levels. Non-fasting blood sugar levels can give you a better understanding of your diabetes. This article answers one question: what is normal non-fasting blood sugar? One diabetic mgiht be able to eat a sandwich without ever having his blood sugar go above 140 mg/dl. You might eat a piece of bread and see your blood sugar skyrocket past 200 mg/dl. People's blood sugars do vary somewhat, but there are guidelines as to what are normal blood sugar levels at certain times, such as just before you eat and after your eat. According to the American Diabetes Association: A normal non-fasting blood sugar reading taken one to two hours after a meal is one that is below 180 mg/dl. A normal non-fasting blood sugar reading taken before a meal is 70 to 130 mg/dl What Can I Do To Maintain Normal Non-Fasting Blood Sugar Levels? There are a number of things you can do to maintain normal non-fasting blood sugar levels: Physical activity and exercise Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Nonfasting Tests To Screen For Childhood And Adolescent Dysglycemia

Evaluation Of Nonfasting Tests To Screen For Childhood And Adolescent Dysglycemia

OBJECTIVE To assess performance of nonfasting tests to screen children for dysglycemia (prediabetes or diabetes). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 254 overweight or obese (BMI ≥85th percentile) children aged 10–17 years. Subjects came for two visits to a clinical research unit. For visit one, they arrived fasting and a 2-h glucose tolerance test and HbA1c and fructosamine testing were performed. For visit two, they arrived nonfasting and had a random plasma glucose, a 1-h 50-g nonfasting glucose challenge test (1-h GCT), and urine dipstick performed. The primary end point was dysglycemia (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL or a 2-h postglucose ≥140 mg/dL). Test performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculations of area under the ROC curve. RESULTS Approximately one-half of children were female, 59% were white, and 30% were black. There were 99 (39%) cases of prediabetes and 3 (1.2%) cases of diabetes. Urine dipstick, HbA1c (area under the curve [AUC] 0.54 [95% CI 0.47–0.61]), and fructosamine (AUC 0.55 [0.47–0.63]) displayed poor discrimination for identifying children with dysglycemia. Both random glucose (AUC 0.66 [0.60–0.73]) and 1-h GCT (AUC 0.68 [0.61–0.74]) had better levels of test discrimination than HbA1c or fructosamine. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c had poor discrimination, which could lead to missed cases of dysglycemia in children. Random glucose or 1-h GCT may potentially be incorporated into clinical practice as initial screening tests for prediabetes or diabetes and for determining which children should undergo further definitive testing. Rates of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. pediatric population are rising (1,2). Because type 2 diabetes can be asymptomatic at diagnosis and requ Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Testing

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Testing

There are many different times you can test your blood sugar. While a fasting blood sugar test, one taken when you have not had anything to eat or drink for the previous eight hours, is typically used to diagnose diabetes, testing at other times throughout the day can help you keep your blood sugar under control. Depending on your needs, you may test your blood sugar as little as twice daily or as frequently as seven or more times daily. Your doctor will recommend when and how frequently you should test your blood sugar. At-home blood sugar testing is usually performed with a hand-held monitor. Video of the Day Before and After Meal Testing A blood glucose level measured before a meal other than breakfast is typically a non-fasting blood sugar. Checking your blood sugar before a meal can help you choose which foods you can eat, which foods you should avoid, and how much insulin you should take if you are on a sliding scale. Testing your blood sugar about two hours after your meal lets you know how your body is processing your meal and whether you have enough insulin in your system to handle the food you ate. Fasting and before meal blood sugars should be in the 80 to 120 mg/dL range and after meal blood sugars should be less than 180 mg/dL, or as directed by your doctor. Many people with diabetes need to test their blood sugar before bed, and some even need to test during the night. Low blood sugar levels before bed can lead to hypoglycemia, a condition that can go unrecognized in the night and become dangerous. Some people, on the other hand, experience a phenomenon known as dawn syndrome, when their blood sugar rises near dawn even though they have not recently eaten. Testing your blood sugar at bedtime and during the night can help you and your doctor know more about Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

Impact Of Time Since Last Caloric Intake On Blood Glucose Levels

Impact Of Time Since Last Caloric Intake On Blood Glucose Levels

Go to: Introduction The measurement of blood glucose is a well established procedure routinely used for many clinical and research purposes. In epidemiological studies blood glucose is an often measured parameter be it as a risk factor, mediator or confounder. Measuring blood glucose requires standardized procedures to minimize variability and bias, both in terms of required analytical methods and biological variability. Blood glucose levels are influenced by external factors, like caloric intake resulting in an increase of blood glucose or metabolic demands like muscle activity resulting in a decline of blood glucose. In an attempt to obtain unbiased blood glucose measurements one of the routinely requested basic requirements for pre-analytical blood sampling is the fasting state. However the fasting state is not well defined, i.e. the WHO recommends an 8–14 h (h) fast [1], the American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines fasting as “no caloric intake for at least 8 h” [2] or “an overnight 8- to 10-h fast” [3]. Moreover, evidence-based recommendations for the definition of the duration of the fasting status are missing—perhaps one reason, why blood glucose measurements in epidemiological and clinical studies are carried out inconsistently with regard to fasting duration. Pre-analytical blood sampling schemes range from overnight fast, fasting duration between 8 h and >12 h, ≥12 h, random sampling to even no information at all. In the clinical as well as in the research environment, the required fasting status—however defined—is a challenging task. For clinicians and patients it would be much simpler if a blood sample could be taken at any time of the day, irrespective of the fasting duration. In studies, especially epidemiological studies, fasting requ Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Tweet Understanding blood glucose level ranges can be a key part of diabetes self-management. This page states 'normal' blood sugar ranges and blood sugar ranges for adults and children with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and blood sugar ranges to determine people with diabetes. If a person with diabetes has a meter, test strips and is testing, it's important to know what the blood glucose level means. Recommended blood glucose levels have a degree of interpretation for every individual and you should discuss this with your healthcare team. In addition, women may be set target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The following ranges are guidelines provided by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) but each individual’s target range should be agreed by their doctor or diabetic consultant. Recommended target blood glucose level ranges The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes. In addition, the International Diabetes Federation's target ranges for people without diabetes is stated. [19] [89] [90] The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for. NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges Target Levels by Type Upon waking Before meals (pre prandial) At least 90 minutes after meals (post prandial) Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy ind Continue reading >>

