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Explain Why Living Things Need Both Glucose And Atp.

Science Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Science Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

"burns" glucose for energy; It uses the energy that is released to form molecules of ATP. Heterotroph; consume other heterotrophs and autotrophs consists of organic molecules that store energy in their chemical bonds is a simple carbohydrate; stores chemical energy in a concentrated, stable form living things that cannot make their own food the process of using the energy in sunlight to make food Autotrophs;produce food for themselves and other organisms Define energy, and state where living things get the energy they need. Energy is the ability to do work. Food is where organisms get the energy they need to carry out life processes. An autotroph is an organism that can make its own food using photosynthesis; algae Photosynthesis uses the energy in sunlight to convert energy into the food the plant needs Heterotrophs obtain food by consuming other organisms. ATP and glucose are both molecules that organisms use for energy. They are like the tank of a tanker truck that delivers gas to a gas station and the gas tank that holds the fuel for a car. Which molecule is like the tank of the delivery truck, and which is like the gas tank of the car? Explain your answer. Glucose is the tank of tanker truck because without it there would be no ATP. ATP is the gas tank because it is made up of the energy that body uses just like the gas tank holds gas for the car to move. Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Why are the processes like two sides of the same coin? Photosynthesis makes energy while cellular respiration burns energy. Both go hand in hand in life processes; the products of one process are the reactants of the other Explain why living things need both glucose and ATP. All things need glucose because it is stable to transport but it is also to po Continue reading >>

Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

This requires energy, and one way of providing this is from the oxidation of glucose which is an exergonic reaction. There are two reasons why energy from the oxidation of glucose is not used directly to drive chemical reactions in the cell: the hydrolysis of ATP releases small amounts of energy compared to the oxidation of glucose, and in a controlled way energy is released instantaneously from the hydrolysis of ATP, but the oxidation of glucose takes time The types of chemical reactions called oxidation and reduction lie at the heart of respiration. They always occur together - one substance is oxidised as another is reduced. We often use the term redox reactions to describe this. There are two useful ways of thinking about redox reactions. One is that oxidation is the addition of oxygen and reduction is the removal of oxygen from a substance. For example: 6CO2 + 6H2O (oxidation of glucose). However, a more useful definition is in terms of electron transfer: Oxidation is the removal of electrons, e.g. Fe2+ Reduction is the addition of electrons, e.g. Fe3+ + e- A chemical that supplies electrons is called a reducing agent (or a reductant), and a chemical that accepts electrons is called an oxidising agent (or an oxidant). Aerobic respiration may be represented by the general equation About 3000 kJ mol-1 of energy is released. Burning glucose in air would release this amount of energy in one go. However, it is not as simple as this in aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a series of enzyme-controlled reactions that release the energy stored up in carbohydrates and lipids during photosynthesis and make it available to living organisms. This is a complicated cycle. It may be summarised: Citrate (a six-carbon molecule) forms when an acetyl CoA molecule combines wit Continue reading >>

All Of The Information In These Notes

All Of The Information In These Notes

Cellular respiration is the enzymatic breakdown of glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen (O2) to produce cellular energy (ATP): 1. Glycolysis: (Fig. 18-2) a ten-step process that occurs in the cytoplasm converts each molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon molecule) an anaerobic process - proceeds whether or not O2 is present ; O2 is not required net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule net yield of 2 NADH per glucose (NADH is nicotine adenine dinucleotide, a co-enzyme that serves as a carrier for H+ ions liberated as glucose is oxidized.) The pyruvic acid diffuses into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion where a transition reaction (Fig. 18-3) occurs that serves to prepare pyruvic acid for entry into the next stage of respiration: (a) pyruvic acid ® acetic acid + CO2 (a waste product of cell metabolism) + NADH+ (b) acetic acid + co-enzyme A ® acetyl CoA 2. Citric Acid or TCA Cycle:(Fig. 18-3) occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix the acetyl group detaches from the co-enzyme A and enters the reaction cycle an aerobic process; will proceed only in the presence of O2 net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule (per 2 acetyl CoA) net yield of 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 (FAD serves the same purpose as NAD) in this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation of glucose to CO2 is completed 3. Electron Transport System: consists of a series of enzymes on the inner mitochondrial membrane electrons are released from NADH and from FADH2 and as they are passed along the series of enzymes, they give up energy which is used to fuel a process called chemiosmosis by which H+ ions are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the outer mitochondrial compartment. The H+ ions then flow back through special pores in the membrane, a pr Continue reading >>

All You Need To Know About Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration

All You Need To Know About Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration

