Why The A1c Test Is Important
The A1c is a blood test, done in a lab, that shows what your average blood sugar has been for the past 3 months. Other names for this test are glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c. How the A1c Test Works The glucose that the body doesn't store or use for energy stays in the blood and attaches to red blood cells, which live in the bloodstream for about 4 months. The lab test measures the amount of glucose attached to the red blood cells. The amount is the A1c and is shown as a percentage. Your A1c number can give you and your health care team a good idea of how well you've controlled your blood sugar over the previous 2 to 3 months. When you get your A1c result from a Kaiser Permanente lab, you'll also see another number called the estimated Average Glucose, or eAG. Understanding the eAG Your estimated Average Glucose (eAG) number is calculated from the result of your A1c test. Like the A1c, the eAG shows what your average blood sugars have been over the previous 2 to 3 months. Instead of a percentage, the eAG is in the same units (mg/dl) as your blood glucose meter. The chart shows the relationship between the A1c percentage and the eAG. If A1c % is: Your eAG is: 6 126 6.5 140 7 154 7.5 169 8 183 8.5 197 9 212 9.5 226 10 240 10.5 255 11 269 11.5 283 12 298 What the Numbers Mean The A1c and eAG reflect your average blood sugar over a period of time. These numbers help you and your doctor see how well your treatment plan is working. The higher your A1c and eAG numbers are, the higher your chances for having long-term health problems caused by consistently high blood sugar levels. These problems include heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, vision problems, and numbness in your legs or feet. The lower your A1c and eAG numbers, the lower you Continue reading >>
Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>
Convert Hba1c To Average Blood Sugar Level
Tweet Use this calculator to convert HbA1c to Average Blood Sugar Level. The HbA1c level in your blood indicates what your average blood glucose level has been in the past 2 to 3 months. Everyone, whether non-diabetic, pre-diabetic, type 1 diabetic or type 2 diabetic has some degree of sugar in their blood. To convert between mg/dl and mmol/L, use our blood sugar converter. You can then convert average blood glucose levels back to HbA1c units with the calculator below. mmol/L Recommended HbA1c ranges The recommended HbA1c range for most with diabetes is to keep the value under 48 mmols/mol (under 6.5% in the old percentage units). People at risk of hypoglycemia, or for whom such tight blood glucose regulation is not advised, may be advised to keep their HbA1c below 59 mmols/mol (under 7.5% in the old percentage units). Because the two tests measure two different things, the calculator can only give an estimate and therefore there will always be some discrepancy between the value provided by the calculator and actual lab test results. How accurate are the results? The calculator looks to provide an estimate of what your HbA1c value may be based upon your average blood glucose results and vice versa. It’s important to note that HbA1c and blood glucose tests measure different things. Blood glucose tests measure the concentration of glucose molecules in the blood at a single point in time. The HbA1c test measures the proportion of haemoglobin molecules in the blood that have become chemically bonded with glucose over a period of up to 3 months. However, the calculator serves as a useful guide which can give you a close indication of what your HbA1c result might be based on your blood glucose results? What can I learn from converting my average blood glucose level to HbA1c Continue reading >>
A1c Vs Estimated Average Glucose (eag)
A1c vs Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) What is A1c? A1c also is known as glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c. It measures your average blood glucose for the past 3 months. People with diabetes should have their A1c level checked every 6 months. The A1c goal is less than 7%. Why do I need an A1c test if I check my blood glucose at home? Think of the blood glucose number that you get at home as a photo—it is what your blood glucose was at that single moment. Think of A1c as a video camera that runs continuously—it tells you what your average blood glucose was over the past several months. However, you still need to check your levels at home, because you cannot adjust your insulin, diet, exercise program, etc, based on A1c levels. Why not just use the A1c level? In one study, 66% of people with diabetes did not know their A1c result and only 25% accurately recalled what their A1c level was within 1% of the real result. A1c is useful to medical professionals, but it basically does not mean much to the average person. What is estimated average glucose (eAG)? The eAG is a way of reporting A1c results to patients in the same units that are used for checking blood glucose levels at home, in milligrams (mg)/deciliter (dL). Comparison of A1c and eAG Levels A1c % eAG (mg/dL) eAG (mmol/L)* 6% 126 7.0 6.5% 140 7.8 7% 154 8.6 7.5% 169 9.4 8% 183 10.1 8.5% 197 10.9 9% 212 11.8 9.5% 226 12.6 10% 240 13.4 *millimoles/liter Why is this chart different from other charts that I have seen? The American Diabetes Association® Standards of Care chart showing the correlation between A1c and mean glucose levels was based on a study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), which looked at quarterly A1c tests and 7-point glucose measurement in 1400 patients with type 1 diabetes only. Th Continue reading >>
Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>
Hba1c And Estimated Average Glucose (eag)