Nonfasting Glucose, Ischemic Heart Disease, And Myocardial Infarction

Nonfasting Glucose, Ischemic Heart Disease, And Myocardial Infarction

Go to: Abstract The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Elevated fasting plasma glucose levels associate with increased risk of IHD, but whether this is also true for nonfasting levels and whether this is a causal relationship is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 80,522 persons from Copenhagen, Denmark. Of those, IHD developed in 14,155, and MI developed in 6,257. Subjects were genotyped for variants in GCK (rs4607517), G6PC2 (rs560887), ADCY5 (rs11708067), DGKB (rs2191349), and ADRA2A (rs10885122) associated with elevated fasting glucose levels in genome-wide association studies. Results Risk of IHD and MI increased stepwise with increasing nonfasting glucose levels. The hazard ratio for IHD in subjects with nonfasting glucose levels ≥11 mmol/l (≥198 mg/dl) versus <5 mmol/l (<90 mg/dl) was 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2 to 11.2) adjusted for age and sex, and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3 to 4.2) adjusted multifactorially; corresponding values for MI were 9.2 (95% CI: 4.6 to 18.2) and 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1 to 11.2). Increasing number of glucose-increasing alleles was associated with increasing nonfasting glucose levels and with increased risk of IHD and MI. The estimated causal odds ratio for IHD and MI by instrumental variable analysis for a 1-mmol/l (18-mg/dl) increase in nonfasting glucose levels due to genotypes combined were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.52) and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.28 to 2.23), and the corresponding observed hazard ratio for IHD and MI by Cox regression was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.22) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.11), respectively. Like common nonfasting glucose elevation, plasma glucose-increasing polymorphisms Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes: Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age, who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes. Anyone older than age 45 is advised to receive an initial blood sugar screening, and then, if the results are normal, to be screened every three years thereafter. Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal. If the A1C test results aren't consistent, the test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar Continue reading >>

What Are “normal” Blood Sugar Levels?

What Are “normal” Blood Sugar Levels?

Physicians focus so much ondisease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What are Normal Blood Sugar Levels? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate.) Ranges of blood sugar for healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) * Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists: Pre-diabetes: (or impaired fasting glucose): fasting blood sugar 100–125 mg/dl (5.56–6.94 mmol/l) Pre-diabetes: (or impaired glucose tolerance): blood sugar 140–199 mg/dl (7.78–11.06 mmol/l) two hours after ingesting 75 grams of glucose Continue reading >>

Random Glucose Test

Random Glucose Test

Random glucose test ({aka} random blood glucose) is a [blood sugar] test taken from a non-[fasting] subject. This test, also called capillary blood glucose (CBG), assumes a recent [meal] and therefore has higher reference values than the fasting glucose test. Reference values[edit] The reference values for a "normal" random glucose test in an average adult are 79–160 mg/dl (4.4–7.8 mmol/l), between 160–200 mg/dl is considered pre-diabetes, and > 200 mg/dl is considered diabetes according to ADA guidelines (you should visit your doctor or a clinic for additional tests however as a random glucose of > 200 mg/dl does not necessarily mean you are diabetic).[citation needed] See also[edit] Blood glucose Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia External links[edit] Glucose Tests @ Lab Tests Online ADA page that hints at random glucose levels Continue reading >>

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Non-fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Non-fasting blood sugar levels are considered random readings where a person's levels should be no higher than 200 mg/dl, or it indicates type 2 diabetes. A fasting glucose level, on the other hand, should be no higher than 126. Further tests provide insight into how long it takes a person's blood sugar to spike and drop after eating. Warning Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include having close relatives with the condition, being over 45 years of age, being overweight, not exercising on a regular basis, and having gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Because symptoms can be mild for months or even years, type 2 often is initially indicated during a routine non-fasting blood test. Considerations Diabetes cannot be confirmed by non-fasting blood sugar levels, so physicians require fasting tests as well. Diabetes is suspected if the non-fasting level is higher than 200 mg/dl, especially if the patient also has symptoms of increased thirst and urination, along with fatigue. Even soon after eating, such high blood sugar numbers are considered unhealthy. The physician will advise the person to return for a fasting blood sugar test, which is performed after at least eight hours with no food. Identification A fasting blood sugar level indicates type 2 diabetes if the reading is higher than 126 on two separate days. Numbers between 100 and 126 are considered impaired, or pre-diabetes, where a person can more easily return to normal levels through diet changes and exercise. Types A glucose tolerance test is another type of non-fasting blood sugar diagnostic procedure. The patient typically drinks water with a specific amount of glucose added, and then a health care professional determines how long it takes the blood sugar level to peak and return to normal. Levels should drop Continue reading >>

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