Glucose Galactose Disaccharide

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In this video I discuss the what are carbohydrates and the types of carbohydrates. The pros and cons to each type, and the best carbs to eat. Transcript Types of carbs So, what are the different types of carbohydrates? The answer to this question depends on who you ask. Some common classifications would be healthy and unhealthy, good and bad, slow and fast. In this video I am going to classify them as simple, complex and fibrous. Before we get into those classifications, we need to look at molecules. I know, fun stuff, but it will help you understand better. A monosaccharide is a single molecule, such as fructose, which is found in fruit. A disaccharide consists of 2 monosaccharide molecules, such as sucrose or table sugar. And a polysaccharide consists of many monosaccharide molecules, such as in whole grain pasta. Now that we have that out of the way, lets look at simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are made up of mono and disaccharides, 1 or 2 molecules. Some foods include, fruits, milk, and foods with high amounts of added sugars. Typically simple carbohydrates are easily absorbed into the bloodstream because of their simple molecular structure. However, when you obtain simple carbohydrates from whole foods, they are usually combined with vitamins, minerals and fiber, which slows down the digestive process. Now, lets look at complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are composed of polysaccharides, so, because of their more complex molecular structure, they can take longer for the body to break down and digest, like whole grains and vegetables. However, some complex carbohydrate foods have been processed, which strips them of some of their natural, high fiber content as well as vitamins and minerals, so they are digested faster and more easily. So, with both simple and complex carbohydrates I have mentioned fast and slow digestion. Why is that important? 3 reasons, #1 is it is going to make you feel fuller longer, rapid digestion means hunger returns quicker which leads to more consumption. #2, typically slower digested foods cause lower blood level spikes, and #3, slower, longer digestion means the body is using more energy over a longer period of time to break down the food, which is an increase or boost in metabolism. Next up is fiber. Fiber is parts of plants that cant be digested. I have a separate video that looks deeper into fiber that I will link in the little I in the upper right-hand corner of your screen. Bottom line. So, the question is what type of carbohydrates should you eat. That is actually very easy to answer. All 3 types. Don’t focus on the types, instead, focus on Carbohydrates that have been minimally processed, like whole grain pasta, and whole wheat bread, also Fruits and vegetables that contain fiber, vitamins and minerals. And of course anything from dairy queen. Ah, just joking with ya folks. Seriously though, minimize the consumption of the processed foods, if you can eliminated them great, if not, its about moderation. Its ok to eat the foods you love, you just have to do it in moderation. Other sources... http://www.builtlean.com/2012/05/17/c... http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/healt... http://www.livestrong.com/article/133...


Carbohydrate Molecules Carbohydrates are essential macromolecules that are classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Learning Objectives Describe the structure of mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides Key Takeaways Key Points Monosaccharides are simple sugars made up of three to seven carbons, and they can exist as a linear chain or as ring-shaped molecules. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are monosaccharide isomers, which means they all have the same chemical formula but differ structurally and chemically. Disaccharides form when two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction (a condensation reaction); they are held together by a covalent bond. Sucrose (table sugar) is the most common disaccharide, which is composed of the monomers glucose and fructose. A polysaccharide is a long chain of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds; the chain may be branched or unbranched and can contain many types of monosaccharides. Key Terms isomer: Any of two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but with different structure. dehydration reaction: A chemical reaction in which two molecules are covalently linked in a reaction that generates Continue reading >>

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  1. mintchip

    I understand that a normal reading is under 100, so my fasting reading of 102 is slightly elevated. Does this mean that I'm officially prediabetic?
    My doctor's approach is to just "keep an eye on it and test it next year." Does this sound correct? Is there anything else I could or should do to monitor my blood sugar or change my diet?
    I am a normal weight and exercise regularly. I do have a family history of diabetes but no one in my family ever developed it at such a young age.

  2. Gridlock Joe

    Two points is a negligible difference. Don't worry about it.

  3. paulsc

    "... I do have a family history of diabetes but no one in my family ever developed it at such a young age."
    posted by mintchip to health & fitness
    Welcome to the wonderful world of 21st century gene patrol. I think your doctor's general advice is sound, given your current number and physical shape. With your family history, you have to keep checking your blood sugar level, and keep your weight and diet under reasonable control. Otherwise, live life (with some nod to moderation in all things), and enjoy, and be prepared to do more, when you need to do more.

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There are four types of chemical bonds essential for life to exist: Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and van der Waals interactions. We need all of these different kinds of bonds to play various roles in biochemical interactions. These bonds vary in their strengths. In Chemistry, we think of Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds as having an overlapping range of strengths. But remember, in biochemistry, everything is happening in the context of water. This means Ionic bonds tend to dissociate in water. Thus, we will think of these bonds in the following order (strongest to weakest): Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen, and van der Waals. Also note that in Chemistry, the weakest bonds are more commonly referred to as dispersion forces. Related Chemistry video: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds http://bit.ly/2cUG6C8 Our series on Biology is aimed at the first-year college level, including pre-med students. These videos should also be helpful for students in challenging high school biology courses. Perfect for preparing for the AP Biology exam or the Biology SAT. Also appropriate for advanced homeschoolers. You can also follow along if you are just curious, and would like to know more about this fascinating subject. ***** Our current biology textbook recommendation is Campbell Biology from Pearson. 10th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2mahQTi 11th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2m7xU6w Amazon Used Textbooks - Save up to 90% http://amzn.to/2pllk4B For lighter reading, we recommend: I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life by Ed Yong http://amzn.to/2pLOddQ Lab Girl by Hope Jahren http://amzn.to/2oMolPg ***** This video was made possible by the generous donations of our Patrons on Patreon. We dedicate this video to our VIP Patron, Vishal Shah. Were so thankful for your support! ***** Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! If you'd like to support more great educational videos from Socratica, please consider becoming our Patron on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/socratica ***** Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time, accepting a position at an exclusive prep school, where she taught biology and chemistry for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. ****** Creative Commons Picture Credits: Salt crystals https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ha... Author: W.J. Pilsak Hydrogen Bonding in water https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3D... Author: Qwerter Products in this video: Preparing for the Biology AP* Exam (School Edition) (Pearson Education Test Prep) - http://amzn.to/2qJVbxm Cracking the AP Biology Exam, 2017 Edition: Proven Techniques to Help You Score a 5 (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qB3NsZ Cracking the SAT Biology E/M Subject Test, 15th Edition (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qJIfHN