Why is relating HbA1c to glucose important? We are frequently asked about the relationship between HbA1c and plasma glucose levels. Many patients with diabetes mellitus now perform self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the home setting, and understanding the relationship between HbA1c and glucose can be useful in setting goals for day-to-day testing. HbA1c: A "Weighted" Average Many studies have shown that HbA1c is an index of average glucose (AG) over the preceding weeks-to-months. Erythrocyte (red blood cell) life-span averages about 120 days. The level of HbA1c at any point in time is contributed to by all circulating erythrocytes, from the oldest (120 days old) to the youngest. However, HbA1c is a "weighted" average of blood glucose levels during the preceding 120 days, meaning that glucose levels in the preceding 30 days contribute substantially more to the level of HbA1c than do glucose levels 90-120 days earlier. This explains why the level of HbA1c can increase or decrease relatively quickly with large changes in glucose; it does not take 120 days to detect a clinically meaningful change in HbA1c following a clinically significant change in AG. How does HbA1c relate to average glucose (AG)? In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial or DCCT (New Engl J Med 1993;329:977-986) study of patients with Type 1 diabetes, quarterly HbA1c determinations were the principal measure of glycemic control; study subjects also performed quarterly 24-hour, 7-point capillary-blood glucose profiles. Blood specimens were obtained by subjects in the home setting, pre-meal, 90 minutes post-meal, and at bed-time. In an analysis of the DCCT glucose profile data (Diabetes Care 25:275-278, 2002), mean HbA1c and AG were calculated for each study subject (n= 1439). Results showed Continue reading >>
Understanding Your Average Blood Sugar
A1c is an average of all your blood sugars. It does not tell you your blood sugar patterns. Use it only as yet another indicator of how well you’re doing. Glysolated Hemoglobin (or A1c) is a measure of your average blood glucose control over the previous three months. Glucose attaches to hemoglobin the oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells. The glucose-hemoglobin unit is called glycosolated hemoglobin. As red blood cells live an average of three months, the glycosolated hemoglobin reflects the sugar exposure to the cells over that time. The higher the amount of glucose in the blood, the higher the percentage of hemoglobin molecules that will have glucose attached. Think of the A1c as a long-term blood glucose measure that changes very gradually as red blood cells die and are replaced by new cells. The A1c doesn’t replace self blood-glucose monitoring. Because the A1c is an average of all your blood sugars, it does not tell you your blood sugar patterns. For example, one person with frequent highs and lows can have the same A1c as another person with very stable blood sugars that don’t vary too much. So what’s the point? A1c is yet another indicator of how well you’re doing. An A1c measurement between 4-6% is considered the range that someone without diabetes will have. The American Diabetes Association goal is an A1c less than 7%. Research has shown that an A1c less than 7% lowers risk for complications. The American College of Endocrinology goal is an A1c less than 6.5%. For some people with diabetes an A1c goal of less than 6% is appropriate. Talk with your doctor about your A1c goal. Use this chart to view A1c values and comparable blood glucose values: A1c Estimated Average Glucose mg/dL 5% 97 6% 126 7% 154 8% 183 9% 212 10% 240 11% 269 12% 298 A not Continue reading >>
The A1c Test & Diabetes
What is the A1C test? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research. How does the A1C test work? The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent. Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis. Why should a person be tested for diabetes? Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and li Continue reading >>
What Is The Average Blood Sugar Level?
Blood sugar, or glucose, serves as the fuel your body uses to generate energy. The level of glucose in your blood remains fairly stable, slightly rising after eating and declining a small amount between meals or after exercising. Blood glucose can be measured in many ways. Some tests measure glucose directly, while others measure the amount of glucose attached to a specific protein. Video of the Day Fasting and Premeal Blood Glucose Levels The amount of glucose in the blood varies, depending on when you last ate. A fasting blood glucose level after at least 8 hours without caloric intake in a healthy, nondiabetic adult typically ranges from 70 to 99 mg/dL, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). People with a fasting blood glucose of 100 to 125 mg/dL are considered prediabetic, meaning the body's handling of glucose is impaired but not yet to the point of warranting a diagnosis of diabetes. A fasting blood glucose of 126 mg/dL or greater typically indicates diabetes, according to ADA criteria. Among people diagnosed with diabetes who are not pregnant, the ADA recommends a target fasting or premeal blood sugar level of 80 to 130 mg/dL. Postprandial and Oral Glucose Tolerance Levels As the blood glucose level typically increases after eating, testing after a meal -- known as a postprandial glucose level -- provides information about the body's capacity to maintain a healthy blood sugar level when challenged with a caloric load. Blood glucose levels usually peak 1 to 2 hours after beginning a meal, depending largely on the amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fat in the meal. Among healthy, nondiabetic adults a normal postprandial glucose level 2 hours after a meal is less than 140 mg/dL. For people with diabetes, the ADA generally recommends a peak postpran Continue reading >>
What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?
Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>
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This Calculator Uses The 2007 Adag Formula To Estimate A1c And Average Blood Glucose Equivalents.
