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Glucose Function

Blood Sugar Or Blood Glucose: What Does It Do?

Blood Sugar Or Blood Glucose: What Does It Do?

Blood sugar, or blood glucose, is sugar that the bloodstream carries to all the cells in the body to supply energy. Blood sugar or blood glucose measurements represent the amount of sugar being transported in the blood during one instant. The sugar comes from the food we eat. The human body regulates blood glucose levels so that they are neither too high nor too low. The blood's internal environment must remain stable for the body to function. This balance is known as homeostasis. The sugar in the blood is not the same as sucrose, the sugar in the sugar bowl. There are different kinds of sugar. Sugar in the blood is known as glucose. Blood glucose levels change throughout the day. After eating, levels rise and then settle down after about an hour. They are at their lowest point before the first meal of the day, which is normally breakfast. How does sugar get into the body's cells? When we eat carbohydrates, such as sugar, or sucrose, our body digests it into glucose, a simple sugar that can easily convert to energy. The human digestive system breaks down carbohydrates from food into various sugar molecules. One of these sugars is glucose, the body's main source of energy. The glucose goes straight from the digestive system into the bloodstream after food is consumed and digested. But glucose can only enter cells if there is insulin in the bloodstream too. Without insulin, the cells would starve. After we eat, blood sugar concentrations rise. The pancreas releases insulin automatically so that the glucose enters cells. As more and more cells receive glucose, blood sugar levels return to normal again. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen, or stored glucose, in the liver and the muscles. Glycogen plays an important role in homeostasis, because it helps our body function du Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose (sugar In The Blood) And What Purpose Does It Serve?

What Is Glucose (sugar In The Blood) And What Purpose Does It Serve?

Question: What is glucose (sugar in the blood) and what purpose does it serve? Answer: Glucose, or commonly called sugar, is an important energy source that is needed by all the cells and organs of our bodies. Some examples are our muscles and our brain. Glucose or sugar comes from the food we eat. Carbohydrates such as fruit, bread pasta and cereals are common sources of glucose. These foods are broken down into sugar in our stomachs, and then absorbed into the bloodstream. Normal glucose levels are typically less than 100 milligrams per deciliter, in the morning, when you first wake up, or before eating. We call this the fasting blood glucose or the sugar level. Normal glucose levels 1 to 2 hours after eating are typically less than 140. Next: What Causes High Blood Sugar And What Harm Can It Do To My Body? Continue reading >>

Role Of Glucose Update And Metabolism In Blood Clotting Uncovered

Role Of Glucose Update And Metabolism In Blood Clotting Uncovered

With E. Dale Abel, MD, PhD, and Elena Christofides, MD Metabolism of glucose plays a critical role in the production, activation, and clearance of platelets according to a recent study published in Cell Reports. 1 These results suggest mechanisms by which people with diabetes are at increased risk of developing thrombosis. Patients with diabetes experience increased risk of thrombosis due to a variety of factors. Thrombosis occurs because either a platelet becomes activated because of events happening in the platelet or events happening in the blood vessel wall. In addition to the changes in glucose metabolism in platelets that we describe in this work, other changes in diabetes potentially might impact the platelet, such as increased inflammatory cytokines, increased levels of certain lipids and fatty acids, E. Dale Abel, MD, PhD, professor of internal medicine and director of the Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in Iowa City, told EndocrineWeb. Platelets are anucleated cellular fragments of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow that bud off and enter circulation. Under normal function, they stop bleeding by aggregating and clotting at vessel injuries. Researchers used a mouse model to eliminate glucose transporters on platelets. Platelet counts were lower and platelets had shorter lifespans in mice in which the platelets transporters were eliminated. Researchers knocked out glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT3, in combination and alone, on platelets to assess differences in formation, metabolism, and clearance of platelets. The result was lower platelet counts and platelets that relied on mitochondrial metabolism of substrates such as glutamate, particularly in the combined knockouts. This study sho Continue reading >>

Review Sugar For The Brain: The Role Of Glucose In Physiological And Pathological Brain Function

Review Sugar For The Brain: The Role Of Glucose In Physiological And Pathological Brain Function

Highlights • We provide a comprehensive overview of the role of glucose metabolism in normal brain function. • We analyze the contribution of glucose metabolism to brain physiology. • We discuss controversies in energy substrate consumption and utilization. • We highlight the connection between glucose metabolism and cell death. • We review the pathophysiological consequences of balanced and disturbed glucose metabolism. The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We synthesize these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation that lead to disease. Continue reading >>

What Is The Role Of Glucose In The Body?

What Is The Role Of Glucose In The Body?