Disaccharides And Glycosidic Bonds

Monosaccharides such as glucose can be linked together in condensation reactions. For example, sucrose (table sugar) is formed from one molecule of glucose and one of fructose, as shown below. Molecules composed of two monosaccharides are called disaccharides. Click on the step numbers to see the steps in the formation of sucrose. Click on the mouse icon at left to clear the steps to see them again. First, two monosaccharides are brought together such that two hydroxyl groups are close to each other. Note that the glucose half of sucrose has the configuration at C1. Glycosidic bonds are labeled or depending on the anomeric configuration of the C1 involved in the glycosidic bond. Maltose, which links two glucose molecules, has an glycosidic bond like sucrose. Lactose, the primary sugar in milk, links glucose and galactose in a glycosidic bond instead. Can glycosidic bonds only be formed between C1 and C4, as in sucrose, maltose, and lactose? Glycosidic bonds can also be formed between other carbons of monosaccharides. For example, several polymers of glucose involve glycosidic bonds between C1 and C6 in addition to bonds between C1 and C4. This fact makes polymers of monosaccharide Continue reading >>

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  1. Artie727

    Just found this forum. Been on high doses of metaformin for the past month, blood sugar gets as high as 441 for no apparent reason. Went to a new Dr. yesterday, he perscribed more metaformin and glipizide. Today 2 hrs. after a small breakfast of cornflakes blood sugar still in the 400's. Is it possible that with type 2 diabetes I could have ketoacidosis. Is there a self test available through a pharmacy w/o a presciption? Dr did take blood for lab work but he didn't tell me what for. results should be in tomorrow or friday.
    Look forward to participating with you guys and gals.
    Artie Perilloux

  2. rosequartz

    you can buy test strips at the pharmacy to test for ketones

  3. Cora1003

    Hi Artie. If your sugars continue to be so high, you need to see the doc, or if you remain in the 300s or 400s, go to the ER. Has your doctor checked you for type 1? It is always a possibility no matter what your age. In that case, the oral meds will not help and you will need insulin.
    Welcome, feel free to ask lots of questions, and keep us posted. Don't forget that it can take 6 weeks to 2 months to get the full effect of the oral meds. Have you significantly cut carbs out of your diet? Cornflakes are very refined carbs. If you are going to go carby for breakfast, you should at least stick with something that contains a lot of fiber to lower the spike in blood sugar.

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Monosaccharide examples are glucose, fructose and galactose Disaccharide examples are maltose, lactose and sucrose Polysaccharide examples are starch, glycogen and cellulose

Principles Of Biochemistry/the Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides And Polysaccharides

Principles of Biochemistry/The Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Earlier the name "carbohydrate" was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm(H2O)n. Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde CH2O to be the simplest carbohydrate, while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde. Today the term is generally understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons. Natural saccharides are generally built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more. A typical monosaccharide has the structure H-(CHOH)x(C=O)-(CHOH)y-H, that is, an aldehyde or ketone with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group . Examples of monosaccharides are glucose , fructose, and glyceraldehyde. However, some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula (e.g., uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose ), and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not considered to Continue reading >>

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  1. jeffrey9127

    Meter Accuracy

    Over the last few weeks I have noticed BS readings in the 90's to low 120's when I test my Blood. At first I thought I must be doing something right, but now I am wondering if my Glucose meter is working properly. Do glucose meters last only so long? Do they become less accurate within so many months? Should I have a backup meter to compare results? My meter is a One Touch Ultra mini that I have been using four about 4 months.
    Thank you

  2. nascarnurse68

    I am recently diagnosed May 2010. My contour meter has been reading about 20 points lower than usual the last 3 days so today I decided to pull out the reli on meter (I am switching, my insurance doesn't cover the strips) I just bought and a one touch my doctor gave me. Anyway I tested the same drop of blood on all three meter and the reli on and the one touch said 120 and 121 but the contour said 87. I did it again and got about the same. I did a control solution test on the contour and it came out ok. What is up with this. Are meter this inaccurate. This is a big concern for me. Has anyone else had this happen.

  3. Breezey

    Hi..I am new here too..and to Diabetes..I have type 2… sometimes I have to test two strips to get an accurate reading..I use the Freestyle Freedom Lite. I seem to know that a reading of 21 is NOT what it should be two hours after eating! Does anyone else have this meter? I test two times a day. two hours after breakfast, and two hours after supper. I am also trying to lose weight. I am so happy to be here!

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