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Metabolic Engineering Of Escherichia Coli To Optimize Melanin Synthesis From Glucose

Abstract Background Natural aromatic polymers, mainly melanins, have potential and current applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The biotechnological production of this class of compounds is based on tyrosinase-dependent conversion of L-tyrosine and other aromatic substrates into melanins. The purpose of this work was to apply metabolic engineering for generating Escherichia coli strains with the capacity to synthesize an aromatic polymer from a simple carbon source. The strategy was based on the expression in E. coli of the MutmelA gene from Rhizobium etli, encoding an improved mutant tyrosinase. To direct the carbon flow from central metabolism into the common aromatic and the L-tyrosine biosynthetic pathways, feedback inhibition resistant versions of key enzymes were expressed in strains lacking the sugar phosphotransferase system and TyrR repressor. The expressed tyrosinase consumed intracellular L-tyrosine, thus causing growth impairment in the engineered strains. To avoid this issue, a two phase production process was devised, where tyrosinase activity was controlled by the delayed addition of the cofactor Cu. Following this procedure, 3.22 g/L Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. funkydiva77

    What is a 'normal' fasting glucose reading?

    Im new and yet to be diagnosed but I have been trying to find out the 'normal' fasting blood glucose reading. I have been researching on the internet and I have found conflicting information.
    One site says that normal is 70-99 mg/dL (3.8-5.5 mmol/L)
    Impaired test - From 100-125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L)
    Another site says that normal is from 70-110 mg/dL (3.8-6.1 mmol/L)
    I used a home meter and it says my fasting blood glucose reading is 100 mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) so that means one site says im normal the other says the reading is impaired???
    Hmmmm Confused!!

  2. trinitarian3n1

    You'll find that there is a broad range of "normal" targets given. The 70-110 was an older standard for normal fasting blood glucose, now, since more research is demonstrating that tighter targets usually translate into fewer complications, the 70-99 is getting adopted as the "normal" standard.
    The Joint Commission, a US organization that accredits hospitals, had us change the standards at our hospital several years ago to the 70-99 range.

  3. Achilles

    A 108 mg/dL would be considered "pre-diabetic". The pre-diabetic range is from 100 - 125 mg/dL for a fasting blood glucose test.
    I would definitely make an appointment with the doctor and get some official blood work done. If you are indeed pre-diabetic, you may have caught this early enough to make some lifestyle changes to minimize the potential of getting full blown diabetes.
    *edit to correct typo*

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