All You Need to Know About Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are linked to each other. It is important to understand the differences between the two. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the life processes performed by most living organisms to obtain usable energy from nature. While photosynthesis is performed by most plants which can prepare their own food, most animals fulfill their energy requirements through cellular respiration. Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy, so as to create energy-rich carbohydrate molecules like glucose. Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down food molecules to obtain energy and store it in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. Plant cells, after creating sugar molecules through photosynthesis, undergo cellular respiration to create ATP molecules. Animals obtain food molecules from plants and other organisms, and then undergo cellular respiration to obtain ATP molecules. All living organisms utilize these stored ATP molecules to carry out their metabolic processes. Photosynthesis takes place in the cells of plant leaves. It occurs in structures called chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll. The plant cells absorb light from the sun through the pigment chlorophyll, and using water and carbon dioxide obtained from the environment. They undergo a series of chemical reactions to produce carbohydrate molecules. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight Glucose + Oxygen This is the first stage of the photosynthetic process. These reactions take place in the presence of sunlight, and use light energy from the sun to produce ATP molecules and other molecules known as NADPH. These molecules Continue reading >>

How Do Organisms Generate Energy?

How Do Organisms Generate Energy?

Enzymes of Glycolysis Yeast 20, J.A. Barnett, A history of research on yeast 6: the main respiratory pathway, 1015-44 (2003). All cells need energy, which they get through ATP, an inherently unstable molecule that must continually be produced. Though ATP can be produced in different ways, nearly all living cells can harness ATP through glycolysis, the stepwise degradation of glucose, and other sugars, obtained from the breakdown of carbohydrates without the need for molecular oxygen (anaerobic). Glycolysis is an ancient, universal pathway that probably developed before there was sufficient oxygen in the atmosphere to sustain more effective methods of energy extraction. When aerobic organisms evolved, they simply added more efficient energy extraction pathways onto glycolysis, breaking down the end products from glycolysis (pyruvate) still further through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, aerobic cells can still rely predominantly on glycolysis when oxygen is limiting, such as in hard working muscle cells where glycolysis ends in the production of lactate, causing muscle fatigue. The aerobic and anaerobic processes are kept separate in eukaryotic cells, with glycolysis occurring in the cytoplasm, and the aerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle occurring in the mitochondria. Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose is broken down in ten steps to two molecules of pyruvate, which then enters the mitochondria where it is oxidised through the tricarboxylic acid cycle to carbon dioxide and water. Glycolysis can be split into two phases, both of which occur in the cytosol. Phase I involves splitting glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) at the expense of 2 ATP molecules, but allows the subsequent energy-producing reactions to be doubled up with a higher net gain Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration:

Cellular Respiration:

Or, How one good meal provides energy for the work of 75 trillion cells February 16-18, 2004 Every living thing is a sort of imperialist, seeking to transform as much as possible of its environment into itself... -- Bertrand Russell I. Cellular Respiration: breaking down sugar in the presence of oxygen (aerobic). Photosynthesis (you recall...) is the process by which CO2 and H2O are used to make sugars and starches. During Cellular Respiration, sugar is broken down to CO2 and H2O, and in the process, ATP is made that can then be used for cellular work. The overall reaction for cellular respiration: (does this reaction look familiar? Overall, it is the reverse reaction of photosynthesis, but chemically, the steps involved are very different.) C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------------------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP Whereas only photosynthetic cells can make sugar using photosynthesis, ALL cells need to be able to break down sugars they take in from their environment and turn it into energy to be used in cellular work.... II. Cellular respiration can be broken down into 4 stages: Essentially, sugar (C6H12O6) is burned, or oxidized, down to CO2 and H2O, releasing energy (ATP) in the process. Why do cells need ATP? ALL cellular work -all the activities of life - requires energy, either from ATP or from related molecules. A lot of oxygen is required for this process! The sugar AND the oxygen are delivered to your cells via your bloodstream. This process occurs partially in the cytoplasm, and partially in the mitochondria. The mitochondria is another organelle in eukaryotic cells. like the chloroplast, the mitochondria has two lipid bilayers around it, and its own genome (indicating that it may be the result of endosymbiosis long ago). In some ways similar to the chloroplast, the mitochondria Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis article provided by Encarta Encyclopedia 2000 INTRODUCTION Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose. In so doing, photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms. An extremely important byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen, on which most organisms depend. Photosynthesis occurs in green plants, seaweeds, algae, and certain bacteria. These organisms are veritable sugar factories, producing millions of new glucose molecules per second. Plants use much of this glucose, a carbohydrate, as an energy source to build leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. They also convert glucose to cellulose, the structural material used in their cell walls. Most plants produce more glucose than they use, however, and they store it in the form of starch and other carbohydrates in roots, stems, and leaves. The plants can then draw on these reserves for extra energy or building materials. Each year, photosynthesizing organisms produce about 170 billion metric tons of extra carbohydrates, about 30 metric tons for every person on earth. Photosynthesis has far-reaching implications. Like plants, humans and other animals depend on glucose as an energy source, but they are unable to produce it on their own and must rely ultimately on the glucose produced by plants. Moreover, the oxygen humans and other animals breathe is the oxygen released during photosynthesis. Humans are also dependent on ancient products of photosynthesis, known as fossil fuels, for supplying most of our modern industrial energy. These fossil fuels, including natural gas, coal, and petroleum, are composed of a complex mix of hydrocarbons, the remains of organisms that Continue reading >>