Enter a value into one of the fields below then press convert. A1c Value: Average Blood Glucose mg/dl or mmol/L Continue reading >>
Eag: Estimated Average Glucose Levels
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is now recommending the use of a new term in the management of diabetes called an eAG or, estimated average glucose. This new term was introduced so that healthcare providers could give their patients their A1c data in the same units used when self-monitoring blood sugar, which is either mg/dL in the USA or mmol/L in most of the rest of the world. Your A1c test result is expressed in percentage values, such as a 7%. That 7% A1c test result correlates to a 154 mg/dL (or 8.6mmol/L), which is the measurement used when you test your blood sugar with your meter. To understand your A1c, be sure to read HbA1c: Everything You Need to Know.. So if you got an A1c test result of 7% then your eAG is 154 mg/dL (8.6mmol/L). This means your average blood sugar level over the past 2-3 months comes to 154 mg/dL (8.6mmol/L). The below chart shows the correlating eAG level for different A1c results. A1C% eAG mg/dL eAG mmol/L 6 126 7.0 6.5 140 7.8 7 154 8.6 7.5 169 9.4 8 183 10.1 8.5 197 10.9 9 212 11.8 9.5 226 12.6 10 240 13.4 10.5 255 14.1 11 269 14.9 11.5 283 15.7 12 298 16.5 12.5 312 17.3 13 326 18.1 13.5 341 18.9 14 355 19.7 14.5 369 20.5 15 384 21.3 What Does an eAG Mean? Now if your A1c is 7% this doesn’t necessarily mean that at any point during the past 2-3 months your blood sugar was 154 mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L). Hypothetically speaking, let’s say you tested your blood sugar every minute of every day and night for 2-3 months. If you then averaged together every single one of those readings, then that would be your eAG. The important thing to note about your eAG and A1c is that while this information is very useful to gain an overall idea of your diabetes management, it is one piece of the puzzle regarding your blood sugar levels. It is entire Continue reading >>
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Understanding Your A1c Reading With Your Eag: Estimated Average Glucose
Every three to six months we have our A1C measured"but what does that number really mean? You know it’s a measure of your average blood sugar reading, but when was the last time your blood glucose monitor gave you a percentage? Your A1C is essentially a measurement of the Advanced Glycogenated End-products that have accumulated in your blood from blood sugar levels"the higher our blood sugars are, the more AGEs are present in our blood. These AGEs are also what lead to various complications we’re warned about: nerve damage, retinopathy, etc. So, as usual, our goal is to reduce our A1C which will reduce our AGEs, and we do this by controlling our blood sugars better. The Joslin Diabetes Center recently published an article about a new way to report your A1C so you can translate that number to the numbers you see on your monitor. This is your eAG= Estimated Average Glucose. So what does it mean to you when your doctor says your A1C is 8%? According to the Joslin article an A1C of 8% means your eAG is 183, which means your blood sugars run usually between 147 to 217. My last A1C was 7.6%. This means my blood sugars run between 140 to 200 on average through the day. The lowest A1C I’ve ever had was 6.2% and the highest I’ve had was a few years ago when I started college, at 8.4%. **Here’s a chart for your A1C readings translated to your eAG: 12% = 298 (240 - 347) 11% = 269 (217 - 314) 10% = 240 (193 - 282) 9% = 212 (170 -249) 8% = 183 (147 - 217) 7% = 154 (123 - 185) 6% = 126 ( 100 - 152)** So, if your A1C is 11%, your average glucose reading is 269, which means ninty-five percent of the day your blood sugar is somewhere between 217 to 314. Numbers like those makes it much more difficult to ignore that 11% We all know we can’t be feeling very well or be treating Continue reading >>
Why Doesn't My Average Blood Glucose Match My A1c?!
But before we get into that, let’s briefly go over why A1C is used to approximate average glucose over ~3 months : As glucose enters your blood, it attaches to a protein in your red blood cells called “hemoglobin.” Hemoglobin is the same protein that carries oxygen in your bloodstream, and it is what gives blood its red color A1C measures the total amount of glucose that has attached to your hemoglobin over the lifespan of your red blood cells (typically ~3 months). OK, now that we’ve got the science down, here’s why your average BG and lab-measured A1C values might not match up: 1. BG meter average does not usually reflect the average over a full 24 hours This reason is pretty obvious. If you are not on a CGM, it’s tough to get a full picture of your average blood glucose throughout the day. We generally test much more during the day than at night, and nighttime glucose values may be very different from daytime values. We also tend to test more often before eating (when glucose is typically lower), and less often after meals (when glucose is typically higher). So, for most people, BG meter average doesn’t accurately reflect average blood glucose over a full 24 hours. A1C, on the other hand, does. If you want your BG meter average to better reflect your A1C values, check more often! And make sure you check at various times throughout the day, including 1-3 hours after eating. 2. The Average BG to A1C conversion equation is not perfect Most (if not all) average BG to A1C conversion tables and calculators use the below equation to estimate A1C: Average BG (mg/dL) = 28.7 X A1C (%) – 46.7 This equation is based on data from a 2008 study of over 500 subjects (268 T1Ds, 159 T2Ds, and 80 non-diabetics) at 10 international centers around the Continue reading >>
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Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know
The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>