Carbohydrates such as glucose are important parts of our diet. Glucose acts as an energy source, a fuel which powers cellular machinery. It also provides structural benefits to cells which produce special molecules called glycoproteins. Glucose Features Glucose is a six-carbon sugar molecule which is highly polar and easily dissolves in water. This hexose molecule can be found in L and D conformations, but our body only recognizes D-glucose. Energy Role Glucose is the main energy source for body cells. When cells take glucose from the bloodstream, the sugar molecule is broken down through the process of glycolysis, which converts the hexose into pyruvate. Pyruvate can be metabolized further in the citric acid cycle. Glycosylation Role According to Essentials of Glycobiology, glucose plays a structural role with its inclusion in carbohydrate additions to proteins. These carbohydrate groups play important roles involving enzyme functions and binding. Glucose Shortages Although most body cells can utilize fats for energy in a pinch, brain cells and red blood cells rely almost completely on glucose to fulfill their energy needs. Even short periods of glucose shortages can kill these types of cells. Normal Dietary Requirements Our bodies can adapt to a wide range of dietary carbohydrate intake, but Human Anatomy and Physiology states that the general recommendation is 125 to 175 grams per day. A majority of this amount should be complex carbohydrates (grains and vegetables) as opposed to simple sugars such as candy. Continue reading >>

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

There are many types of sugars, which are the simplest type of carbohydrate. While too much dietary sugar poses a number of health risks, the simple sugar glucose serves a critical role in the human body. Glucose serves a primary fuel to generate energy that the body's cells use to carry out their metabolic and biological functions. Glucose is particularly important for the brain, red blood cells and muscle cells during exercise. Video of the Day Biological Fuel Source The primary function of glucose is to serve as a biological fuel source for the body. All cells of the body are capable of using glucose to generate energy. Through a series of complex biochemical reactions, the breakdown of glucose yields high-energy molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP molecules then provide the energy to drive the cellular activities that ultimately keep the body functioning. While many types of body cells can use nutrients other than glucose to generate energy, some rely exclusively or almost exclusively on glucose. Brain and nerve cells normally rely exclusively on glucose as their fuel source. The brain is a relatively large organ with high metabolic rate. A typical adult brain utilizes roughly 120 grams of glucose each day. Because brain cells cannot store glucose, a constant supply must be provided from the blood stream. During periods of prolonged starvation, the brain can switch to using breakdown product of fats (ketones) for fuel. Mature red blood cells also rely exclusively on glucose for fuel because these cells lack the internal machinery to generate energy from any other nutrient source. Other cells that rely almost exclusively on glucose to generate high-energy ATP molecules include: the lens of the eye some retinal cells (the vision-sensing tissue at the ba Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>

Glucose Metabolism

Glucose Metabolism

Energy is required for the normal functioning of the organs in the body. Many tissues can also use fat or protein as an energy source but others, such as the brain and red blood cells, can only use glucose. Glucose is stored in the body as glycogen. The liver is an important storage site for glycogen. Glycogen is mobilized and converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis when the blood glucose concentration is low. Glucose may also be produced from non-carbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol, by gluconeogenesis. It is gluconeogenesis that maintains blood glucose concentrations, for example during starvation and intense exercise. The endocrine pancreas The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions. The endocrine tissue is grouped together in the islets of Langerhans and consists of four different cell types each with its own function. Alpha cells produce glucagon. Beta cells produce proinsulin. Proinsulin is the inactive form of insulin that is converted to insulin in the circulation. Delta cells produce somatostatin. F or PP cells produce pancreatic polypeptide. Regulation of insulin secretion Insulin secretion is increased by elevated blood glucose concentrations, gastrointestinal hormones and Beta adrenergic stimulation. Insulin secretion is inhibited by catecholamines and somatostatin. The role of insulin and glucagon in glucose metabolism Insulin and glucagon work synergistically to keep blood glucose concentrations normal. Insulin: An elevated blood glucose concentration results in the secretion of insulin: glucose is transported into body cells. The uptake of glucose by liver, kidney and brain cells is by diffusion and does not require insulin. Click on the thumbnail for details of the effect of insulin: Glucagon: The effects of glu Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose, also called dextrose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Glucose (from Greek glykys; “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of energy in cell function, and the regulation of its metabolism is of great importance (see fermentation; gluconeogenesis). Molecules of starch, the major energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants, consist of thousands of linear glucose units. Another major compound composed of glucose is cellulose, which is also linear. Dextrose is the molecule d-glucose. A related molecule in animals is glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate in most vertebrate and invertebrate animal cells, as well as those of numerous fungi and protozoans. See also polysaccharide. Continue reading >>