How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?

How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?

How are respiration and photosynthesis related? Question Date: 2002-09-07 Answer 1: During photosynthesis, a plant is able to convert solar energy into a chemical form. It does this by capturing light coming from the sun and, through a series of reactions, using its energy to help build a sugar molecule called glucose. Glucose is made of six carbon atoms, six oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms. When the plant makes the glucose molecule, it gets the carbon and oxygen atoms it needs from carbon dioxide, which it takes from the air. Carbon dioxide doesn't have any hydrogen in it, though, so the plant must use another source for hydrogen. The source that it uses is water. There is a lot of water on the earth, and every water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In order to take the hydrogen it needs to build glucose molecules, the plant uses the energy from the sun to break the water molecule apart, taking electrons and hydrogen from it and releasing the oxygen into the air. The electrons it takes are put into an electron transport system, where they are used to produce energy molecules called ATP that are used to build the glucose molecule-- all made possible by the sun's energy. Thus, during photosynthesis a plant consumes water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, and produces glucose and oxygen. The sugar glucose is important because it is necessary for cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, the chemical energy in the glucose molecule is converted into a form that the plant can use for growth and reproduction. In the first step of respiration, called glycolysis, the glucose molecule is broken down into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and a little energy is released in the form of ATP. This step in respiration does not req Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis And Respiration

Photosynthesis And Respiration

The relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration is such that the products of one system are the reactants of the other. Photosynthesis involves the use of energy from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. Cellular respiration uses glucose and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. To emphasize this point even more, the equation forphotosynthesis is the opposite ofcellular respiration. Humans, animals and plants depend on the cycle of cellular respiration and photosynthesis for survival. The oxygen produced by plants during photosynthesis is what humans and animals inhale for the blood to transport to the cells for respiration. The carbon dioxide produced during respiration is released from the body and absorbed by plants to help provide the energy they need for growth and development. This is the never ending cycle that sustains life on earth. The process of photosynthesis is used by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to produce energy, whereas the process of cellular respiration breaks down the energy for use. Despite the differences between these two processes, there are some similarities. For example, both processes synthesize and use ATP, the energy currency. Below are some of the similarities and differences between these two systems. Similarities between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Continue reading >>

What Is The Energy Source For Most Living Things?

What Is The Energy Source For Most Living Things?

What Is the Energy Source For Most Living Things? Although the organisms on the earth who require energy are diverse, they truly all rely on one big source: the sun. Sunlight is vital to the process of photosynthesis performed by plants which supplies oxygen and glucose needed for the survival of all living beings on the Earth. Living things are organisms which exhibit characteristics of life. These features include the abilities to grow, reproduce, move, metabolize, respire, respond to stimuli, and adapt to the environment. For an organism to be recognized as a living thing, it must take in energy and use it to sustain life. Energy is thus critical for the survival of living organisms. Bacteria, animals, human beings, plants, and fungi are some examples of living things. The sun is the source of energy in a given ecosystem. Solar energy is captured by plants to fuel the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process of transforming of carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen. An amount of the energy used to drive this process is stored in the glucose molecules. Organisms, in turn, feed on plants and break down the glucose to release the stored energy. The released energy is utilized by the cells in making the chemical adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a process of cellular respiration. Since energy is released during the process, it is an exothermic type of reaction. The cells break down the glucose to its original elements, which are carbon dioxide and water. Cellular respiration is, therefore, the opposite of photosynthesis. ATP is the energy currency for cells meaning it fuels the cells to carry out their work. The carbon dioxide released travels through the bloodstream of human beings and animals, and it is exhaled through lungs or gills. Plants expe Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Index Glucose and ATP | Equation for Respiration | ATP Structure ADP to ATP | ATP-ADP Cycle | Photosynthesis and Respiration Aerobic vs Anaerobic | Glycolysis Overview Glycolysis in Detail | Glycolysis Animated | Anaerobic Respiration Lactic Acid vs Alcohol | Fermentation Animation | Anaerobic Animated Mitochondrion | Krebs Cycle | Krebs Cycle Animated | ATP Totals Hydrogen Ion Pool | Electron Transport Chain | ETS Animated Respiration Summary | Respiration Animated | Other Fuels | Quiz Use the "Go Back" buttton or "Back" menu-pulldown to return to the index at the top of this page or return to this page from any animation. Use the "refresh" button to reload any animation. Be sure your browser preferences are set to animate "gifs" and allow "looping" to see the "gif" animations. Copyright © Steve Kuensting, 2004, All Rights Reserved. This web tutorial may not be distributed by any means Introduction All living things require a constant input of energy into their cells in order to survive. This energy is needed for cell division, movement, maintenance & repair, and for building new materials. The autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own chemical (food) energy by the use of sunlight. The heterotrophs must eat chemical energy of other organisms to supply themselves with the necessary energy. Photosynthesis is the process that converts the light energy to chemical energy for a plant. The chemical energy is stored in the molecule glucose. This is the same molecule that is found in the blood of all animals. Glucose is actually a universal food molecule for all organisms. It can easily be used for energy. Plants can make the glucose, animals must eat it. Glucose and ATP Glucose can be easily used for energy. Yet, glucose is itself NOT a directly usable form of ener Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis

Big Ideas Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved. In glycolysis, the 6-carbon sugar, glucose, is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules. The Krebs (or Citric Acid) cycle occurs in the mitochondria matrix and generates a pool of chemical energy (ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 ) from the oxidation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, a 2-carbon molecule. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is released and captured in the form of NADH, FADH 2 , and ATP. The electron transport chain allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD + (NADH) and reduced FAD (FADH 2 ). The energy released is captured in the form of ATP (3 ATP per NADH and 2 ATP per FADH 2 ). The electron transport chain (ETC) consists of a series of molecules, mostly proteins, embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The glucose required for cellular respiration is produced by plants. Plants go through a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis can be thought of as the opposite process of cellular respiration. Through two processes known as the light reactions and the dark reactions, plants have the ability to absorb and utilize the energy in sunlight. This energy is then converted along with water and carbon d Continue reading >>

Bbc - Ks3 Bitesize Science - Food Chains : Revision, Page 4

Bbc - Ks3 Bitesize Science - Food Chains : Revision, Page 4

All living things get the energy they need to live from a chemical reaction called respiration. This process needs glucose as a starting point. First we'll see how respiration works, and then look at how plants use respiration in combination with photosynthesis. Living cells respire. Aerobic respiration is the chemical reaction used to release energy from glucose. It is called aerobic because oxygen from the air is also needed. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration. Energy is put in brackets because it not a substance: glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) Notice that the word equation for respiration is the reverse of the word equation for photosynthesis. Check back if you are not sure of this. Plant cells respire, just as animal cells do. If they stop respiring, they will die. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing, so take care - plants do not breathe. As we can see from the word equations respiration and photosynthesis are opposites. Respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen. So what happens to a plant overall? This depends on whether it is in the dark or the light, and how bright the light is. Plants respire all the time, whether it is dark or light. They photosynthesise only when they are in the light. Continue reading >>

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistansuse the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellularrespiration converts into ATP ,the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusablesunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with theactions of the green pigment chlorophyll .Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releasesthe oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive. Oh yes, weneed the food as well! We can write the overall reaction of this processas: Most of us don't speak chemicalese, so the abovechemical equation translates as: six molecules of water plus sixmolecules of carbon dioxide produce one molecule of sugar plus sixmolecules of oxygen Diagram of a typical plant, showing the inputs andoutputs of the photosynthetic process. Image from Purves etal., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by SinauerAssociates ( www.sinauer.com ) andWH Freeman ( www.whfreeman.com ),used with permission. Plants are the only photosynthetic organisms tohave leaves (and not all plants have leaves). A leaf may be viewed as a solarcollector crammed full of photosynthetic cells. The raw materials of photosynthesis, water andcarbon dioxide, enter the cells of the leaf, and the products ofphotosynthesis, sugar and oxygen, leave the leaf. Cross section of a leaf, showing the anatomicalfeatures important to the study of photosynthesis: stoma, guard cell,mesophyll cells, and vein. Image from Purves et al., Life:The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates( www.sinauer.com ) and WH Freeman( www.whfreeman.com ), used withpermission. Water enters the root and is transported up to theleaves through specialized plant cells known as xylem (pronounces zigh-lem). Land plants must guar Continue reading >>

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