The Link Between Blood Glucose And Cognitive Function

The Link Between Blood Glucose And Cognitive Function

The Link Between Blood Glucose and Cognitive Function It has long been established that having diabetes raises your risk for dementia (impaired mental functioning) as you age. As weve covered here at DiabetesSelfManagement.com, previous studies have found that both diabetes and depression , as well as having diabetes complications , can raise this risk. But a recent study has discovered something new and striking. Using several different methods for cognitive assessment, the researchers found that higher blood glucose levels predict greater cognitive decline in the future even if your levels arent high enough yet to constitute diabetes. Published in January 2018 in the journal Diabetologia, the study included over 5,000 participants, with an average age of 66, who took part in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) in the United Kingdom. Cognitive function was first assessed in 2004 or 2005, then every two years until 2014 or 2015. A few different tests were used to assess cognitive function. To test their memory, participants were tested on immediate and delayed recall of 10 different unrelated words. Executive function was measured by having participants name as many animals as they could in a minute, and orientation was measured by questions about the year, month, date, and day of week. Initial HbA1c levels (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) of participants ranged from 3.6% to 13.7% from normal to very high blood glucose levels. Compared with participants with normal HbA1c levels, those with prediabetes (an HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4%) and diabetes (HbA1c of 6.5% or above) experienced greater cognitive decline, in proportion to their HbA1c level. This was true after controlling for a number of factors, including age, sex, body-mass index ( Continue reading >>

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem. In this Article Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose...it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose?

What Is Glucose?

Glucose comes from the Greek word for "sweet." It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood glucose or blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels in their blood. Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should. High blood glucose for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs. How Your Body Makes Glucose It mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. It goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get to your cells. Energy and Storage Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles Continue reading >>

Sugar And The Brain

Sugar And The Brain

Glucose, a form of sugar, is the primary source of energy for every cell in the body. Because the brain is so rich in nerve cells, or neurons, it is the most energy-demanding organ, using one-half of all the sugar energy in the body. Brain functions such as thinking, memory, and learning are closely linked to glucose levels and how efficiently the brain uses this fuel source. If there isn’t enough glucose in the brain, for example, neurotransmitters, the brain’s chemical messengers, are not produced and communication between neurons breaks down. In addition, hypoglycemia, a common complication of diabetes caused by low glucose levels in the blood, can lead to loss of energy for brain function and is linked to poor attention and cognitive function. “The brain is dependent on sugar as its main fuel,” says Vera Novak, MD, PhD, an HMS associate professor of medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. “It cannot be without it.” Although the brain needs glucose, too much of this energy source can be a bad thing. A 2012 study in animals by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles indicated a positive relationship between the consumption of fructose, another form of sugar, and the aging of cells, while a 2009 study, also using an animal model, conducted by a team of scientists at the University of Montreal and Boston College, linked excess glucose consumption to memory and cognitive deficiencies. The effects of glucose and other forms of sugar on the brain may be the most profound in diabetes, a group of diseases in which high blood glucose levels persist over a prolonged period of time. Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone used by the body to keep blood glu Continue reading >>

Glucose, Insulin & Pancreas Function

Glucose, Insulin & Pancreas Function

In a healthy person Normally, the pancreas makes enough insulin to keep the supply and use of glucose in balance. When the blood contains enough insulin, the liver temporarily shuts down its production of glucose, and glucose is transported from the blood into your cells. Cells use some of the glucose immediately. Most of the remainder is converted to a substance called glycogen in the liver and muscles, where it is stored for future use. The body's ability to store glycogen is limited, and any excess glucose that does not get stored as glycogen is converted to triglycerides and stored in adipose (fat) tissue. Pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans continuously monitor blood glucose levels. After a meal, the carbohydrates you eat are digested and broken down into glucose and other sugars, which pass into the bloodstream. As your blood glucose levels rise, beta cells in the pancreas respond by secreting insulin into the blood. Glucose then passes into your cells and the liver shuts down glucose production. Between meals, insulin also prevents excessive release of glucose from the liver into the bloodstream. If blood glucose levels drop too low between meals, alpha cells in the pancreas release a hormone called glucagon. This hormone signals the liver to convert amino acids and glycogen into glucose that is sent into the blood. In a person with diabetes In diabetes, this glucose balancing system is disrupted, either because too little insulin is produced or because the body's cells do not respond to insulin normally (a condition called insulin resistance). The result is an unhealthy rise in blood glucose levels. If diabetes is left untreated, the two principal dangers are the immediate results of high blood glucose levels (which include excessive urination, dehydrat Continue reading >>

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